Abstract

We present an experimental and theoretical analysis of four-wave mixing in nanosecond pulsed amplifiers based on double-clad ytterbium-doped fibers. This process leads to saturation of the amplified pulse energy at 1064 nm and to distortion of the spectral and temporal profiles. These behaviours are well described by a simple model considering both Raman and four-wave-mixing contributions. The role of seed laser polarization in birefringent fibers is also presented. These results point out the critical parameters and possible tradeoffs for optimization.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007 (1)

2006 (6)

S. Sinha, C. Langrock, M. Digonnet, M. Fejer and R. Byer, "Efficient yellow-light generation by frequency doubling a narrow-linewidth 1150 nm ytterbium fiber oscillator," Opt. Lett. 31, 347-349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, A. A. Hoops, S. W. Moore, G. R. Hadley and R. L. Schmitt, "High-peak-power (>1.2MW) pulsed fiber amplifier," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020L (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hotoleanu, M. Söderlund, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, S. Tammela and V. Philipov, "Higher-order modes suppression in large mode area active fibers by controlling the radial distribution of the rare earth dopant," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021T (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, L. Cooper, J. Sahu and W. Clarkson, "Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31, 226-228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Schrader, R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, J.-P. Fève and N. Landru, "High power fiber amplifier with tunable repetition rate, fixed pulse duration, and multiple output wavelengths," Opt. Express 14, 11528-11537 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

F. Di Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW peak-power pulses from a coiled multimode fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 27, 518-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Coen, D. A. Wardle and J. D. Harvey, "Observation of non-phase-matched parametric amplification in resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273901 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Tchofo, E. Sève, G. Millot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillote and E. Lantz, "Raman-assisted three-wave-mixing of non-phase-matched waves in optical fibres: application to wide range frequency conversion," Opt. Commun. 192, 107-121 (2001)
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (5)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

1981 (2)

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T.

Bösch, M.

Broderick, N.

Broeng, J.

Brooks, C.

Byer, R.

Caplen, J.

Cappellini, G.

Chang, Y.

Chankatoti, R.

Chee, J.

Chen, Y.

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. Y.

Clarkson, W.

Coen, S.

S. Coen, D. A. Wardle and J. D. Harvey, "Observation of non-phase-matched parametric amplification in resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273901 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Cooper, L.

Daniel, J.

Di Teodoro, F.

Digonnet, M.

Dong, L.

Dougherty, D. J.

Faroni, J.

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. L.

R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, A. A. Hoops, S. W. Moore, G. R. Hadley and R. L. Schmitt, "High-peak-power (>1.2MW) pulsed fiber amplifier," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020L (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Schrader, R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, J.-P. Fève and N. Landru, "High power fiber amplifier with tunable repetition rate, fixed pulse duration, and multiple output wavelengths," Opt. Express 14, 11528-11537 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fejer, M.

Ferman, M.

Fève, J.-P.

Galvanauskas, A.

Gatchell, P.

Goldberg, L.

Hadley, G. R.

R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, A. A. Hoops, S. W. Moore, G. R. Hadley and R. L. Schmitt, "High-peak-power (>1.2MW) pulsed fiber amplifier," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D.

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, J. D.

S. Coen, D. A. Wardle and J. D. Harvey, "Observation of non-phase-matched parametric amplification in resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273901 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hô, N.

Hoops, A. A.

R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, A. A. Hoops, S. W. Moore, G. R. Hadley and R. L. Schmitt, "High-peak-power (>1.2MW) pulsed fiber amplifier," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hotoleanu, M.

M. Hotoleanu, M. Söderlund, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, S. Tammela and V. Philipov, "Higher-order modes suppression in large mode area active fibers by controlling the radial distribution of the rare earth dopant," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jakobsen, C.

Joly, N.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kliner, D.

M. Hotoleanu, M. Söderlund, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, S. Tammela and V. Philipov, "Higher-order modes suppression in large mode area active fibers by controlling the radial distribution of the rare earth dopant," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kliner, D. A. V.

Knight, J.

Koplow, J.

M. Hotoleanu, M. Söderlund, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, S. Tammela and V. Philipov, "Higher-order modes suppression in large mode area active fibers by controlling the radial distribution of the rare earth dopant," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koplow, J. P.

Landru, N.

Langrock, C.

Lantz, E.

P. Tchofo, E. Sève, G. Millot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillote and E. Lantz, "Raman-assisted three-wave-mixing of non-phase-matched waves in optical fibres: application to wide range frequency conversion," Opt. Commun. 192, 107-121 (2001)
[CrossRef]

T. Sylvestre, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz and P. Tchofo Dinda, "Raman-assisted parametric frequency conversion in a normally dispersive single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 1561-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Lin, C.

Liu, J.

Maillote, H.

