Abstract

In this study we apply an existing optical characterisation technique to establish reliably the complex refractive indices of layers comprising a natural multilayer reflector in the beetle Chrysochroa raja. Its reflector characteristics, ultrastructure and layer thicknesses were established using electron and optical microscopy. We recorded a significant number of wavelength dependent optical data sets from the same regions of sample using both linear polarisations and from a variety of different angles. These optical data sets were modelled simultaneously in order to significantly reduce the degeneracy of the fitting process. For the C. raja sample in question, the fitted complex refractive indices of both layer types were determined to be n=1.68 k=0.03 and n=1.55 k=0.14.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Mossakowski "Reflection measurements used in the analysis of structural colours of beetles," J. Microsc. 116part 3, 351-364 (1979)
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Hariyama, M. Hironaka, H. Horiguchi, and D. G. Stavenga in Structural Colors in Biological Systems, S Kinoshita and S Yoshioka, eds., (Osaka University Press, 2004) p153-176.
  3. T. D. Schultz and G. D. Bernard, "Pointillistic mixing of interference in tiger beetles," Nature 337, 72-73 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. C. Neville and S. Caveney "Scarabeidae exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. 44, 531-562 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. R. Hooper, P. Vukusic, and R. J. Wootton, "A detailed optical study of the transparent wing membranes of the dragonfly Aeshna cyanea," Opt. Express 14,4891-7 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. R. Parker, D. R. McKenzie, and M. C. J. Large, "Multilayer reflectors in animals using green and gold beetles as contrasting examples," J. Exp. Biol. 201, 1307-1313 (1998).
  7. C. R. Lawrence, P. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Grazing-incidence iridescence from a butterfly," Appl. Opt. 41, 437-441 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. R. Spurr, "A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy," J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26, 31-431969.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Reitz, F. Milford, and R. Christy, Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory, 4th Ed., (Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1998) p. 462-469.
  11. G. D. Bernard and W. H. Miller "Interference filters in the corneas of Diptera," Invest. Ophthalmol 7, 416-434 (1968).
    [PubMed]
  12. S. C. Simmons, "Refractive index measurement in birefringent material by interference microscopy," J. Microsc. 89, 291-292 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Caveney, "Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles; the role of uric acid," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 178, 205-225 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. F. Land "The physics and biology of animal reflectors," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75-106 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. D. Schultz and M. A. Rankin "The ultrastructure of the epicuticular interference reflectors of Tiger Beetles (Cicindela)," J. Exp. Biol. 117, 87-110 (1985).
  16. A. F. Huxley "A theoretical treatment of the Reflexion of light by multilayer structures," J. Exp Biol. 48, 227-245 (1968).
  17. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, (Hilger, 1969).
  18. A. C. Neville "Metallic gold and silver colours in some insect cuticles," J. Insect Physiol. 23, 1267-1274 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. R. Lawrence, A. S. Martin, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon polariton studies of highly absorbing Langmuir-Blodgett films," Thin Solid Films 208, 269-273 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and J. D. Wright, "Surface plasmon resonance characterisation of spin-deposited Phthalocyanine Films," J. Mater. Chem. 2(10), 1105-1106 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Vukusic, R. J. Wootton and J. R. Sambles "Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae)," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271, 595-601 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

P. Vukusic, R. J. Wootton and J. R. Sambles "Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae)," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271, 595-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. R. Parker, D. R. McKenzie, and M. C. J. Large, "Multilayer reflectors in animals using green and gold beetles as contrasting examples," J. Exp. Biol. 201, 1307-1313 (1998).

1992 (2)

C. R. Lawrence, A. S. Martin, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon polariton studies of highly absorbing Langmuir-Blodgett films," Thin Solid Films 208, 269-273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and J. D. Wright, "Surface plasmon resonance characterisation of spin-deposited Phthalocyanine Films," J. Mater. Chem. 2(10), 1105-1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

T. D. Schultz and G. D. Bernard, "Pointillistic mixing of interference in tiger beetles," Nature 337, 72-73 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. D. Schultz and M. A. Rankin "The ultrastructure of the epicuticular interference reflectors of Tiger Beetles (Cicindela)," J. Exp. Biol. 117, 87-110 (1985).

