Abstract

SPP photonic waveguiding inside trenches engraved in 400nm thick gold layer and symmetrically embedded in a dielectric host was experimentally studied using excitation at λ=1.55μm. This waveguide has a similarity to a coplanar transmission line configuration, although plasmonic hybrid modes are supported (rather than TEM waves). Excitation by TE and TM polarizations was studied and the emergence of long propagating plasmonic modes was observed. Mode solving using Full Vectorial Magnetic-Field Beam Propagation Method, validated the observed results, and disclosed the nature of the fundamental long range mode, coexisting with higher order guided modes in such SPP waveguide.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, "Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v74/e165415
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 14, 9467-9476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SergeyI. Bozhevolnyi, Valentyn S. Volkov, Eloïse Devaux, Jean-Yves Laluet and Thomas W. Ebbesen "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,"Nature 440, 508-511 (2006). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7083/full/nature04594.html
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, "Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration," Opt. Express 13, 6645-6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, "Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v71/e165431
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 1473-1475 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-12-1473
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2008385.
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. J. Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 325- 329 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JQE.2003.823016
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v68/e115401
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003). http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_82/iss_8/1158_1.html
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003). http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_82/iss_5/668_1.html.
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v63/e125417
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v64/e045411
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1992 (1)

G. R. Hadley, "Transparent boundary condition for the beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363-370 (1992). http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3.119536
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v33/p5186
[CrossRef]

Al-Bader, S. J.

S. J. Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 325- 329 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JQE.2003.823016
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2008385.
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 63, 125417 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v63/e125417
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000). http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v61/i15/p10484_1
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-11-844
[CrossRef]

Berolo, E.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 14, 9467-9476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003). http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_82/iss_5/668_1.html.
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, "Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v74/e165415
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, "Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v71/e165431
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 1473-1475 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-12-1473
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, J. J.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v33/p5186
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

Charbonneau, R.

Dereux, A.

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v68/e115401
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v64/e045411
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Felidj, N.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v64/e045411
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

G. R. Hadley, "Transparent boundary condition for the beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 363-370 (1992). http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/3.119536
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

He, S.

Krenn, J. R.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v64/e045411
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v68/e115401
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v64/e045411
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2008385.
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v64/e045411
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003). http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_82/iss_5/668_1.html.
[CrossRef]

Lisicka-Shrzek, E.

Liu, L.

Mattiussi, G.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, "Characterization of long-range surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005) http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2008385.
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003). http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_82/iss_5/668_1.html.
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668-670 (2003). http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_82/iss_5/668_1.html.
[CrossRef]

Salerno, M.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, "Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v74/e165415
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, "Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v71/e165431
[CrossRef]

Sergey,

SergeyI. Bozhevolnyi, Valentyn S. Volkov, Eloïse Devaux, Jean-Yves Laluet and Thomas W. Ebbesen "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,"Nature 440, 508-511 (2006). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7083/full/nature04594.html
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v33/p5186
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

J. J. Burke, G. I. Stegeman, and T. Tamir, "Surface-polariton-like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186-5201 (1986). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v33/p5186
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003). http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_82/iss_8/1158_1.html
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003). http://scitation.aip.org/journals/doc/APPLAB-ft/vol_82/iss_8/1158_1.html
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.

J. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401 (2003). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v68/e115401
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J. C.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes," Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411 (2001). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v64/e045411
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, "Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 74, 165415 (2006). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v74/e165415
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, "Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 71, 165431 (2005). http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v71/e165431
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 1473-1475 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-12-1473
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 51-53 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1380236
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Symmetrical SPP waveguides structures studied: slot (a) and trench (b). Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image demonstrating trench’s vertical facets. (c).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modal pattern of a 6μm wide trench engraved in a 400nm thick gold layer, embedded in a dielectric host (n = 1.5), TE (Ex field) excited at λ=1.55μm. The gold layer borders are graphically illustrated. Experimental imaging of optical power at the output facet (a–b) in comparison to FVH-FDM calculated guided mode having a propagation constant: neff = 1.496 + j ∙ 0.000164 . The Ex / Hy electromagnetic field components (c) peak value is twice the one of the Ey / Hx electromagnetic field components (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Modal pattern of a 10μm wide trench engraved in a 400nm thick gold layer, embedded in a dielectric host (n = 1.5), TE (Ex field) excited at λ=1.55μm. The gold layer borders are graphically illustrated. Experimental imaging of optical power at the output facet (a–b) in comparison to FVH-FDM calculated guided mode having a propagation constant: neff = 1.49768 + j ∙ 0.0000513. The Ex / Hy electromagnetic field component (c) peak value is 3½ times higher than the Ey / Hx electromagnetic field components (d).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pattern of a higher mode, supported by 6μm wide trench engraved in a 400nm thick gold layer, embedded in a dielectric host (n = 1.5), excited at λ=1.55μm. Experimental imaging of optical power at the output facet (a-b) in comparison to FVH-FDM calculated guided mode having a propagation constant: neff = 1.5079 + j ∙ 0.001468. The Ex / Hy electromagnetic field component (c) peak value is 1/3 of the Ey / Hx electromagnetic field components (d)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Polarization resolved modal pattern of a higher mode, supported by 8μm wide trench engraved in a 400nm thick gold layer, embedded in a dielectric host (n = 1.5), excited at λ=1.55μm. Ex / Hy field components are mid trench located (a), and Ey / Hx components are mainly along gold layer surfaces (b).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Modal pattern of a SPP wave, supported by 4μm wide trench engraved in a 400nm thick gold layer, embedded in a dielectric host (n = 1.5), excited at λ=1.55μm..

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