P. Tchofo, E. Sève, G. Millot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillote and E. Lantz, "Raman-assisted three-wave-mixing of non-phase-matched waves in optical fibres: application to wide range frequency conversion," Opt. Commun. 192, 107-121 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Maillotte, H.

Mamidipudi, P.

McIntosh, B.

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ménard, J. M.

Milam, D.

Millot, G.

S. Pitois, A. Sauter and G. Millot, "Simultaneous achievement of polarization attraction and Raman amplification in isotropic optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 599-601 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tchofo, E. Sève, G. Millot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillote and E. Lantz, "Raman-assisted three-wave-mixing of non-phase-matched waves in optical fibres: application to wide range frequency conversion," Opt. Commun. 192, 107-121 (2001)
[CrossRef]

P. Tchofo Dinda, G. Millot and S. Wabnitz, "Polarization switching and suppression of stimulated Raman scattering in birefringent optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1433-1441 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, G. Millot, E. Sève and S. Wabnitz, "Failure of phase-matching concept in large-signal parametric frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 150-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moore, S. W.

R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, A. A. Hoops, S. W. Moore, G. R. Hadley and R. L. Schmitt, "High-peak-power (>1.2MW) pulsed fiber amplifier," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020L (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Di Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW peak-power pulses from a coiled multimode fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 27, 518-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

Offerhaus, H.

Paré, C.

Pearson, A.

Petersson, A.

Philipov, V.

M. Hotoleanu, M. Söderlund, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, S. Tammela and V. Philipov, "Higher-order modes suppression in large mode area active fibers by controlling the radial distribution of the rare earth dopant," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pitois, S.

Proulx, A.

Reed, W.

Reich, M.

Richardson, D.

Russell, P.

Sahu, J.

Sammuk, R.

Sauter, A.

Schmitt, R. L.

R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, A. A. Hoops, S. W. Moore, G. R. Hadley and R. L. Schmitt, "High-peak-power (>1.2MW) pulsed fiber amplifier," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020L (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, P. E.

R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, P. E. Schrader, A. A. Hoops, S. W. Moore, G. R. Hadley and R. L. Schmitt, "High-peak-power (>1.2MW) pulsed fiber amplifier," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020L (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Schrader, R. L. Farrow, D. A. V. Kliner, J.-P. Fève and N. Landru, "High power fiber amplifier with tunable repetition rate, fixed pulse duration, and multiple output wavelengths," Opt. Express 14, 11528-11537 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, T.

Sève, E.

P. Tchofo, E. Sève, G. Millot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillote and E. Lantz, "Raman-assisted three-wave-mixing of non-phase-matched waves in optical fibres: application to wide range frequency conversion," Opt. Commun. 192, 107-121 (2001)
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, G. Millot, E. Sève and S. Wabnitz, "Failure of phase-matching concept in large-signal parametric frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 150-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shang, H.

Sinha, S.

Söderlund, M.

M. Hotoleanu, M. Söderlund, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, S. Tammela and V. Philipov, "Higher-order modes suppression in large mode area active fibers by controlling the radial distribution of the rare earth dopant," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M.

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R.

Sylvestre, T.

P. Tchofo, E. Sève, G. Millot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillote and E. Lantz, "Raman-assisted three-wave-mixing of non-phase-matched waves in optical fibres: application to wide range frequency conversion," Opt. Commun. 192, 107-121 (2001)
[CrossRef]

T. Sylvestre, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz and P. Tchofo Dinda, "Raman-assisted parametric frequency conversion in a normally dispersive single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 1561-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tammela, S.

M. Hotoleanu, M. Söderlund, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, S. Tammela and V. Philipov, "Higher-order modes suppression in large mode area active fibers by controlling the radial distribution of the rare earth dopant," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61021T (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tankala, K.

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tchofo, P.

P. Tchofo, E. Sève, G. Millot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillote and E. Lantz, "Raman-assisted three-wave-mixing of non-phase-matched waves in optical fibres: application to wide range frequency conversion," Opt. Commun. 192, 107-121 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Tchofo Dinda, P.

Torruellas, W.

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

Tünnermann, A.

Vallée, R.

Wabnitz, S.

Wadsworth, W.

Wang, P.

Wardle, D. A.

S. Coen, D. A. Wardle and J. D. Harvey, "Observation of non-phase-matched parametric amplification in resonant nonlinear optics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273901 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Webster, S.

