Abstract

We report on acoustic phase imaging of objects using terahertz radiation. The sensitivity of the technique is sufficient to detect objects at oscillation amplitudes down to about 300 nm. Such acoustic amplitudes are comparable to the human physiological perception level, which offers novel opportunities in security imaging.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750-6755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-s280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby, "Passive millimetre-wave imaging and how it differs from terahertz imaging," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 379-394 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Darmo, V. Tamosiunas, G. Fasching, J. Kröll, K. Unterrainer, M. Beck, M. Giovanni, J. Faist, C. Kremser, and P. Debbage, "Imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser," Opt. Express 12, 1879-1884 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Berry, "Risk perception and safety issues," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 263-267 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. J. Siebert, T. Löffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743-3748 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Filin, M. Stowe, and R. Kersting, "Time-domain differentiation of terahertz pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 2008-2010 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Harazin and J. Grzesik, "The transmission of vertical whole-body vibration to the body segments of standing subjects," J. Sound and Vib. 215, 775-787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D.M. Mittleman, H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1976 (1)

1966 (1)

1957 (1)

D. Dieckmann, "Einfluss vertikaler mechanischer Schwingungen auf denMenschen," Internat. Z. angew. Physiol. einschl.Arbeitsphysiol. 16, 519-564 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Appleby, R.

R. Appleby, "Passive millimetre-wave imaging and how it differs from terahertz imaging," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 379-394 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-s280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barker, D.

Bauer, T.

K. J. Siebert, T. Löffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743-3748 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

Berry, E.

E. Berry, "Risk perception and safety issues," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 263-267 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjarnason, J.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

Breede, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campuria, G.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Celis, M.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, T.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conglio, D.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Czasch, S.

K. J. Siebert, T. Löffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743-3748 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Arienzo, M.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

Debbage, P.

Dieckmann, D.

D. Dieckmann, "Einfluss vertikaler mechanischer Schwingungen auf denMenschen," Internat. Z. angew. Physiol. einschl.Arbeitsphysiol. 16, 519-564 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Donhuijsen, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Doria, A.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fasching, G.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-s280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Filin, A.

Foote, F.

Gallerano, G. P.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giovanni, M.

Giovenale, E.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-s280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grzesik, J.

B. Harazin and J. Grzesik, "The transmission of vertical whole-body vibration to the body segments of standing subjects," J. Sound and Vib. 215, 775-787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harazin, B.

B. Harazin and J. Grzesik, "The transmission of vertical whole-body vibration to the body segments of standing subjects," J. Sound and Vib. 215, 775-787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hartwick, T.

Hein, G.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hodges, T.

Hoffmann, S.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-s280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

Inoue, H.

Jacobsen, H.

D.M. Mittleman, H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jinhai, S.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750-6755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jongling, S.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750-6755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Kersting, R.

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, P.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kremser, C.

Kröll, J.

Lai, A.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laishun, L.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750-6755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

J. Bjarnason, T. Chan, A. Lee, M. Celis, and E. Brown, "Millimeter-wave, terahertz, and mid-infrared transmission through common clothing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 519-521 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

K. J. Siebert, T. Löffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743-3748 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Litz, M.

Q. Wu, M. Litz, and X.-C. Zhang, "Broadband detection capability of ZnTe electro-optic field sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2924-2926 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

K. J. Siebert, T. Löffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743-3748 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meihong, L.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750-6755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Messina, G.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Mittleman, D.M.

D.M. Mittleman, H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ning, L.

L. Ning, S. Jongling, S. Jinhai, L. Laishun, X. Xiaoyu, L. Meihong, and J. Yan, "Study of the THz spectrum of methamphetamine," Opt. Express 5, 6750-6755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Ogawa, Y.

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-s280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pierz, K.

T. Kleine-Ostmann, P. Knobloch, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Breede, M. Hofmann, G. Hein, K. Pierz, M. Sperling, and K. Donhuijsen, "Continuous-wave THz imaging," Electron. Lett. 37, 1461-1463 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pietro, R. D.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Powell, R.

Quast, H.

K. J. Siebert, T. Löffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743-3748 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romaneo, M.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

K. J. Siebert, T. Löffler, H. Quast, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, R. Leonhardt, S. Czasch, and H. G. Roskos, "Alloptoelectronic continuous wave THz imaging for biomedical applications," Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 3743-3748 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scarfi, M. R.

M. R. Scarfi, M. Romaneo, R. D. Pietro, O. Zeni, A. Doria, G. P. Gallerano, E. Giovenale, G. Messina, A. Lai, G. Campuria, D. Conglio, and M. D’Arienzo, "THz exposure of whole blood for the study of biological effects on human lymphocytes," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 171-177 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gray, R. Barat, F. Oliveira, and D. Zimar, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications-explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-s280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, K. J.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

a) Schematic of two coupled objects, one of which is driven by an external force to perform a vibrational motion. The radiation reflected from the object’s surface contains information on amplitude D and phase ϕ of the individual oscillation. b) Interference signal depending on the path length difference Δ of an interferometer. Acoustic oscillation amplitude Dacoust and resulting modulation amplitude Amod are indicated. The amplitude of the interference signal is Aifg

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) Schematic of the setup for homodyne interferometry. b) Schematic of the setup for time-resolved THz imaging.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Acoustic phase sensed by homodyne mixing of radiation at 87 GHz in dependence on the optical path difference Δ and corresponding interferogram.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Left: Two-dimensional THz mapping of the acoustic vibration of a metallic membrane driven at a frequency of 225 Hz. The amplitude of the oscillation is about 0.7 μm. Right: A different oscillation mode detected through a linen textile, which had no contact to the membrane.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Top: Photograph of the front and backside of a metallic lamella structure. The middle stripe carries an additional load and the lower stripe is stiffened by a copper rod. Bottom left: Image of the THz field amplitude reflected from the lamella structure at rest. Bottom right: Image of the acoustic phase as sensed by using few-cycle THz pulses.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ̂ ( t ) = I obj + I ref 2 + I obj I ref    ∙ cos ( 2 π λ THz [ Δ + D acoust sin ( ω acoust t + ϕ ) ] ) ,
I ̂ ( t ) ω acoust I obj I ref    ∙ sin ( 2 πΔ λ THz ) 2 πD acoust λ THz sin ( ω acoust t + ϕ )
= A mod sin ( ω acoust t + Φ ) ,
Φ = { ϕ if sin ( …Δ ) < 0 ϕ π else .

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