Abstract

The generation dynamics of white-light filaments in a transparent condensed medium is investigated experimentally in both spatiotemporal and frequency domains. We visualize the creation of multiple refocusing filaments with gradual increase of laser power by characterizing their spatial distributions of plasma luminescence and corresponding far-field emission patterns. The spatial fusion of multiple refocusing filaments into a single relatively long plasma channel is found to take place at higher laser powers. The measurement of supercontinua indicates that filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses in dispersive bulk media is closely connected with subsequent temporal events of pulse single splitting, then multiple splittings and finally coalescence. In addition, typical interference patterns of far-field emission are observed in the experiment, which reveals the spatial coherent properties among transverse filaments that are produced by a single laser beam.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Kumagai, S. Cho, K. Ishikawa, K. Midorikawa, M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima and Y. Tsuchiya, "Observation of the complex propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive transparent bulk material," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 597-602 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A.  Dharmadhikari, F.  Rajgara and D.  Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).
  24. A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. A. Zozulya, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects," Optics Express 13, 2025-2031 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861-3863(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, "spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592-595 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin and R. Vallée, "Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m," Optics Express 13, 5731-5738 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[CrossRef]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects," Optics Express 13, 2025-2031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Dharmadhikari, F.  Rajgara and D.  Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (6)

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861-3863(2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kumagai, S. Cho, K. Ishikawa, K. Midorikawa, M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima and Y. Tsuchiya, "Observation of the complex propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive transparent bulk material," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 597-602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

A. Couairon and L. Berge, "Light filaments in air for ultraviolet and infrared wavelength," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 135003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, "spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. A. Zozulya, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chine, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22,304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, "Breakdoen threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 216-222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer and A. L Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire and C. H. Townes, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aoshima, S.

Berge, L.

A. Couairon and L. Berge, "Light filaments in air for ultraviolet and infrared wavelength," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 135003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohn, L.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Bragheri, F.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bramati, A.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

Callan, J. P.

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire and C. H. Townes, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin and R. Vallée, "Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m," Optics Express 13, 5731-5738 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chine, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22,304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chine, C. Y.

Cho, S.

Chowdhury, I. H.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cook, K.

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects," Optics Express 13, 2025-2031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861-3863(2003).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and L. Berge, "Light filaments in air for ultraviolet and infrared wavelength," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 135003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiorgio, V.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, A.

A.  Dharmadhikari, F.  Rajgara and D.  Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Dubietis, A.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faccio, D.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, R. J.

Franco, M.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, M.

Gaeta, A. L

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer and A. L Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaizauskas, E.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire and C. H. Townes, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

Golubev, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Golubtsov, I. S.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

Her, T. H.

Hirao, K.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Ilkov, F. A.

Inouge, H.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

Itoh, K.

W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, "spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jarutis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Jiang, H.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Kandidov, V. P.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chine, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva and V. P. Kandidov, "Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22,304-306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kar, A. K.

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects," Optics Express 13, 2025-2031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861-3863(2003).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

Kumagai, H.

Lamb, R. A.

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects," Optics Express 13, 2025-2031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861-3863(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liberale, C.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Luo, L.

Mathur, D.

A.  Dharmadhikari, F.  Rajgara and D.  Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matijosius, A.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Midorikawa, K.

Milosavljevic, M.

Minardi, S.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Mitsayu, T.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, E.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, N. T.

Prade, B.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rajgara, F.

A.  Dharmadhikari, F.  Rajgara and D.  Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer and A. L Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rothenberg, J. E.

Saliminia, A.

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin and R. Vallée, "Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m," Optics Express 13, 5731-5738 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Nguyen, A. Saliminia, W. Liu, S. L. Chin, R. Vallee, "Optical breakdown versus filamentation in fused silica by use of femtosecond infrared laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 28, 1591-1593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuler, H.

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, "Breakdoen threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 216-222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shcirmer, R. W.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer and A. L Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squire, J.

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sudrie, L.

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[CrossRef]

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire and C. H. Townes, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Trapani, P.

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, Y.

Tzortzakis, S.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallee, R.

Vallée, R.

