Abstract

Pulse evolution after the acousto-optic deflector (AOD) and its dependence on AOD parameters is not clear, but is important to AOD applications in scanning microscopy. By considering the abnormal Bragg AOD as a combination of a dispersion media and a diffraction grating with Littrow structure, the dispersion characteristics of AOD when scanning Gaussian laser beam of femtosecond pulses were analyzed. Pulse width about AOD parameters was explored theoretically and verified with experiments. It is found that after exiting AOD, the pulse width of laser beam either merely decreases or first decreases and then increases before it finally goes steady with the propagation distance, depending on the interaction between the material dispersion and angular dispersion.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (5)

P. Saggau, "New methods and uses for fast optical scanning," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 16, 543-550 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Iyer, T. M. Hoogland, P. Saggau, "Fast functional imaging of single neurons using random-access multiphoton (RAMP) Microscopy," J. Neurophysiol. 95, 535-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Lv, C. Zhan, S. Zeng, W. R. Chen, Q. Luo, "Construction of multiphoton laser scanning microscope based on dual-axis acousto-optic deflector," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 046101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zeng, X. Lv, C. Zhan, W. R. Chen, W. Xiong, S. L. Jacques, and Q. Luo, "Simultaneous compensation for spatial and temporal dispersion of acousto-optical deflectors for two-dimensional scanning with a single prism," Opt. Lett. 31, 1091-1093 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, "Fast three-dimensional laser scanning scheme using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Biomed Opt. 10, 064038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Teledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Varju, A. P. Kovacs, K. Osvay, and G. Kurdi, "Angular dispersion of femtosecond pulses in a Gaussian beam," Opt. Lett. 27, 2034-2036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

S. Bullen, S. Patel, and P. Saggau, "High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: I. high-resolution optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes and ion indicators," Biophys. J. 73, 477-491 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svoboda, and W. Denk, "Photon upmanship: why multiphoton imaging is more than a gimmick," Neuron 18, 351-357 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

Z. L. Horvath, Z. Benko, A. P. Kovacs, H. A. Hazim, and Z. Bor, "Propagation of femtosecond pulses through lenses, gratings, and slits, " Opt. Eng. 32, 2491-2500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, and P. Simon, "Pulse compression and traveling wave excitation scheme using a single dispersive element," Appl. Opt. 29, 5372-5379 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Goldstein, T. Hubin, S. Rosenthal, and C. Washburn C, "A confocal video-rate laser-beam scanning reflected-light microscopy with no moving parts," J Microsc. 157, 29-38 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

O. E. Martinez, "Grating and prism compressors in the case of finite beam size," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 929-934 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Martinez, "Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses," Opt. Commun. 59, 229-232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

R. W. Dixon, "Acoustic diffraction of light in anisotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 85-93 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Benko, Z.

Z. L. Horvath, Z. Benko, A. P. Kovacs, H. A. Hazim, and Z. Bor, "Propagation of femtosecond pulses through lenses, gratings, and slits, " Opt. Eng. 32, 2491-2500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bor, Z.

Z. L. Horvath, Z. Benko, A. P. Kovacs, H. A. Hazim, and Z. Bor, "Propagation of femtosecond pulses through lenses, gratings, and slits, " Opt. Eng. 32, 2491-2500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bourdieu, L.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bullen, S.

S. Bullen, S. Patel, and P. Saggau, "High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: I. high-resolution optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes and ion indicators," Biophys. J. 73, 477-491 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatenay, D.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W. R.

Davidson, N.

Denk, W.

K. Svoboda, and W. Denk, "Photon upmanship: why multiphoton imaging is more than a gimmick," Neuron 18, 351-357 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dieudonne, S.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, R. W.

R. W. Dixon, "Acoustic diffraction of light in anisotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 85-93 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Feuerhake, M.

Friedman, N.

Goldstein, S. R.