1979 (1)

D. Mossakowski "Reflection measurements used in the analysis of structural colours of beetles," J. Microsc. 116part 3, 351-364 (1979)
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. C. Neville "Metallic gold and silver colours in some insect cuticles," J. Insect Physiol. 23, 1267-1274 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

M. F. Land "The physics and biology of animal reflectors," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75-106 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

S. Caveney, "Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles; the role of uric acid," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 178, 205-225 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (3)

S. C. Simmons, "Refractive index measurement in birefringent material by interference microscopy," J. Microsc. 89, 291-292 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney "Scarabeidae exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. 44, 531-562 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Spurr, "A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy," J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26, 31-431969.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (2)

G. D. Bernard and W. H. Miller "Interference filters in the corneas of Diptera," Invest. Ophthalmol 7, 416-434 (1968).
[PubMed]

A. F. Huxley "A theoretical treatment of the Reflexion of light by multilayer structures," J. Exp Biol. 48, 227-245 (1968).

Bernard, G. D.

T. D. Schultz and G. D. Bernard, "Pointillistic mixing of interference in tiger beetles," Nature 337, 72-73 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Bernard and W. H. Miller "Interference filters in the corneas of Diptera," Invest. Ophthalmol 7, 416-434 (1968).
[PubMed]

Caveney, S.

S. Caveney, "Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles; the role of uric acid," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 178, 205-225 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney "Scarabeidae exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. 44, 531-562 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, I. R.

Huxley, A. F.

A. F. Huxley "A theoretical treatment of the Reflexion of light by multilayer structures," J. Exp Biol. 48, 227-245 (1968).

Land, M. F.

M. F. Land "The physics and biology of animal reflectors," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75-106 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Large, M. C. J.

A. R. Parker, D. R. McKenzie, and M. C. J. Large, "Multilayer reflectors in animals using green and gold beetles as contrasting examples," J. Exp. Biol. 201, 1307-1313 (1998).

Lawrence, C. R.

C. R. Lawrence, P. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Grazing-incidence iridescence from a butterfly," Appl. Opt. 41, 437-441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Lawrence, A. S. Martin, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon polariton studies of highly absorbing Langmuir-Blodgett films," Thin Solid Films 208, 269-273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, A. S.

C. R. Lawrence, A. S. Martin, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon polariton studies of highly absorbing Langmuir-Blodgett films," Thin Solid Films 208, 269-273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McKenzie, D. R.

A. R. Parker, D. R. McKenzie, and M. C. J. Large, "Multilayer reflectors in animals using green and gold beetles as contrasting examples," J. Exp. Biol. 201, 1307-1313 (1998).

Miller, W. H.

G. D. Bernard and W. H. Miller "Interference filters in the corneas of Diptera," Invest. Ophthalmol 7, 416-434 (1968).
[PubMed]

Mossakowski, D.

D. Mossakowski "Reflection measurements used in the analysis of structural colours of beetles," J. Microsc. 116part 3, 351-364 (1979)
[CrossRef]

Neville, A. C.

A. C. Neville "Metallic gold and silver colours in some insect cuticles," J. Insect Physiol. 23, 1267-1274 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney "Scarabeidae exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. 44, 531-562 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, A. R.

A. R. Parker, D. R. McKenzie, and M. C. J. Large, "Multilayer reflectors in animals using green and gold beetles as contrasting examples," J. Exp. Biol. 201, 1307-1313 (1998).

Rankin, M. A.

T. D. Schultz and M. A. Rankin "The ultrastructure of the epicuticular interference reflectors of Tiger Beetles (Cicindela)," J. Exp. Biol. 117, 87-110 (1985).

Sambles, J. R.

P. Vukusic, R. J. Wootton and J. R. Sambles "Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae)," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271, 595-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Lawrence, P. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Grazing-incidence iridescence from a butterfly," Appl. Opt. 41, 437-441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Lawrence, A. S. Martin, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon polariton studies of highly absorbing Langmuir-Blodgett films," Thin Solid Films 208, 269-273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and J. D. Wright, "Surface plasmon resonance characterisation of spin-deposited Phthalocyanine Films," J. Mater. Chem. 2(10), 1105-1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, T. D.

T. D. Schultz and G. D. Bernard, "Pointillistic mixing of interference in tiger beetles," Nature 337, 72-73 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Schultz and M. A. Rankin "The ultrastructure of the epicuticular interference reflectors of Tiger Beetles (Cicindela)," J. Exp. Biol. 117, 87-110 (1985).

Simmons, S. C.

S. C. Simmons, "Refractive index measurement in birefringent material by interference microscopy," J. Microsc. 89, 291-292 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Spurr, A. R.

A. R. Spurr, "A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy," J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26, 31-431969.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vukusic, P.

I. R. Hooper, P. Vukusic, and R. J. Wootton, "A detailed optical study of the transparent wing membranes of the dragonfly Aeshna cyanea," Opt. Express 14,4891-7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, R. J. Wootton and J. R. Sambles "Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae)," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271, 595-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Lawrence, P. Vukusic, and J. R. Sambles, "Grazing-incidence iridescence from a butterfly," Appl. Opt. 41, 437-441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and J. D. Wright, "Surface plasmon resonance characterisation of spin-deposited Phthalocyanine Films," J. Mater. Chem. 2(10), 1105-1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wootton, R. J.

