Abstract

We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate an ultrasensitive two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity biosensor. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer and operates near its resonance at 1.58 μm. Coating the sensor internal surface with proteins of different sizes produces a different amount of resonance redshift. The present device can detect a molecule monolayer with a total mass as small as 2.5 fg. The device performance is verified by measuring the redshift corresponding to the binding of glutaraldehyde and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The experimental results are in good agreement with theory and with ellipsometric measurements performed on a flat oxidized silicon wafer surface.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, "Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 11, 63-72 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Saarinen, S. M. Weiss, P. M. Fauchet, and J. E. Sipe, "Optical sensor based on resonant porous silicon structures," Opt. Express 13, 3754-3764 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, "Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 182, 541-546 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Chan, S. R. Horner, P. M. Fauchet, and B. L. Miller, "Identification of gram negative bacteria using nanoscale silicon microcavities," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11797-11798 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ouyang, M. Christophersen, R. Viard, B. L. Miller and P. M. Fauchet, "Macroporous silicon microcavity for macromolecule detection," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1851-1859 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. D. Block, L. L. Chan and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric," Sens. Actuators B 120, 187-193 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. J. Sonek, "Integrated photonic crystal waveguides for micro-bioanalytical devices" in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 333-335.
  11. K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Express 10, 670-684 (2002).
  12. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou, S. Preble, and M. Lipson, "Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4854-4856 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, "Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity," Opt. Lett. 29, 1093-1095 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Chen, K. K. Tsia and A. W. Poon, "Surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs with a flat dielectric margin," Opt. Express 14, 7368-7377 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. Painter, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 275-285 (1999).
  17. I. D. Kuntz and W. Kauzmann, "Hydration of proteins and polypeptides," Adv. Protein Chem. 28, 239-345 (1974).
  18. P. G. Squire, P. Moser, and C. T. O'Konski, "Hydrodynamic properties of bovine serum albumin monomer and dimer," J. Biochem. 7, 4261-4272 (1968).
  19. H. Ouyang, C. C. Striemer, and P. M. Fauchet, "Quantitative analysis of the sensitivity of porous silicon optical biosensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Kanda, J. K. Kariuki, D. J. Harrison and M. T. McDermott, "Label-Free Reading of Microarray-Based Immunoassays with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging," Anal. Chem. 76, 7257-7262 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Nedelkov, K. A. Tubbs and R. W. Nelson, "Surface plasmon resonance-enabled mass spectrometry arrays," Electrophoresis 27, 3671 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (4)

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric," Sens. Actuators B 120, 187-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ouyang, C. C. Striemer, and P. M. Fauchet, "Quantitative analysis of the sensitivity of porous silicon optical biosensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Nedelkov, K. A. Tubbs and R. W. Nelson, "Surface plasmon resonance-enabled mass spectrometry arrays," Electrophoresis 27, 3671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, K. K. Tsia and A. W. Poon, "Surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs with a flat dielectric margin," Opt. Express 14, 7368-7377 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. J. Saarinen, S. M. Weiss, P. M. Fauchet, and J. E. Sipe, "Optical sensor based on resonant porous silicon structures," Opt. Express 13, 3754-3764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ouyang, M. Christophersen, R. Viard, B. L. Miller and P. M. Fauchet, "Macroporous silicon microcavity for macromolecule detection," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1851-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

V. Kanda, J. K. Kariuki, D. J. Harrison and M. T. McDermott, "Label-Free Reading of Microarray-Based Immunoassays with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging," Anal. Chem. 76, 7257-7262 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou, S. Preble, and M. Lipson, "Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4854-4856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, "Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity," Opt. Lett. 29, 1093-1095 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Express 10, 670-684 (2002).

2001 (1)

S. Chan, S. R. Horner, P. M. Fauchet, and B. L. Miller, "Identification of gram negative bacteria using nanoscale silicon microcavities," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11797-11798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, "Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 182, 541-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

O. Painter, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 275-285 (1999).

1997 (1)

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, "Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 11, 63-72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

I. D. Kuntz and W. Kauzmann, "Hydration of proteins and polypeptides," Adv. Protein Chem. 28, 239-345 (1974).

1968 (1)

P. G. Squire, P. Moser, and C. T. O'Konski, "Hydrodynamic properties of bovine serum albumin monomer and dimer," J. Biochem. 7, 4261-4272 (1968).

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V.

B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou, S. Preble, and M. Lipson, "Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4854-4856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, S. N.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Block, I. D.

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric," Sens. Actuators B 120, 187-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. L.

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric," Sens. Actuators B 120, 187-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, S.

S. Chan, S. R. Horner, P. M. Fauchet, and B. L. Miller, "Identification of gram negative bacteria using nanoscale silicon microcavities," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11797-11798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, "Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 182, 541-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chow, E.

Christophersen, M.

H. Ouyang, M. Christophersen, R. Viard, B. L. Miller and P. M. Fauchet, "Macroporous silicon microcavity for macromolecule detection," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1851-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cunin, F.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan and B. T. Cunningham, "Photonic crystal optical biosensor incorporating structured low-index porous dielectric," Sens. Actuators B 120, 187-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dancil, K.-P. S.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

H. Ouyang, C. C. Striemer, and P. M. Fauchet, "Quantitative analysis of the sensitivity of porous silicon optical biosensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ouyang, M. Christophersen, R. Viard, B. L. Miller and P. M. Fauchet, "Macroporous silicon microcavity for macromolecule detection," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1851-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Saarinen, S. M. Weiss, P. M. Fauchet, and J. E. Sipe, "Optical sensor based on resonant porous silicon structures," Opt. Express 13, 3754-3764 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chan, S. R. Horner, P. M. Fauchet, and B. L. Miller, "Identification of gram negative bacteria using nanoscale silicon microcavities," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11797-11798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, "Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 182, 541-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghadir, M. R.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Girolami, G.

