Abstract

It has been reported earlier that ultra-long range surface plasmon waves can be supported if dielectric layers with lower index of refraction than that of the dielectric cladding are placed on either side of the thin metal film. In this paper, we report a further investigation of the ultra-long range surface plasmon modes and the condition to support such ultra-long propagation distances at optical frequencies. We studied the effects of the index of refraction contrast between the inner layer and the cladding dielectrics, the metal film thickness, and the dispersion with wavelength. We present a condition which must be satisfied by the waveguide structure to support the bound ultra-long range surface plasmon mode.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).
  2. E. N. Economu, "Surface plasmons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal flims," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. I. Stegman, J. J. Burke and D. G. Hall, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Opt. Lett. 8, 383 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. E. Craig, G. A. Olson, and D. Sarid, "Experimental observation of the long-range surface-plasmon polariton," Opt. Lett. 8, 393 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, "Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron modes," Phy. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Chapman and Hall, 1966).
  9. V. Yu. Butko and P. W. Adams, "Quantum metallicity in a two-dimensional insulator," Nature 409, 161 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Y. Kou and T. Tamir, "Range extension of surface plasmons by dielectric layers," Opt. Lett. 12, 367 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Guo and R. Adato, "Ultra-long range plasmon waves in finite thickness gold metal film," Frontiers in Optics 2006 - The 90th Annual Meeting of Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, Oct. 8-12 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), postdeadline paper PDP-FC6.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, and T. K. Gaylord, "Determination of guided and leaky modes in lossless and lossy planar multilyer optical waveguides: reflection pole method and wavevector density method," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 929 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Berini, "Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 13030 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109-1 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Degiron and D. Smith, "Numerical simulations of long-range plasmons," Opt. Express 14, 1611 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, "Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron modes," Phy. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Yu. Butko and P. W. Adams, "Quantum metallicity in a two-dimensional insulator," Nature 409, 161 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1991

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

1983

G. I. Stegman, J. J. Burke and D. G. Hall, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Opt. Lett. 8, 383 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Craig, G. A. Olson, and D. Sarid, "Experimental observation of the long-range surface-plasmon polariton," Opt. Lett. 8, 393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal flims," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. N. Economu, "Surface plasmons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adams, P. W.

V. Yu. Butko and P. W. Adams, "Quantum metallicity in a two-dimensional insulator," Nature 409, 161 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adato, R.

Anemogiannis, E.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, "Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron modes," Phy. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, "Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 13030 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berolo, E.

Bradberry, G. W.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J. J.

Butko, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Butko and P. W. Adams, "Quantum metallicity in a two-dimensional insulator," Nature 409, 161 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charbonneau, R.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Craig, A. E.

A. E. Craig, G. A. Olson, and D. Sarid, "Experimental observation of the long-range surface-plasmon polariton," Opt. Lett. 8, 393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, "Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron modes," Phy. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Economu, E. N.

E. N. Economu, "Surface plasmons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Felidj, N.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

Guo, J.

Hall, D. G.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kou, F. Y.

Krenn, J. R.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lisicka-Shrzek, E.

Mattiussi, G.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olson, G. A.

A. E. Craig, G. A. Olson, and D. Sarid, "Experimental observation of the long-range surface-plasmon polariton," Opt. Lett. 8, 393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, "Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron modes," Phy. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, M.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

A. E. Craig, G. A. Olson, and D. Sarid, "Experimental observation of the long-range surface-plasmon polariton," Opt. Lett. 8, 393 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal flims," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

Stegman, G. I.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, "Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron modes," Phy. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

Yang, F.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

V. Yu. Butko and P. W. Adams, "Quantum metallicity in a two-dimensional insulator," Nature 409, 161 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phy. Rev. B

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, "Planar metal plasmon waveguides: frequency-dependent dispersion, propagation, localization, and loss beyond the free electron modes," Phy. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

E. N. Economu, "Surface plasmons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal flims," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Chapman and Hall, 1966).

J. Guo and R. Adato, "Ultra-long range plasmon waves in finite thickness gold metal film," Frontiers in Optics 2006 - The 90th Annual Meeting of Optical Society of America, Rochester, New York, Oct. 8-12 2006 (Optical Society of America, 2006), postdeadline paper PDP-FC6.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The cross section of the one-dimensional ultra-long range surface plasmon waveguide consisting of a thin metal film, two low index of refraction inner dielectric layers, and the homogeneous dielectric claddings. The metal-dielectric structure is symmetric with respect to the center of the metal layer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Real part of the symmetric mode index for varying the index of refraction of the dielectric cladding, n 2. The curve for n 2 = 1.46 does not asymptote to the cladding index.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Imaginary part of the symmetric mode index for varying values of n 2. Notice n 2 = 1.46 does not satisfy the condition for ultra-long range and thus is bound for all values of d.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Real part of the symmetric mode index for metal film thickness of t = 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm. The lb modes (t = 40, 50 nm) do not asymptote to n2 .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Imaginary part of the symmetric mode index for metal film thickness of t = 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Real part of the ub mode index at three different wavelengths.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Imaginary part of the ub mode index at three different wavelengths.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Propagation distances of the ub modes at three different wavelengths.

Equations (1)

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( β β 0 ) d = < n 2

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