Abstract

Intense filaments of third harmonic generation have been observed in a variety of liquids when pumped by 1300 nm wavelength femtosecond light. The onset of third harmonic generation coincides with the threshold for self-focusing as deduced from n2 measurements performed on the liquids using the z-scan technique. We have found self-phase modulation above the threshold leading to continuum generation at about 3 times threshold. In the third-harmonic regime, the third harmonic output power is independent of the input power. Our observations are consistent with those for similar processes in gases as described by a phase-locking model. The measured conversion efficiency was approximately 10-6.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. R. Alfano, ed., The supercontinuum laser source : fundamentals with updated references (Springer, New York, 2006).
  3. G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "16-fs, 1-mu J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Marcus, A. Zigler, and Z. Henis, "Third-harmonic generation at a atmospheric pressure in methane by use of intense femtosecond pulses in the tight-focusing limit," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 792-800 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, "High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurement," Opt. Lett. 14, 955-957 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Y. Chang, "Fast self-induced refractive index changes in optical media: a survey," Opt. Eng. 20, 220-232 (1981).
  14. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 71, 877-879 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1989

1981

T. Y. Chang, "Fast self-induced refractive index changes in optical media: a survey," Opt. Eng. 20, 220-232 (1981).

1975

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1964

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

Becker, A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, "Fast self-induced refractive index changes in optical media: a survey," Opt. Eng. 20, 220-232 (1981).

Chiao, R. Y.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiron, A.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Courairon, A.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, A. B.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Henis, Z.

Hosseini, S. A.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kandidov, V. P.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koroteev, N. I.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kortsalioudaki, N.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

Lange, H. R.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

Loy, M. M. T.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Q.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Marcus, G.

Moustaizis, S. D.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Papadogiannis, N. A.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peatross, J.

Prade, B.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ripoche, J. F.

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

Said, A. A.

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, A. M.

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroeder, H.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taft, G.

Tatarakis, M.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Theberge, F.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

Townes, C. H.

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vakakis, N.

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Xiao, X.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, Z.

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zigler, A.

Appl. Phys. B

N. Kortsalioudaki, M. Tatarakis, N. Vakakis, S. D. Moustaizis, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, N. A. Papadogiannis, A. Courairon, and S. Tzortzakis, "Enhanced harmonic conversion efficiency in the self-guided propagation of femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulses in argon," Appl. Phys. B 80, 211-214 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, and S. L. Chin, "The critical laser intensity of self-guided light filaments in air," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 71, 877-879 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Canadian J. Phys.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini, W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Theberge, N. Akozbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Canadian J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005) and refs. therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self-action of 80-fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

T. Y. Chang, "Fast self-induced refractive index changes in optical media: a survey," Opt. Eng. 20, 220-232 (1981).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. Akozbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, A. M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Lange, A. Chiron, J. F. Ripoche, A. Mysyrowicz, P. Breger, and P. Agostini, "High-order harmonic generation and quasiphase matching in xenon using self-guided femtosecond pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1611-1613 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Y. Chiao, E. Garmire, and C. H. Townes, "Self-trapping of optical beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 479-482 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

J. H. Marburger, "Self-focusing theory," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35-110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Science

G. I. Stegeman and M. Segev, "Optical spatial solitons and their interactions: universality and diversity," Science 286, 1518-1523 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. R. Alfano, ed., The supercontinuum laser source : fundamentals with updated references (Springer, New York, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Self-focusing THG filament in toluene. The fundamental wavelength was 1300nm (THG wavelength: 433nm) and the peak power is about 7 MW. The sample cell is 1cm long.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Self-focusing THG at 1300nm in Toluene. In (a,) curve 1 is the emission spectrum at a fundamental power of 4.3 MW and curve 2 is the emission spectrum at a fundamental power of 4.5MW; and (b) depicts the total power dependence on the incident power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Broadening and red-shift of the self-focusing third harmonic generation emission spectrum in toluene at 1300nm. The curves in graph (a) represent the following incident power: (1) 4.3 MW, (2) 4.5 MW, (3) 20 MW, (4) 50 MW, (5) 85 MW. Above 13.2MW, supercontinuum generation appears but is still negligible compared to the strong THG peak. When the power is about 80MW, the visually observed white light is intense and broad in spectrum. The inset depicts the spectral range of the supercontinuum. Graph (b) shows the FWHM spectral width of the THG in the incident power range between 4.4MW to 80MW. The kink at 13.2MW corresponds to the threshold for supercontinuum generation. The two power ranges in this graph are fit by linear function with slopes of 1.16nm/MW and 0.16nm/MW.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical constants and critical powers of liquids.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P cr = 3.77 λ 2 8 π n 0 n 2
1 2 A ω 2 z = 1 4 ( A ω 2 ϕ ω ) + L DF L NL A ω 3 A 3 ω sin ( 3 ϕ ω ϕ 3 ω ) .

Metrics