Abstract

We analyze the properties of truly confined modes of a slot-photonic crystal slab on silicon-on-insulator structures. Recently, Galli et al[1] have demonstrated the enhancement of photoluminescence in slot-photonic crystal slabs, however, their structure supported only lossy modes. We designed and calculated the band structure and linear defect guided modes for slab confined structures. Two cladding configurations, which are strong candidates for fabrication, are investigated. The field enhancement in the confined mode of a slot-photonic crystal offers significant promise for new light emitting devices on silicon.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, "Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure," Opt. Lett. 29, 1209-1211 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Compact mode conversion for highly-confined waveguides," in Integrated Photonics Research (IPR) Conference, 2003, paper IMD5-1, pp. 230-233.
  4. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1626-1628 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 88, 081101(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. A. Barrios and M. Lipson, "Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 10092-10101 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 - 8222 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Photonic-crystal slow light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  19, 2052-2059 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 88, 081101(2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios and M. Lipson, "Electrically driven silicon resonant light emitting device based on slot-waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 10092-10101 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 - 8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Andreani, L. C.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 88, 081101(2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Belotti, M.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

Fan, S.

M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Photonic-crystal slow light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  19, 2052-2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 - 8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Galli, M.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 88, 081101(2005).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Ippen, E.

Irrera, A.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Photonic-crystal slow light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  19, 2052-2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 - 8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Photonic-crystal slow light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  19, 2052-2059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 - 8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, R.

Liao, Y.

Lipson, M.

Liscidini, M.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miritello, M.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panepucci, R. R.

Patrini, M.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Politi, A.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 88, 081101(2005).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

Sullivan, P.

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 - 8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 88, 081101(2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Xu, Q.

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherer, "High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator based slot waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 88, 081101(2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Galli, A. Politi, M. Belotti, D. Gerace, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani; M. Miritello, A. Irrera, F. Priolo, and Y. Chen, "Strong enhancement of Er3+ emission at room temperature in silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8212 - 8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, "Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Compact mode conversion for highly-confined waveguides," in Integrated Photonics Research (IPR) Conference, 2003, paper IMD5-1, pp. 230-233.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

2D hexagonal slot PhCS band diagram with two different cladding configurations respectively. a) Refractive index profile of air-slot PhCS structure in the cross-section plane (black line). b) Refractive index profile of air-oxide slot PhCS structure. (c) Band diagram of air-oxide slot PhCS structure (a) for odd-y-parity with silicon slab thickness of 200 nm and slot thickness of 15 nm with r/a=0.37. The inset shows a 3D visualization of the hexagonal slot PhCS. Band gap is about 0.015 a/λ. d) Band diagram of air-oxide slot PhCS structure (b) for odd-y-parity with silicon slab thickness of 310 nm and slot thickness of 15 nm with r/a=0.42. The inset shows a brillouin zone of the hexagonal slot PhCS. Band gap is about 0.015 a/λ

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Mode profile of the first 4 bands showing the normal component of the electric field (y-component) at the center of the slot-PhCS at the K-point. The first row shows Ey in XZ plane with odd symmetry, the second row shows Ey in cross section along the direction marked by the arrow. Note that in the case of (d) the field is zero along the chosen cross section.

Fig 3. (a).
Fig 3. (a).

Dispersion of linear defect waveguide in slot PhCS with 1st cladding option, with (b) and (c) showing the profile of mode (Ey) in XZ and YX planes respectively. (d) Dispersion of linear defect waveguide in slot PhCS with 2nd cladding option, with (e) and (f) showing the profile of mode (Ey) in XZ and YX planes respectively.

Equations (2)

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E x ( x , y , z ) = E x ( x , y , z ) ; E y ( x , y , z ) = E y ( x , y , z ) ; E z ( x , y , z ) = E z ( x , y , z )
H x ( x , y , z ) = H x ( x , y , z ) ; H y ( x , y , z ) = H y ( x , y , z ) ; H z ( x , y , z ) = H z ( x , y , z )

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