Abstract

A one-step type II photosensitivity process has been optimized for inscribing strong >30–dB first-order Bragg-gratings during laser formation of buried waveguides in borosilicate glass. Mode profiles, propagation losses, waveguide birefringence and transmission and reflection spectra were systematically studied in the 1550-nm telecom band over a wide range of laser exposure conditions. Low-loss and birefringence-free waveguides are reported for a narrow laser processing window of 1.0 ± 0.2 ps pulse duration, yielding highly stable Bragg resonances to temperatures up to 500°C.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bulletin 31, 620-625 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, "Fiber bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation," Opt. Lett. 28, 995-997 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, "Recording of fiber Bragg gratings with femtosecond pulses using a "point by point" technique," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2004), p. 2 pp. Vol.2.
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. McCaughan, and E. J. Murphy, "Influence of temperature and initial Titanium dimensions on fiber-Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide insertion loss at lambda equals 1. 3 mm," IEEE J. Quanum Electron.,  QE-19, 131-136 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process  77, 109-111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, V. Maselli, A. Yin, M. Zavelani-Rossi, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, L. Aiello, S. De Nicola, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, "Optical properties of waveguides written by a 26 MHz stretched cavity Ti : sapphire femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Express 13, 612-620 (2005).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys.A: Mater. Sci. Process 76, 351-354 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. H. Nejadmalayeri, and P. R. Herman, "Ultrafast laser waveguide writing: Lithium Niobate and the role of circular polarization and picosecond pulse width," Opt. Lett. 31, 2987-2989 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. T. Tamaki, W. Watanabe, H. Nagai, M. Yoshida, J. Nishii, and K. Itoh, "Structural modification in fused silica by a femtosecond fiber laser at 1558 nm," Opt. Express 14, 6971-6980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. O. Hill, and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process  77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys.A: Mater. Sci. Process 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, P. Lu, R. B. Walker, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, G. Henderson, and J. Unruh, "Fiber bragg gratings made with a phase mask and 800-nm femtosecond radiation," Opt. Lett. 28, 995-997 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

1997

K. O. Hill, and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1994

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, L.

Aitchison, J. S.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Bennion, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

Bilodeau, F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process  77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chen, W.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Corkum, P. B.

Davis, K. M.

De Nicola, S.

De Silvestri, S.

Ding, H.

Dubov, M.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferraro, P.

Finizio, A.

Garcia, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys.A: Mater. Sci. Process 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golubtsov, I. S.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

Henderson, G.

Herman, P. R.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

Iyer, R.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Malo, B.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Marshall, G. D.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys.A: Mater. Sci. Process 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McCaughan, L.

L. McCaughan, and E. J. Murphy, "Influence of temperature and initial Titanium dimensions on fiber-Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide insertion loss at lambda equals 1. 3 mm," IEEE J. Quanum Electron.,  QE-19, 131-136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mehandale, M.

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill, and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, E. J.

L. McCaughan, and E. J. Murphy, "Influence of temperature and initial Titanium dimensions on fiber-Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide insertion loss at lambda equals 1. 3 mm," IEEE J. Quanum Electron.,  QE-19, 131-136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, H.

Nejadmalayeri, A. H.

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bulletin 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process  77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Note, Y.

Osellame, R.

Pierattini, G.

Polli, D.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

Rayner, D. M.

Schaffer, C. B.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bulletin 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys.A: Mater. Sci. Process 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

Smelser, C. W.

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Taccheo, S.

Tamaki, T.

Taylor, R. S.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process  77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Unruh, J.

Walker, R. B.

Watanabe, W.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process  77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Yin, A.

Yoshida, M.

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A: Mater. Sci. Process

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys.A: Mater. Sci. Process 76, 351-354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process  77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, "Bragg gratings fabricated in monomode photosensitive optical fiber by UV exposure through a phase mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1035-1037 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Martinez, M. Dubov, I. Khrushchev, and I. Bennion, "Direct writing of fibre Bragg gratings by femtosecond laser," Electron. Lett. 40, 1170-1172 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. M. Eaton, W. Chen, L. Zhang, H. Zhang, R. Iyer, J. S. Aitchison, and P. R. Herman, "Telecom-band directional coupler written with femtosecond fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2174-2176 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, "Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 73-80 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

K. O. Hill, and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

MRS Bulletin

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. B. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bulletin 31, 620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, and V. P. Kandidov, "Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol)," Opt. Commun. 225, 193-209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

L. McCaughan, and E. J. Murphy, "Influence of temperature and initial Titanium dimensions on fiber-Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide insertion loss at lambda equals 1. 3 mm," IEEE J. Quanum Electron.,  QE-19, 131-136 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Kamata, and M. Obara, "Waveguide-based Bragg filters inside bulk glasses integrated by femtosecond laser processing," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe (CLEO Europe) (IEEE, Munich, Germany, 2005), p. 492.

E. Wikszak, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, and T. Gabler, "Recording of fiber Bragg gratings with femtosecond pulses using a "point by point" technique," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2004), p. 2 pp. Vol.2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The laser-beam delivery path for photowriting of BGWs (a), the fiber-based waveguide characterization arrangement (b), and the birefringence measurement arrangement (c). ND: neutral density filter; HWP: half-wave plate; P: linear polarizer; TM: turning mirror; FC: fiber connector; OSA: optical spectrum analyzer; ASE: broadband light source; FCr: fiber collimator

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Microscope images in top view (top row) and end view (middle row) together with near-field mode profiles of 1560-nm light (bottom row), of BGWs written with 3-μJ pulse energy and 0.52-mm/s scan speed. Pulse durations are shown below. The laser is incident from the top in the side view microscope images and the mode field images.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Propagation loss of BGWs written with (a) 3-μJ pulse energy for increasing pulse duration and with (b) 100 fs, 300 fs, and 1 ps pulse durations with increasing pulse energy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission (blue) and reflection (red) spectral response of BGWs written with 3-μJ pulse energy and pulse durations of (a) 100 fs and (b) 1000 fs. .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Classification of BGWs properties as functions of laser pulse duration and energy. Small, medium, and large symbol size represent grating strengths of <10 dB, 10 to 20 dB, and >20 dB, respectively. Half-filled squares represent birefringent BGWs while solid squares correspond to a single-peaked Bragg resonance. Open squares indicate weak BGWs with large propagation losses (> 3 dB/cm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission spectra (a) of the BGW shown in Fig. 4(a) excited with linearly polarized light launched at 45° (top black line), 0° (bottom red line for TE mode), and 90° (bottom blue line for TM mode) and the waveguide birefringence dependence on pulse duration (b) for BGWs written with 6-μJ pulse energy

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Microscope images (top) and mode profiles (bottom) of BGWs written with 100-fs (a) and 1-ps (c) laser pulses together with plots of Bragg wavelength shift and transmission grating strength under various heat cycles for 100-fs (b) and 1-ps (d) written BGWs. Waveguide birefringence is also plotted in (b)

Equations (1)

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Δ n AC = λ πLη tanh 1 ( R )

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