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin and R. Vallée, "Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m," Optics Express 13, 5731-5738 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanagas, E.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, "Breakdoen threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 216-222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Watanbe, W.

W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, "spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Wu, A. Q.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zozulya, A. A.

A. A. Zozulya, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A.  Dharmadhikari, F.  Rajgara and D.  Mathur, "Systematic study of highly efficient white light generation in transparent materials using intense femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 61-66 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light supercontinuum interference of self-focused filaments in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3861-3863(2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouge, T. Mitsayu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury and X. Xu, "Plasma formation in fused silica induced by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "The refocusing behavior of a focused femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 102-107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

D. von der Linde and H. Schuler, "Breakdoen threshold and plasma formation in femtosecond laser-solid interaction," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 216-222 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Faccio, P. Trapani, S. Minardi, A. Bramati, F. Bragheri, C. Liberale, V. Degiorgio, A. Dubietis and A. Matijosius, "Far-field spectral characterization of conical emission and filamentation in Kerr media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 22, 862-869 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kumagai, S. Cho, K. Ishikawa, K. Midorikawa, M. Fujimoto, S. Aoshima and Y. Tsuchiya, "Observation of the complex propagation of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive transparent bulk material," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 20, 597-602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Watanbe and K. Itoh, "spatial coherence of supercontinuum emitted from multiple filaments," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 592-595 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulses in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Optics Express (2)

K. Cook, A. K. Kar and R. A. Lamb, "White-light filaments induced by diffraction effects," Optics Express 13, 2025-2031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Saliminia, S. L. Chin and R. Vallée, "Ultra-broad and coherent white light generation in silica glass by focused femtosecond pulse at 1.5 m," Optics Express 13, 5731-5738 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phy. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond laser-induced damage and filamentary propagation in fused silica," Phy. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phy. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, Q. Sun, H. Yang and Q. Gong, "Filamentation and temporal reshaping of a femtosecond pulse in fused silica," Phys. Rev. A 68, 063820 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Couairon, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Filamentation and damage in fused silica induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 71, 125435 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Emission in the region 4000 to 7000 A via four-photon coupling in glass," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 584-587 (1970).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, L. Sudrie, M. Franco, B. Prade and A. Mysyrowicz, "Self-guided propagation of ultrashort IR laser pulses in fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 213902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire and C. H. Townes, "Self-Trapping of Optical Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and L. Berge, "Light filaments in air for ultraviolet and infrared wavelength," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 135003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Gaeta, "Catastrophic collapse of ultrashort pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3582-3585 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Shcirmer and A. L Gaeta, "Observation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783-3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya, "Propagation dynamics of intense femtosecond pulses: multiple splittings, coalescence and continuum generation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1430-1433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, E. Gaizauskas, E. Vanagas, V. Jarutis, H. Misawa, L. Bohn and S. Golubev, "Studies of femtosecond pulse filamentation in glass," Proc. SPIE 6063, 6053R (2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the evolution of white-light filaments in ZK7 glass. 1: Microscope; 2: Iris; 3: 800nm filter; 4: 10 × objective lens; 5: optical fiber detector; Inset image: the transverse beam profile at the focal position.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Micro-visualized multiple refocusing filaments inside ZK7 glass at progressively higher femtosecond laser powers. The above photographs (from left to right) show 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 refocusing filaments and a single relatively long plasma channel due to the spatial fusion, successively. The corresponding input power is 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 mW, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Recorded far-field emission patterns from multiple refocusing filaments inside ZK7 glass at different laser powers. The above pictures from (a) to (f) represent the situation of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 refocusing filaments and a single long fused plasma channel, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured evolution of output spectra with variation of refocusing filaments formed inside ZK7 glass. The above curves from (a) to (f) represent the situations from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 refocusing filaments and a single long fused plasma channel, respectively. The black curve in (a) is the spectrum of the incident femtosecond laser pulses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Observed spatial coherence among filaments generated inside ZK7 glass. (a) and (b) are imaged transversal positions of two or multiple filaments, respectively; (c) and (d) are the corresponding far-field emission patterns with typical interference fringes resulting from two and multiple transverse filaments, respectively.

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