I. R. Hooper, P. Vukusic, and R. J. Wootton, "A detailed optical study of the transparent wing membranes of the dragonfly Aeshna cyanea," Opt. Express 14,4891-7 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Vukusic, R. J. Wootton and J. R. Sambles "Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae)," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271, 595-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. D.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and J. D. Wright, "Surface plasmon resonance characterisation of spin-deposited Phthalocyanine Films," J. Mater. Chem. 2(10), 1105-1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biol. Rev. (1)

A. C. Neville and S. Caveney "Scarabeidae exocuticle as an optical analogue of cholesteric liquid crystals," Biol. Rev. 44, 531-562 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol (1)

G. D. Bernard and W. H. Miller "Interference filters in the corneas of Diptera," Invest. Ophthalmol 7, 416-434 (1968).
[PubMed]

J. Exp Biol. (1)

A. F. Huxley "A theoretical treatment of the Reflexion of light by multilayer structures," J. Exp Biol. 48, 227-245 (1968).

J. Exp. Biol. (2)

A. R. Parker, D. R. McKenzie, and M. C. J. Large, "Multilayer reflectors in animals using green and gold beetles as contrasting examples," J. Exp. Biol. 201, 1307-1313 (1998).

T. D. Schultz and M. A. Rankin "The ultrastructure of the epicuticular interference reflectors of Tiger Beetles (Cicindela)," J. Exp. Biol. 117, 87-110 (1985).

J. Insect Physiol. (1)

A. C. Neville "Metallic gold and silver colours in some insect cuticles," J. Insect Physiol. 23, 1267-1274 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, and J. D. Wright, "Surface plasmon resonance characterisation of spin-deposited Phthalocyanine Films," J. Mater. Chem. 2(10), 1105-1106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (2)

S. C. Simmons, "Refractive index measurement in birefringent material by interference microscopy," J. Microsc. 89, 291-292 (1969).
[CrossRef]

D. Mossakowski "Reflection measurements used in the analysis of structural colours of beetles," J. Microsc. 116part 3, 351-364 (1979)
[CrossRef]

J. Ultrastruct. Res. (1)

A. R. Spurr, "A low-viscosity epoxy resin embedding medium for electron microscopy," J. Ultrastruct. Res. 26, 31-431969.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

T. D. Schultz and G. D. Bernard, "Pointillistic mixing of interference in tiger beetles," Nature 337, 72-73 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) (1)

S. Caveney, "Cuticle reflectivity and optical activity in scarab beetles; the role of uric acid," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 178, 205-225 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (1)

P. Vukusic, R. J. Wootton and J. R. Sambles "Remarkable iridescence in the hindwings of the damselfly Neurobasis chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus) (Zygoptera: Calopterygidae)," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271, 595-601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B (1)

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, C. R. Lawrence, and R. J. Wootton, "Quantified interference and diffraction in single Morpho butterfly scales," Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 266, 1403-1411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. (1)

M. F. Land "The physics and biology of animal reflectors," Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75-106 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. R. Lawrence, A. S. Martin, and J. R. Sambles, "Surface plasmon polariton studies of highly absorbing Langmuir-Blodgett films," Thin Solid Films 208, 269-273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, (Hilger, 1969).

J. Reitz, F. Milford, and R. Christy, Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory, 4th Ed., (Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1998) p. 462-469.

T. Hariyama, M. Hironaka, H. Horiguchi, and D. G. Stavenga in Structural Colors in Biological Systems, S Kinoshita and S Yoshioka, eds., (Osaka University Press, 2004) p153-176.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Image of C. raja showing the iridescence in the elytra. In this image the red stripe looks orange due to the angle between the camera, the surface of the elytra and the light source. There is also a blue hue visible at the edges of the elytra.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of the surface of C. raja showing the irregularities in the surface of the cuticle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Image showing the multilayer structure responsible for the iridescent colour in the red region of the elytral wing of C. raja displaying both the system obtained from modelling (left) and actual cross-sectional TEM images (right). (b) Same image for the green region.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the percentage of absolute reflected intensity of the experimental data (points) and the accompanying simultaneous theoretical modelling (lines) for the 16 data sets covering two regions at four different angles of incidence for p- and s-polarised light

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s polarised : r ij = k zj k zi k zj + k zi
p polarised : r ij = ε j k zi ε i k zj ε j k zi + ε i k zj
r i , m = r ij + r i + 1 , m e 2 i 1 + r ij r i + 1 , m e 2 i
R = rr *

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