S. R. Goldstein, T. Hubin, S. Rosenthal, and C. Washburn C, "A confocal video-rate laser-beam scanning reflected-light microscopy with no moving parts," J Microsc. 157, 29-38 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, E. I.

Hazim, H. A.

Z. L. Horvath, Z. Benko, A. P. Kovacs, H. A. Hazim, and Z. Bor, "Propagation of femtosecond pulses through lenses, gratings, and slits, " Opt. Eng. 32, 2491-2500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hohl, T. M.

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Teledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogland, T. M.

V. Iyer, T. M. Hoogland, P. Saggau, "Fast functional imaging of single neurons using random-access multiphoton (RAMP) Microscopy," J. Neurophysiol. 95, 535-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, Z. L.

Z. L. Horvath, Z. Benko, A. P. Kovacs, H. A. Hazim, and Z. Bor, "Propagation of femtosecond pulses through lenses, gratings, and slits, " Opt. Eng. 32, 2491-2500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, T.

S. R. Goldstein, T. Hubin, S. Rosenthal, and C. Washburn C, "A confocal video-rate laser-beam scanning reflected-light microscopy with no moving parts," J Microsc. 157, 29-38 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iyer, V.

V. Iyer, T. M. Hoogland, P. Saggau, "Fast functional imaging of single neurons using random-access multiphoton (RAMP) Microscopy," J. Neurophysiol. 95, 535-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Kaplan, A.

Kovacs, A. P.

K. Varju, A. P. Kovacs, K. Osvay, and G. Kurdi, "Angular dispersion of femtosecond pulses in a Gaussian beam," Opt. Lett. 27, 2034-2036 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Horvath, Z. Benko, A. P. Kovacs, H. A. Hazim, and Z. Bor, "Propagation of femtosecond pulses through lenses, gratings, and slits, " Opt. Eng. 32, 2491-2500 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, Y.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krichevsky, O.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhnle, G.

Kurdi, G.

Lechleiter, J. D.

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leger, J. F.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, L. E. N.

Lin, D. T.

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Losavio, B. E.

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

Lv, X.

Martinez, O. E.

O. E. Martinez, "Pulse distortions in tilted pulse schemes for ultrashort pulses," Opt. Commun. 59, 229-232 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Martinez, "Grating and prism compressors in the case of finite beam size," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 929-934 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Miesenbock, G.

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Teledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ngoi, B. K. A.

Osvay, K.

Patel, S.

S. Bullen, S. Patel, and P. Saggau, "High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: I. high-resolution optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes and ion indicators," Biophys. J. 73, 477-491 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reddy, G. D.

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, "Fast three-dimensional laser scanning scheme using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Biomed Opt. 10, 064038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roorda, R. D.

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Teledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenthal, S.

S. R. Goldstein, T. Hubin, S. Rosenthal, and C. Washburn C, "A confocal video-rate laser-beam scanning reflected-light microscopy with no moving parts," J Microsc. 157, 29-38 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saggau, P.

V. Iyer, T. M. Hoogland, P. Saggau, "Fast functional imaging of single neurons using random-access multiphoton (RAMP) Microscopy," J. Neurophysiol. 95, 535-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Saggau, "New methods and uses for fast optical scanning," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 16, 543-550 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, "Fast three-dimensional laser scanning scheme using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Biomed Opt. 10, 064038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bullen, S. Patel, and P. Saggau, "High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: I. high-resolution optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes and ion indicators," Biophys. J. 73, 477-491 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salome, R.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sieneart, I.

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, P.

Stanley, P.

Svoboda, K.

K. Svoboda, and W. Denk, "Photon upmanship: why multiphoton imaging is more than a gimmick," Neuron 18, 351-357 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szatmari, S.

Tan, B.

Teledo-Crow, R.

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Teledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varju, K.

Venkatakrishnan, K.

Washburn C, C.