Grot, A.

Harrison, D. J.

V. Kanda, J. K. Kariuki, D. J. Harrison and M. T. McDermott, "Label-Free Reading of Microarray-Based Immunoassays with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging," Anal. Chem. 76, 7257-7262 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horner, S. R.

S. Chan, S. R. Horner, P. M. Fauchet, and B. L. Miller, "Identification of gram negative bacteria using nanoscale silicon microcavities," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11797-11798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanda, V.

V. Kanda, J. K. Kariuki, D. J. Harrison and M. T. McDermott, "Label-Free Reading of Microarray-Based Immunoassays with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging," Anal. Chem. 76, 7257-7262 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kariuki, J. K.

V. Kanda, J. K. Kariuki, D. J. Harrison and M. T. McDermott, "Label-Free Reading of Microarray-Based Immunoassays with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging," Anal. Chem. 76, 7257-7262 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kauzmann, W.

I. D. Kuntz and W. Kauzmann, "Hydration of proteins and polypeptides," Adv. Protein Chem. 28, 239-345 (1974).

Koh, J.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kuntz, I. D.

I. D. Kuntz and W. Kauzmann, "Hydration of proteins and polypeptides," Adv. Protein Chem. 28, 239-345 (1974).

Li, P.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, "Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 182, 541-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Y.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, "Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 11, 63-72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, V. S.-Y.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Link, J. R.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou, S. Preble, and M. Lipson, "Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4854-4856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, "Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 11, 63-72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou, S. Preble, and M. Lipson, "Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4854-4856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McDermott, M. T.

V. Kanda, J. K. Kariuki, D. J. Harrison and M. T. McDermott, "Label-Free Reading of Microarray-Based Immunoassays with Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging," Anal. Chem. 76, 7257-7262 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. L.

H. Ouyang, M. Christophersen, R. Viard, B. L. Miller and P. M. Fauchet, "Macroporous silicon microcavity for macromolecule detection," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1851-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chan, S. R. Horner, P. M. Fauchet, and B. L. Miller, "Identification of gram negative bacteria using nanoscale silicon microcavities," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 11797-11798 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, "Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 182, 541-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Moser, P.

P. G. Squire, P. Moser, and C. T. O'Konski, "Hydrodynamic properties of bovine serum albumin monomer and dimer," J. Biochem. 7, 4261-4272 (1968).

Motesharei, K.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nedelkov, D.

D. Nedelkov, K. A. Tubbs and R. W. Nelson, "Surface plasmon resonance-enabled mass spectrometry arrays," Electrophoresis 27, 3671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, R. W.

D. Nedelkov, K. A. Tubbs and R. W. Nelson, "Surface plasmon resonance-enabled mass spectrometry arrays," Electrophoresis 27, 3671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O'Konski, C. T.

P. G. Squire, P. Moser, and C. T. O'Konski, "Hydrodynamic properties of bovine serum albumin monomer and dimer," J. Biochem. 7, 4261-4272 (1968).

Ouyang, H.

H. Ouyang, C. C. Striemer, and P. M. Fauchet, "Quantitative analysis of the sensitivity of porous silicon optical biosensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ouyang, M. Christophersen, R. Viard, B. L. Miller and P. M. Fauchet, "Macroporous silicon microcavity for macromolecule detection," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1851-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

K. Srinivasan and O. Painter, "Momentum space design of high-Q photonic crystal optical cavities," Opt. Express 10, 670-684 (2002).

O. Painter, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 275-285 (1999).

Pepper, J.

B. T. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poon, A. W.

Preble, S.

B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou, S. Preble, and M. Lipson, "Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4854-4856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, "Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. A. 182, 541-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, J. J.

Sailor, M. J.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadir, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

O. Painter, J. Vuckovic, and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab," J. Opt. Am. B 16, 275-285 (1999).

Schmedake, T. A.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Y. Li, J. Koh, S. N. Bhatia and M. J. Sailor, "Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals," Nat. Mater. 1, 39-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, V. Almeida, C. Manolatou, S. Preble, and M. Lipson, "Nanocavity in a silicon waveguide for ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4854-4856 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

Sipe, J. E.

Song, B.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Squire, P. G.

P. G. Squire, P. Moser, and C. T. O'Konski, "Hydrodynamic properties of bovine serum albumin monomer and dimer," J. Biochem. 7, 4261-4272 (1968).

Srinivasan, K.

Stenberg, E.

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, and E. Stenberg, "Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators B 11, 63-72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Striemer, C. C.

H. Ouyang, C. C. Striemer, and P. M. Fauchet, "Quantitative analysis of the sensitivity of porous silicon optical biosensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 163108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsia, K. K.

Tubbs, K. A.

D. Nedelkov, K. A. Tubbs and R. W. Nelson, "Surface plasmon resonance-enabled mass spectrometry arrays," Electrophoresis 27, 3671 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Viard, R.

H. Ouyang, M. Christophersen, R. Viard, B. L. Miller and P. M. Fauchet, "Macroporous silicon microcavity for macromolecule detection," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 1851-1859 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

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