Abstract

We demonstrate silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with waveguide cross-coupling. We tune the modulator extinction ratio by forward-biasing either the microring or cross-coupled waveguide p-i-n diode, while modulating the other. We also demonstrate OR-logic switching functionality by simultaneously applying two different electrical data streams across the microring and cross-coupled waveguide diodes. For both the modulator and the switch, we observe NRZ pattern-dependent optical waveform distortions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Lipson, "Compact Electro-Optic Modulators on a Silicon Chip," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron,  12, 1520-1526 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics technology platform," invited paper 6125-01, SPIE Photonics West, SPIE Proceedings 6125 on Silicon Photonics, San Jose, CA, 25 Jan 2006.
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p-i-n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Express 14, 6851-6857 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Mookherjea, "Mode cycling in microring optical resonators," Opt. Lett. 30, 2751-2753 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Green, R. Lee, G. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, "Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control," Opt. Express 13, 1651-1659 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optics switches using microring resonators with phase-tunable feedback," in proceedings of IEEE/LEOS 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Ottawa, Canada, Sep. 13-15, 2006.

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p-i-n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Express 14, 6851-6857 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lipson, "Compact Electro-Optic Modulators on a Silicon Chip," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron,  12, 1520-1526 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Mookherjea, "Mode cycling in microring optical resonators," Opt. Lett. 30, 2751-2753 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Green, R. Lee, G. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, "Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control," Opt. Express 13, 1651-1659 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrahami, Y.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, G.

Green, W.

Haus, H. A.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kiyat, I.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15, 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lipson, "Compact Electro-Optic Modulators on a Silicon Chip," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron,  12, 1520-1526 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Royo, F.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Mookherjea, S.

Nielson, G. N.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poon, A. W.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakich, P. T.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schmidt, B.

Seneviratne, D.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tuller, H. L.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yariv, A.

Zhou, L.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron (1)

M. Lipson, "Compact Electro-Optic Modulators on a Silicon Chip," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron,  12, 1520-1526 (2006)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, and N. Dagli, "Low-power thermooptical tuning of SOI resonator switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 364-366 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Nielson, D. Seneviratne, F. Lopez-Royo, P. T. Rakich, Y. Avrahami, M. R. Watts, H. A. Haus, H. L. Tuller, and G. Barbastathis, "Integrated wavelength-selective optical MEMS switching using ring resonator filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1190-1192 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "All-optical control of light on a silicon chip," Nature 431, 1081-1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

C. Gunn, "CMOS photonics technology platform," invited paper 6125-01, SPIE Photonics West, SPIE Proceedings 6125 on Silicon Photonics, San Jose, CA, 25 Jan 2006.
[CrossRef]

L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optics switches using microring resonators with phase-tunable feedback," in proceedings of IEEE/LEOS 3rd International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Ottawa, Canada, Sep. 13-15, 2006.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic of the microring EO modulator/switch with waveguide cross-coupling. Two terminals of p-i-n diodes are laterally integrated to the U-bend waveguide (node A) and the microring arcs (node B). The arrows indicate the lightwave propagation and the coupling in the cross-coupled microring. I: Input; O: Output. w: waveguide width; g: gap separation between the waveguide and the coupled microring. (b). Cross-sectional schematic of the p-i-n diode. LTO: low-temperature oxide

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Top-view optical micrograph of the fabricated device on a silicon chip. (b), (c) Zoom-in view optical micrographs of the two embedded p-i-n diodes along the U-bend (feedback) waveguide (node A) and along the microring arcs (node B). (d) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the waveguide-resonator coupling region without the oxide upper-cladding. g ~ 0.38 μm, w ~ 0.38 μm. (e) SEM cross-sectional view of the single-mode waveguide without the oxide upper-cladding.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured TE-polarized transmission spectra under various DC-bias voltages. (a) VA = VB = 0 V (blue line), (b) VA = 1.2 V, VB = 0 V (red line), (c) VA = 1.2 V, VB = 1.0 V (pink line), (d) VA = 0 V, VB = 1.1 V (green line), and (e) VA = 1.0 V, VB = 1.1 V (purple line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). 200-Mbps NRZ electrical input data stream with ±1-V signal levels applied across node A or B. (b), (c) Measured optical waveforms upon node B modulation at a probe wavelength in the vicinity of the resonance under (b) VA = 0 V, and (c) VA = 1.2 V. (d), (e) Measured optical waveforms upon node A modulation at a probe wavelength in the vicinity of the resonance under (d) VB = 0 V, and (e) VB = 1.1 V.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured TE-polarized transmission spectra of the cross-coupled microring device with dual electrical inputs for four electrical signal input states (VA, VB) of (a) (0 V, 0 V), (b) (1.0 V, 0 V), (c) (0 V, 1.0 V), and (d) (1.0 V, 1.0 V). λprobe: probe wavelength.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). and (b). 200-Mbps NRZ electrical input data streams across nodes A and B. (c). Measured optical waveform at a probe wavelength near the resonance “*”.

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