Abstract

A transient photocurrent model is developed to explain coherent terahertz emission from air irradiated by a symmetry-broken laser field composed of the fundamental and its second harmonic laser pulses. When the total laser field is asymmetric across individual optical cycles, a non-vanishing electron current surge can arise during optical field ionization of air, emitting a terahertz electromagnetic pulse. Terahertz power scalability is also investigated, and with optical pump energy of tens of millijoules per pulse, peak terahertz field strengths in excess of 150 kV/cm are routinely produced.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. S. Sherwin, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, and P. H. Bucksbaum, DOE-NSF-NIH Workshop on Opportunities in THz Science (http://www.er.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/THz_rpt.pdf).
  2. H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, "Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air," Opt. Lett. 25, 1210-1212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, "Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves," Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805-2807 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. F. Federici, "Review of four-wave mixing and phase conjugation in plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 549-564 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. W. Schumacher and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Phase dependence of intense-field ionization," Phys. Rev. A 54, 4271-4278 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Soc. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965).
  15. M. J. Dewitt and R. J. Levis, "Calculating the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter for atomic, diatomic, and polyatomic molecules," J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7739-7742 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Rodriguez, C. W. Siders, C. Guo, and A. J. Taylor, "Coherent ultrafast MI-FROG spectroscopy of optical field ionization in molecular H2, N2, and O2," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 579-591 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).
  18. C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. G. DurfeeIII, J. Lynch, and H. M Milchberg, "Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368-2389 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. Rodriguez, C. W. Siders, C. Guo, and A. J. Taylor, "Coherent ultrafast MI-FROG spectroscopy of optical field ionization in molecular H2, N2, and O2," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 579-591 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (3)

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Dewitt and R. J. Levis, "Calculating the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter for atomic, diatomic, and polyatomic molecules," J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7739-7742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. W. Schumacher and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Phase dependence of intense-field ionization," Phys. Rev. A 54, 4271-4278 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. G. DurfeeIII, J. Lynch, and H. M Milchberg, "Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368-2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. F. Federici, "Review of four-wave mixing and phase conjugation in plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 549-564 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Soc. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965).

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Bartel, T.

Buchanan, M.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

D. W. Schumacher and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Phase dependence of intense-field ionization," Phys. Rev. A 54, 4271-4278 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

Corkum, P. B.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Dewitt, M. J.

M. J. Dewitt and R. J. Levis, "Calculating the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter for atomic, diatomic, and polyatomic molecules," J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7739-7742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dörner, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

C. G. DurfeeIII, J. Lynch, and H. M Milchberg, "Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368-2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eden, S.

Elsaesser, T.

Ergler, T.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R. W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faure, J.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, "Review of four-wave mixing and phase conjugation in plasmas," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 19, 549-564 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

Geddes, C. G. R.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G. N.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gimpel, H.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, S.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

G. Rodriguez, C. W. Siders, C. Guo, and A. J. Taylor, "Coherent ultrafast MI-FROG spectroscopy of optical field ionization in molecular H2, N2, and O2," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 579-591 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haché, A.

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamster, H.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Soc. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965).

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Kreß, M.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kress, M.

Leemans, W. P.

W. P. Leemans, C. G. R. Geddes, J. Faure, Cs. Tóth, J. van Tilborg, C. B. Schroeder, E. Esarey, G. Fubiani, D. Auerbach, B. Marcelis, M. A. Carnahan, R. A. Kaindl, J. Byrd, and M. C. Martin, "Observation of terahertz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 074802/1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levis, R. J.

M. J. Dewitt and R. J. Levis, "Calculating the Keldysh adiabaticity parameter for atomic, diatomic, and polyatomic molecules," J. Chem. Phys. 108, 7739-7742 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löffler, T.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, "Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves," Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynch, J.

C. G. DurfeeIII, J. Lynch, and H. M Milchberg, "Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368-2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M

C. G. DurfeeIII, J. Lynch, and H. M Milchberg, "Development of a plasma waveguide for high-intensity laser pulses," Phys. Rev. E 51, 2368-2389 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morgner, U.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nibarger, J. P.

C. Guo, M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Single and double ionization of diatomic molecules in strong laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 58, R4271-R4274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

G. Rodriguez, C. W. Siders, C. Guo, and A. J. Taylor, "Coherent ultrafast MI-FROG spectroscopy of optical field ionization in molecular H2, N2, and O2," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 579-591 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, "Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves," Opt. Lett. 29, 1120-1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schumacher, D. W.

D. W. Schumacher and P. H. Bucksbaum, "Phase dependence of intense-field ionization," Phys. Rev. A 54, 4271-4278 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

G. Rodriguez, C. W. Siders, C. Guo, and A. J. Taylor, "Coherent ultrafast MI-FROG spectroscopy of optical field ionization in molecular H2, N2, and O2," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 579-591 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

G. Rodriguez, C. W. Siders, C. Guo, and A. J. Taylor, "Coherent ultrafast MI-FROG spectroscopy of optical field ionization in molecular H2, N2, and O2," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 579-591 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, M.

Thomson, M. D.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

A. Haché, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, "Quantum interference control of electrical currents in GaAs," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1144-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z. R.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilewski, "Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596-3599 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, "Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725-2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005/1-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

M. Kreß, T. Löffler, M. D. Thomson, R. Dörner, H. Gimpel, K. Zrost, T. Ergler, R. Moshammer, U. Morgner, J. Ullrich, and H. G. Roskos, "Determination of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle laser pulses with terahertz-emission spectroscopy," Nature Phys. 2, 327-331 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Laser fields with the fundamental and second harmonic with a relative phase θ = 0 and π/2. (b) Electron trajectories born at various phases of ϕ = -9π/10, -π/10, π/10, and 9π/10. (c) Drift electron velocity versus ϕ(solid line), overlaid with the laser field (dashed line).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Electron density of atmospheric nitrogen gas irradiated by a combined ω and 2ω laser field with 50 fs pulsewidths and peak intensities of Iω = 1015 W/cm2 and I 2ω = 2×1014 W/cm2, with a relative phase θ = π/2. (b) Time-varying electron current. (c) Radiation spectrum obtained from the transient electron current. The inset shows an expected THz waveform obtained with 10 THz low-pass filtering.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Typical experimental THz waveform and the corresponding THz spectrum in the inset. (b) THz yield vs. BBO-to-plasma distance d with two different BBO angles φ = 28° and 34°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

THz emission yield from a preformed air plasma with a varying double-pump-pulse contrast

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Peak THz field strength as a function of the incoming laser energy with ±5% error sizes.

Equations (1)

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E L ( t ) = E 1 cos ( ωt + ϕ ) + E 2 cos [ 2 ( ωt + ϕ ) + θ ] ,

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