Abstract

Advanced femtosecond laser technology allows the fabrication of arbitrary 2D and 3D dielectric micro- and nanoscale structures by two-photon polymerization (2PP). In this paper, we present first investigations on excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on dielectric 2D structures fabricated on metal surfaces with this technology. Straight and curved line- and dot- structures built of the negative-tone photoresist ORMOCER (organically modified ceramic) are investigated by plasmon leakage radiation microscopy. Polarization dependent excitation efficiencies and focusing of SPPs are investigated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (3)

S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E.  Devaux, J.-Y.  Laluet and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.  Reinhardt, S.  Passinger, B. N.  Chichkov, C.  Marquart, I. P.  Radko, S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, "Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. L.  Barnes, A.  Dereux, and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H.  Ditlbacher, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L.  Mazzoni, J.  Mait, and C. C.  Davis, "Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects," Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601-1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, "Imaging of Surface Plasmon Scattering by Lithographically Created Individual Surface Defects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877 - 3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.  Hecht, H.  Bielefeldt, L.  Novotny, Y.  Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.  Ditlbacher, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L.  Barnes, A.  Dereux, and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

B.  Hecht, H.  Bielefeldt, L.  Novotny, Y.  Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E.  Devaux, J.-Y.  Laluet and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.  Reinhardt, S.  Passinger, B. N.  Chichkov, C.  Marquart, I. P.  Radko, S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, "Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chichkov, B.

Chichkov, B. N.

Davis, C. C.

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, "Imaging of Surface Plasmon Scattering by Lithographically Created Individual Surface Defects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877 - 3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, C. C.

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L.  Mazzoni, J.  Mait, and C. C.  Davis, "Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects," Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601-1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L.  Barnes, A.  Dereux, and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E.  Devaux, J.-Y.  Laluet and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ditlbacher, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E.  Devaux, J.-Y.  Laluet and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L.  Barnes, A.  Dereux, and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galler, N.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

B.  Hecht, H.  Bielefeldt, L.  Novotny, Y.  Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B.  Hecht, H.  Bielefeldt, L.  Novotny, Y.  Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.  Ditlbacher, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E.  Devaux, J.-Y.  Laluet and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.  Ditlbacher, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mait, J.

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L.  Mazzoni, J.  Mait, and C. C.  Davis, "Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects," Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601-1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marquart, C.

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, "Imaging of Surface Plasmon Scattering by Lithographically Created Individual Surface Defects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877 - 3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzoni, D. L.

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L.  Mazzoni, J.  Mait, and C. C.  Davis, "Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects," Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601-1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B.  Hecht, H.  Bielefeldt, L.  Novotny, Y.  Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ovsianikov, A.

Passinger, S.

Pohl, D. W.

B.  Hecht, H.  Bielefeldt, L.  Novotny, Y.  Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

Reinhardt, C.

Schider, G.

H.  Ditlbacher, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L.  Mazzoni, J.  Mait, and C. C.  Davis, "Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects," Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601-1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, "Imaging of Surface Plasmon Scattering by Lithographically Created Individual Surface Defects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877 - 3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberger, B.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. L.

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L.  Stepanov, J. R.  Krenn, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, A.  Drezet, B.  Steinberger, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Quantitative analysis of surface plasmon interaction with silver nanoparticles," Opt. Lett. 30, 1524-1526 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E.  Devaux, J.-Y.  Laluet and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H.  Ditlbacher, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, A.  Leitner, and F. R.  Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A.  Drezet, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, A.  Hohenau, B.  Steinberger, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A.  Drezet, A.  Hohenau, A. L.  Stepanov, H.  Ditlbacher, B.  Steinberger, N.  Galler, F. R.  Aussenegg, A.  Leitner, and J. R.  Krenn, "How to erase surface plasmon fringes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E.  Devaux, J.-Y.  Laluet and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L.  Barnes, A.  Dereux, and T. W.  Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L.  Mazzoni, J.  Mait, and C. C.  Davis, "Experimental study of surface-plasmon scattering by individual surface defects," Phys. Rev. B 56, 1601-1611 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

I. I.  Smolyaninov, D. L. Mazzoni, and C. C. Davis, "Imaging of Surface Plasmon Scattering by Lithographically Created Individual Surface Defects," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3877 - 3880 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.  Hecht, H.  Bielefeldt, L.  Novotny, Y.  Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local Excitation, Scattering, and Interference of Surface Plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1889-1892 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

H.  Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988), Chap. 2.

A.  Yariv, P.  Yeh, Optical waves in crystals. Propagation and control of laser radiation (Wiley-Interscience, 2002), Chap. 2.

A. B.  Evlyukhin, S. I.  Bozhevolnyi, A. L.  Stepanov, C.  Reinhardt, S.  Passinger, R.  Kiyan, and B. N.  Chichkov, "Focusing and directing of surface plasmon polaritons by curved chains of nanoparticles, " submitted for publication in J. Appl. Phys.

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MOV (1860 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2386 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (798 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (749 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (1861 KB)     

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Outline of 2PP fabrication.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of dielectric stripes and bends fabricated on gold.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for SPP leakage radiation detection.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Detection of the leakage radiation with a microscope objective set to different numerical apertures, NA = 0.7 (a) and NA = 1.3 (b). The spot and arrow in the SEM image in the inset indicate the laser focus position and SPP propagation direction, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SEM image of the dielectric line structure applied for SPP excitation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

LR images of SPPs excited on a dielectric line within the laser beam waist area (a), at a 5 μm distance off from the beam waist (b), and 15 μm off from the beam waist (c).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

LR intensity of LR as a function of the polarization orientation of the exciting laser beam. 0° and 180° refer to the polarization direction orthogonal to the line structure.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

SEM image of the “continuous” dielectric ring segments applied for SPP excitation.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

LR images of SPPs excited at the focus waist of the exciting laser beam. The direction of SPP propagation is determined by the local curvature of the dielectric ring segment at the excitation point.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

LR image of SPP focusing due to uniform excitation of the dielectric ring section structure.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Cross-cut through the SPP focus (in horizontal direction) corresponding to Fig. 10.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

LR images of focused SPPs excited on dielectric ring segment structures. The polarization orientation of the exciting laser beam is vertical (a), horizontal (b), – 45° (c), and + 45° (d). The angles in (c) and (d) are measured with respect to the vertical direction.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

SEM image of the “dot” dielectric ring segments. The in-plane size of the polymer dot is of about 350 nm, distance between centers of dots is 850 nm.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

LR images of SPP excitation on the “dot” dielectric ring segment by horizontally (a) and vertically (b) polarized laser beam. The spots and arrows in the SEM image in the insets indicate the laser focus position and SPP propagation directions, respectively.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

LR images of focused SPPs exited on the “dot” dielectric ring segment. In order to make low-intensity details visible grey levels in the right image are saturated.

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