S. R. Goldstein, T. Hubin, S. Rosenthal, and C. Washburn C, "A confocal video-rate laser-beam scanning reflected-light microscopy with no moving parts," J Microsc. 157, 29-38 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyart, C.

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, W.

Zeng, S.

Zhan, C.

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biophys. J. (2)

S. Bullen, S. Patel, and P. Saggau, "High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: I. high-resolution optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes and ion indicators," Biophys. J. 73, 477-491 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Lechleiter, D. T. Lin, and I. Sieneart, "Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy using an acoustic optical deflector," Biophys. J. 83, 2292-2299 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (1)

P. Saggau, "New methods and uses for fast optical scanning," Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 16, 543-550 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. W. Dixon, "Acoustic diffraction of light in anisotropic media," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-3, 85-93 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J Microsc. (1)

S. R. Goldstein, T. Hubin, S. Rosenthal, and C. Washburn C, "A confocal video-rate laser-beam scanning reflected-light microscopy with no moving parts," J Microsc. 157, 29-38 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed Opt. (1)

G. D. Reddy and P. Saggau, "Fast three-dimensional laser scanning scheme using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Biomed Opt. 10, 064038 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

V. Iyer, B. E. Losavio, and P. Saggau, "Compensation of spatial and temporal dispersion for acousto-optic multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 460-471 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (2)

R. D. Roorda, T. M. Hohl, R. Teledo-Crow, and G. Miesenbock, "Video-rate nonlinear microscopy of neuronal membrane dynamics with genetically encoded probes," J. Neurophysiol. 92, 609-621 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Iyer, T. M. Hoogland, P. Saggau, "Fast functional imaging of single neurons using random-access multiphoton (RAMP) Microscopy," J. Neurophysiol. 95, 535-545 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci Methods (1)

R. Salome, Y. Kremer, S. Dieudonne, J. F. Leger, O. Krichevsky, C. Wyart, D. Chatenay, and L. Bourdieu, "Ultrafast random-access scanning in two-photon microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors," J. Neurosci Methods 154, 161-174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffraction of AOD to femtosecond pulse laser. The distance from the beam waist (BW) to AOD is d, the propagating distance after AOD is z. The actual traveled distance of light beam in AOD L 1, L 2 « d, z, here L 1, L 2 and the AOD are magnified clearance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pulse width with the propagating distance (f = 70 MHz), comparing the Gaussian beam model with infinite plane wave model

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Pulse width with the propagating distance at different frequency points (cal: theoretical values of the Gaussian model, mea: experimental results)

Equations (14)

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Δθ = α Δ γ + β Δ ω
sin θ i = λ 2 n i v [ f + f 0 2 f ]
sin θ d = λ 2 n d v [ f f 0 2 f ]
sin γ + sin θ = λ f v
α = cos γ 0 cos θ 0
β = λ 2 f 2 πcv cos θ 0
α 1 , β = λ 2 f 2 πcv .
A ( x , z , ω ) = b exp [ ( τ 0 2 8 ln 2 + i 1 2 GDD m ) ( ω ω 0 ) 2 ] × exp ( i kx 2 2 z ) ×
exp [ i kzq ( d ) 2 q ( d + α 2 z ) ( x 2 z 2 + β 2 ω 2 + 2 xβω z ) ]
A ( x , z , t ) = A ( x , z , ω ) exp ( iωt )
τ = τ 0 [ ( 1 + U ) + V 2 1 + U ] 1 2
U = 2 ln 2 z R 2 ( d + α 2 z ) 2 + z R 2 ( 2 αβz w 0 τ 0 ) 2
V = ( 4 ln 2 ) τ 0 2 [ GDD m k β 2 z ( d + α 2 z ) d + z R 2 ( d + α 2 z ) 2 + z R 2 ]
τ = τ 0 [ 1 + ( 4 ln 2 ) 2 ( GDD m k β 2 z ) 2 τ 0 4 ] 1 2

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