W. Torruellas, Y. Chen, B. McIntosh, J. Faroni, K. Tankala, S. Webster, D. Hagan and M. Soileau, "High peak power Yb doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020N (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zellmer, H.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Trillo, G. Millot, E. Sève and S. Wabnitz, "Failure of phase-matching concept in large-signal parametric frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 150-152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Tchofo, E. Sève, G. Millot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillote and E. Lantz, "Raman-assisted three-wave-mixing of non-phase-matched waves in optical fibres: application to wide range frequency conversion," Opt. Commun. 192, 107-121 (2001)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (15)

J. Chee and J. Liu, "Raman-assisted parametric frequency and polarization conversion in a birefringent fiber," Opt. Lett. 14, 820-822 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sylvestre, H. Maillotte, E. Lantz and P. Tchofo Dinda, "Raman-assisted parametric frequency conversion in a normally dispersive single-mode fiber," Opt. Lett. 24, 1561-1563 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, L. Cooper, J. Sahu and W. Clarkson, "Efficient single-mode operation of a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped helical-core fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 31, 226-228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Di Teodoro, J. P. Koplow, S. W. Moore and D. A. V. Kliner, "Diffraction-limited, 300-kW peak-power pulses from a coiled multimode fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 27, 518-520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Output spectrum at four values of E out. (b) Total output energy (integrated over the whole spectrum, open squares), energy transmitted through a band-pass filter at 1064 nm (filled circles) and out-of-band energy (stars) vs. diode pump power coupled into the fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated peak powers along the fiber for the pump (λ 1 = 1064 nm, solid) and signal (λ 3 = 1084 nm, dotted) for two values of E out, 313 μJ (blue) and 576 μJ (black).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Measured temporal profiles of the amplified pulses at five values of E out. Dashed: unfiltered pulses; solid: transmitted by band-pass filter at 1064 nm; diamonds: reflected from filter. (b). Calculated normalized temporal profiles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calculated pulse shapes for five values of E out: 100μJ, 152μJ, 216μJ, 267μJ and 329μJ (increasing along arrow). All parameters are similar to Fig. 3. (a) pump λ 1 = 1064 nm; (b) signal λ 3 = 1115 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Calculated normalized peak power spectrum (t = 0) for four values of E out (L = 3.5 m, E seed = 1.5 μJ, Δt = 1 ns FWHM, Δk offset = 3 m-1). (b). Spectral dependence of the Raman gain g R (from [31]) and the phase-mismatch Δk for a pump wavelength of 1064 nm; the value of Δk offset used in the calculations is also shown.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Amplified 1064 nm and out-of-band pulse energies vs. total output pulse energy. Points: experimental data from Fig. 1(b); dashed curves: calculated with parameters of Fig. 5.

Fig.7.
Fig.7.

Total output energy and energy at 1064 nm vs. fiber length for different fiber designs. Calculations assume 21 W of launched diode pump power and λ 3 = 1115nm. Fiber parameters (core diameter in μm/inner-cladding diameter in μm / 976 nm pump-absorption coefficient for light propagating in the core in dB/m): A: 30/250/1200; B: 30/250/500 (corresponding to the fiber employed in the present experiments).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). Measured values of E out (squares), E 1064 (circles), and the PER (stars) vs. angle of the seed polarization. (b). Measured output spectra for different orientations of the seed polarization.

Fig.9.
Fig.9.

Calculated normalized peak-power spectra for various polarizations of the seed pulse. Top: output power polarized along the slow axis; center: output power polarized along the fast axis; bottom: total output power. Parameters used in the calculations: L = 3.5 m, Δk offset = 3 m-1, E seed = 1.5 μJ, E out = 175 μJ.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Influence of seed polarization on E out and E 1064.

Equations (3)

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{ E 1 z = j γ [ E 1 2 + ( 2 ρ ) ( E 3 2 + E 4 2 ) ] E 1 g R 2 A eff E 3 2 E 1 + g 2 E 1 + j γ E 1 * E 3 E 4 e j Δ kz E 3 z = j γ [ E 3 2 + ( 2 ρ ) ( E 1 2 + E 4 2 ) ] E 3 g R 2 A eff E 1 2 E 3 + j γ E 4 * E 1 E 1 e j Δ kz E 4 z = j γ [ E 4 2 + ( 2 ρ ) ( E 1 2 + E 3 2 ) ] E 4 + j γ E 3 * E 1 E 1 e j Δ kz
dE 1 , s dz = j γ [ E 1 , s 2 + 2 3 E 1 , f 2 + ( 2 ρ ) ( E 3 , s 2 + E 4 , s 2 ) + 2 ρ 3 ( E 3 , f 2 + E 4 , f 2 ) ] E 1 , s g R , 2 A eff E 3 , s 2 E 1 , s
g R , 2 A eff E 3 , f 2 E 1 , s + g 2 E 1 , s + j γ { E 1 , s * E 3 , s E 4 , s exp ( j Δ k ssss z ) + 1 3 E 1 , s * E 3 , f E 4 , f exp ( j Δ k ssff z ) + 1 3 E 1 , f * E 3 , s E 4 , f exp ( j Δ k sffs z ) + 1 3 E 1 , f * E 3 , s E 4 , f exp ( j Δ k sfsf z ) }

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