Abstract

The optical Earnshaw theorem states that a small particle cannot be trapped solely by scattering forces. This limitation is overcome in a novel differential all-optical manipulator. It utilizes four collimated laser beams arranged along the axes of a tetrahedron to confine and move a microscopic sample in an aqueous medium. By adjusting the intensity of each beam individually the magnitude and direction of the optical forces acting on the sample, and via these its position, are controlled. Since only scattering forces are exploited the system is not confined to trapping near a geometrical focus, and therefore enables three-dimensional manipulation over ultra-long working distances. Latex beads 20μm in diameter can be positioned arbitrarily within a volume defined by the overlap of the four 100μm diameter beams. The sample is observed from four directions simultaneously, demonstrating the instrument’s potential as a universal manipulator in connection with high- and isotropic-resolution light microscopy.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006

2005

2004

G. Sinclair et al., "Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers," J. Mod. Opt. 51,409-414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

2000

1999

1986

1985

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of radiation-pressure trapping of particles by alternating light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54,1245-1248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

1971

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19,283-285 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24,156-159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, "Observation of a single-beam gradient force trap for dielectric particles," Opt. Lett. 11,288-290 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of radiation-pressure trapping of particles by alternating light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54,1245-1248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. P. Gordon, "Stability of radiation-pressure particle traps: an optical Earnshaw theorem," Opt. Lett. 8,511-513 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19,283-285 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24,156-159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Baskin, R. J.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Chu, S.

Collins, S. D.

Daria, V. R.

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, "Observation of a single-beam gradient force trap for dielectric particles," Opt. Lett. 11,288-290 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of radiation-pressure trapping of particles by alternating light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54,1245-1248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19,283-285 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, R. L.

Frangioudakis, A.

Gauthier, R. C.

Glückstad, J.

Gordon, J. P.

Grier, D. G.

Howitt, D. G.

Huisken, J.

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Rodrigo, P. J.

Roichman, Y.

Sinclair, G.

G. Sinclair et al., "Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers," J. Mod. Opt. 51,409-414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

Swoger, J.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Optical levitation by radiation pressure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19,283-285 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

G. Sinclair et al., "Defining the trapping limits of holographical optical tweezers," J. Mod. Opt. 51,409-414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. G. Grier, "A revolution in optical manipulation," Nature 424,810-816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, "Observation of radiation-pressure trapping of particles by alternating light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 54,1245-1248 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, "Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24,156-159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (410 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2154 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simplified geometry of the DAOM (not to scale). The four objective lenses (OL1-OL4) that collimate the laser beams, a bead and one beam are shown, and the directions of all four dominant (axial) forces are indicated.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The two units of the DAOM. (a) Unit that splits the manipulation beam utilizing mirrors (M) and beam splitter cubes (BS). Each of the four beams is attenuated individually by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and is coupled into a single mode fiber (F). (b) Arrangement of the four objectives (OL1-OL4). One arm of the microscope is shown in detail: lens (L), dichroic mirror (DM), tube lens (TL), and camera (CCD). Optical elements and distances are not drawn to scale; the illumination optics for imaging via the camera are not shown.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Moving a 20μm latex bead in the DAOM as seen with cameras CCD1-CCD4. Two frames from a video sequence are shown. (a) Initial situation: the bead is only clearly visible in the field of view of CCD1, scale bar: 20μm. (b) Pushing with beam 1 moves the bead in the field of view of all four cameras; it is also now in focus on CCD1. Arrows indicate the direction the bead was moved. (c) Three dimensional graphical representation of the bead’s movement. Blue and green: bead in the position from frames a and b, respectively; orange: axes of the four beams. (d) Coordinates of the bead over time. Corresponding movie: movie1.mov (711kB). The frame rate is a factor of 3.5 higher than in the original recording. Bars in the lower left corner indicate the relative intensity of the four beams. [Media 1]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Centering a bead and translation across the field of view. (a) Selection of the bead of interest (arrowhead). (b) The bead is centered in all four fields of view. (c)-(d) By adjusting the powers of all four beams the bead is moved across the fields of view. Circles indicate the previous positions, scale bar: 20μm. Corresponding movie: movie2.mov (2.1 MB). The frame rate is a factor of 3.5 higher than in the original recording. Bars in the lower left corner indicate the relative intensity of the four beams. [Media 2]

Equations (1)

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0 = i = 1 4 F opt , i ( x , t ) + F b + F f ( v ( t ) ) + F t ( t )

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