Abstract

The generation dynamics of white-light filaments in a transparent condensed medium is investigated experimentally in both spatiotemporal and frequency domains. We visualize the creation of multiple refocusing filaments with gradual increase of laser power by characterizing their spatial distributions of plasma luminescence and corresponding far-field emission patterns. The spatial fusion of multiple refocusing filaments into a single relatively long plasma channel is found to take place at higher laser powers. The measurement of supercontinua indicates that filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in dispersive bulk media is closely connected with subsequent temporal events of pulse single splitting, then multiple splittings and finally coalescence. In addition, typical interference patterns of far-field emission are observed in the experiment, which reveals the spatial coherent properties among transverse filaments that are produced by a single laser beam.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kumagai, S. Cho, K. Ishikawa, K. Midorikawa, M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Observation of the complex propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive transparent bulk material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 597–602 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102–107 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2023–2025 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  20. Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. Gong , “Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 27, 448–450 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  24. A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer, and A. L Gaeta, “Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  28. K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects,” Optics Express 13, 2025–2031 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861–3863(2003).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, “spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592–595 (2001).
    [Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m,” Optics Express 13, 5731–5738 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[Crossref]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects,” Optics Express 13, 2025–2031 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dharmadhikari, F. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, “Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys.B 80, 61–66 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (6)

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861–3863(2003).
[Crossref]

H. Kumagai, S. Cho, K. Ishikawa, K. Midorikawa, M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Observation of the complex propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive transparent bulk material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 597–602 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1591–1593 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102–107 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

A. Couairon and L. Berge, “Light filaments in air for ultraviolet and infrared wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 135003 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. Gong , “Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 27, 448–450 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, “spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592–595 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence and continuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430–1433 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chine, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, “Breakdoen threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 216–222 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer, and A. L Gaeta, “Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett. 21, 2023–2025 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-Trapping of Optical Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970).
[Crossref]

Aoshima, S.

Berge, L.

A. Couairon and L. Berge, “Light filaments in air for ultraviolet and infrared wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 135003 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bohn, L.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Bragheri, F.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bramati, A.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

Callan, J. P.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-Trapping of Optical Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m,” Optics Express 13, 5731–5738 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1591–1593 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chine, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chine, C. Y.

Cho, S.

Chowdhury, I. H.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cook, K.

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects,” Optics Express 13, 2025–2031 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861–3863(2003).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[Crossref]

A. Couairon and L. Berge, “Light filaments in air for ultraviolet and infrared wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 135003 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Degiorgio, V.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dharmadhikari, A.

A. Dharmadhikari, F. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, “Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys.B 80, 61–66 (2005).
[Crossref]

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Finlay, R. J.

Franco, M.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[Crossref]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, M.

Gaeta, A. L

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer, and A. L Gaeta, “Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaizauskas, E.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-Trapping of Optical Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[Crossref]

Glezer, E. N.

Golubev, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Golubtsov, I. S.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102–107 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. Gong , “Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 27, 448–450 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

Her, T. H.

Hirao, K.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Ilkov, F. A.

Inouge, H.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

Itoh, K.

W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, “spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592–595 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jarutis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Jiang, H.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102–107 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. Gong , “Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 27, 448–450 (2002).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Kandidov, V. P.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chine, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, and V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kar, A. K.

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects,” Optics Express 13, 2025–2031 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861–3863(2003).
[Crossref]

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kosareva, O. G.

Kumagai, H.

Lamb, R. A.

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects,” Optics Express 13, 2025–2031 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861–3863(2003).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liberale, C.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1591–1593 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Luo, L.

Mathur, D.

A. Dharmadhikari, F. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, “Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys.B 80, 61–66 (2005).
[Crossref]

Matijosius, A.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

Midorikawa, K.

Milosavljevic, M.

Minardi, S.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Mitsayu, T.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miura, E.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[Crossref]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, N. T.

Prade, B.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[Crossref]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rajgara, F.

A. Dharmadhikari, F. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, “Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys.B 80, 61–66 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer, and A. L Gaeta, “Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m,” Optics Express 13, 5731–5738 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallee, “Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1591–1593 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuler, H.

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, “Breakdoen threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 216–222 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970).
[Crossref]

Shcirmer, R. W.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer, and A. L Gaeta, “Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Squire, J.

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Sudrie, L.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[Crossref]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-Trapping of Optical Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[Crossref]

Trapani, P.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, Y.

Tzortzakis, S.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallee, R.

Vallée, R.

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m,” Optics Express 13, 5731–5738 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanagas, E.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, “Breakdoen threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 216–222 (1996).
[Crossref]

Watanbe, W.

W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, “spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592–595 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wright, E. M.

Wu, A. Q.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102–107 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. Gong , “Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 27, 448–450 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102–107 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. Gong , “Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 27, 448–450 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zozulya, A. A.

A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence and continuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430–1433 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu, and K. Hirao, “Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329–3331 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X. Xu, “Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861–3863(2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys.B (1)

A. Dharmadhikari, F. Rajgara, and D. Mathur, “Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys.B 80, 61–66 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102–107 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

H. Kumagai, S. Cho, K. Ishikawa, K. Midorikawa, M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima, and Y. Tsuchiya, “Observation of the complex propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive transparent bulk material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 597–602 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, “Breakdoen threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 216–222 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis, and A. Matijosius, “Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862–869 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, “spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592–595 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 193–209 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optics Express (2)

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin, and R. Vallée, “Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m,” Optics Express 13, 5731–5738 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar, and R. A. Lamb, “White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects,” Optics Express 13, 2025–2031 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phy. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, “Supercontinuum generation in gases,” Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268–2271 (1986).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584–587 (1970).
[Crossref]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and L. Berge, “Light filaments in air for ultraviolet and infrared wavelength,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 135003 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, “Self-Trapping of Optical Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479–482 (1964).
[Crossref]

A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence and continuum generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430–1433 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer, and A. L Gaeta, “Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Gaeta, “Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582–3585 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn, and S. Golubev, “Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass,” Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the evolution of white-light filaments in ZK7 glass. 1: Microscope; 2: Iris; 3: 800nm filter; 4: 10 × objective lens; 5: optical fiber detector; Inset image: the transverse beam profile at the focal position.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Micro-visualized multiple refocusing filaments inside ZK7 glass at progressively higher femtosecond laser powers. The above photographs (from left to right) show 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 refocusing filaments and a single relatively long plasma channel due to the spatial fusion, successively. The corresponding input power is 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 mW, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Recorded far-field emission patterns from multiple refocusing filaments inside ZK7 glass at different laser powers. The above pictures from (a) to (f) represent the situation of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 refocusing filaments and a single long fused plasma channel, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured evolution of output spectra with variation of refocusing filaments formed inside ZK7 glass. The above curves from (a) to (f) represent the situations from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 refocusing filaments and a single long fused plasma channel, respectively. The black curve in (a) is the spectrum of the incident femtosecond laser pulses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Observed spatial coherence among filaments generated inside ZK7 glass. (a) and (b) are imaged transversal positions of two or multiple filaments, respectively; (c) and (d) are the corresponding far-field emission patterns with typical interference fringes resulting from two and multiple transverse filaments, respectively.

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