Abstract

An axially symmetric three-dimensional finite element method model is applied to investigate the electromagnetic field distribution in the vicinity of a silver coated glass tip. Under radially polarized illumination, a strongly enhanced field located at the apex of the tip is found due to the constructive interference of surface plasmon propagating at the air/silver interface. The enhancement factor and surface plasmon resonance excitation are analyzed systematically. The optimal condition for field enhancement is investigated through the exploration of different taper angles of the tip and the illumination geometry. The numerical studies show that a significantly enhanced localized electromagnetic field with a full-width-half-maximum of 10 nm is obtainable with 632.8 nm optical excitation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye and S. kawata, "Application of tip-enhanced microscopy for nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1768-1770 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. A. Maier, "Plasmonic field enhancement and SERS in the effective mode volume picture," Opt. Express 14, 1957-1964 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. J. Yang, G. A. Lessard and S. R. Quake, "An apertureless near-field microscope for fluorescence imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 378-380 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2007

W. Chen and Q. Zhan, "Optimal plasmonic focusing with radial polarization," Proc. SPIE,  6450, 64500D (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105-3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, "Field-enhanced scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 563-579 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, "Plasmonic field enhancement and SERS in the effective mode volume picture," Opt. Express 14, 1957-1964 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Downes, D. Salter and A. Elfick, "Simulations of atomic resolution tip-enhanced optical microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 11324-11329 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye and S. kawata, "Application of tip-enhanced microscopy for nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1768-1770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan, "Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization," Opt. Express 12, 3377-3382 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

C. Sun and C. Liu, "Ultrasmall focusing spot with a long depth of focus based on polarization and phase modulation," Opt. Lett. 28, 99-101 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dorn, S Qubis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig and R. Dändliker, "Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 584-586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Fikri, D. Barchiesi, F. H'Dhili, R. Bachelot, A. Vial and P. Royer, "Modeling recent experiments of apertureless near-field optical microscopy using 2D finite element method," Opt. Commun. 221, 13-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, F . H'Dhili, D. Barchiesi et al. "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2060-2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Tarun, M. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, N. Anderson and L. Novotny, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy using a sharp metal tip," J. Microsc. 210, 234-240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhan and J. R. Leger, "Focus shaping using cylindrical vector beams," Opt. Express 10, 324-331 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000

T. J. Yang, G. A. Lessard and S. R. Quake, "An apertureless near-field microscope for fluorescence imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 378-380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Youngworth and T. G. Brown, "Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical vector beams," Opt. Express 7, 77-87 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

F. Keilmann, "Surface-polariton propagation for scanning near-field optical microscopy application," J. Microsc. 194, 567-570 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aeschimann, L.

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig and R. Dändliker, "Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 584-586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ait-Ameur, K.

Anderson, N.

A. Hartschuh, N. Anderson and L. Novotny, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy using a sharp metal tip," J. Microsc. 210, 234-240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anselmetti, D.

H. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105-3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

R. Bachelot, F . H'Dhili, D. Barchiesi et al. "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2060-2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baghdasaryan, K. S.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh.V. Nerkararyan and B. Hecht, "Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip," Opt. Commun. 253, 118-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

R. Bachelot, F . H'Dhili, D. Barchiesi et al. "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2060-2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Fikri, D. Barchiesi, F. H'Dhili, R. Bachelot, A. Vial and P. Royer, "Modeling recent experiments of apertureless near-field optical microscopy using 2D finite element method," Opt. Commun. 221, 13-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolwien, C.

H. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105-3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, "Field-enhanced scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 563-579 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandenburg, A.

H. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105-3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Chen, W.

W. Chen and Q. Zhan, "Optimal plasmonic focusing with radial polarization," Proc. SPIE,  6450, 64500D (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichester, R. J.

E. Betzig and R. J. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422-1425 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dändliker, R.

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig and R. Dändliker, "Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 584-586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daza, M.

A. Tarun, M. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denis, R.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S Qubis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downes, A.

Elfick, A.

Fikri, R.

R. Fikri, D. Barchiesi, F. H'Dhili, R. Bachelot, A. Vial and P. Royer, "Modeling recent experiments of apertureless near-field optical microscopy using 2D finite element method," Opt. Commun. 221, 13-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frey, H.

H. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105-3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gan, X.

Gu, M.

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Hartschuh, N. Anderson and L. Novotny, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy using a sharp metal tip," J. Microsc. 210, 234-240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, M.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye and S. kawata, "Application of tip-enhanced microscopy for nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1768-1770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayazawa, N.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye and S. kawata, "Application of tip-enhanced microscopy for nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1768-1770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Tarun, M. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H'Dhili, F

R. Bachelot, F . H'Dhili, D. Barchiesi et al. "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2060-2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh.V. Nerkararyan and B. Hecht, "Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip," Opt. Commun. 253, 118-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H. P.

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig and R. Dändliker, "Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 584-586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hierle, R.

Ichimura, T.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye and S. kawata, "Application of tip-enhanced microscopy for nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1768-1770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye and S. kawata, "Application of tip-enhanced microscopy for nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1768-1770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Tarun, M. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Janunts, N. A.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh.V. Nerkararyan and B. Hecht, "Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip," Opt. Commun. 253, 118-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

kawata, S.

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye and S. kawata, "Application of tip-enhanced microscopy for nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1768-1770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Tarun, M. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann, "Surface-polariton propagation for scanning near-field optical microscopy application," J. Microsc. 194, 567-570 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leger, J. R.

Lessard, G. A.

T. J. Yang, G. A. Lessard and S. R. Quake, "An apertureless near-field microscope for fluorescence imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 378-380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S Qubis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Maier, S. A.

Nerkararyan, Kh.V.

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh.V. Nerkararyan and B. Hecht, "Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip," Opt. Commun. 253, 118-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hartschuh, N. Anderson and L. Novotny, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy using a sharp metal tip," J. Microsc. 210, 234-240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Passilly, N.

Quake, S. R.

T. J. Yang, G. A. Lessard and S. R. Quake, "An apertureless near-field microscope for fluorescence imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 378-380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qubis, S

R. Dorn, S Qubis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renger, J.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roch, J.

Ros, R.

H. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105-3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salter, D.

Staufer, U.

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig and R. Dändliker, "Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 584-586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Tarun, A.

A. Tarun, M. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treussart, F.

Vaccaro, L.

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig and R. Dändliker, "Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 584-586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier: optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T. J.

T. J. Yang, G. A. Lessard and S. R. Quake, "An apertureless near-field microscope for fluorescence imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 378-380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Youngworth, K. S.

Zhan, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Tarun, M. Daza, N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye and S. Kawata, "Apertureless optical near-field fabrication using an atomic force microscope on photoresists," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3400-3402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Vaccaro, L. Aeschimann, U. Staufer, H. P. Herzig and R. Dändliker, "Propagation of the electromagnetic field in fully coated near-field optical probes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 584-586 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ichimura, N. Hayazawa, M. Hashimoto, Y. Inouye and S. kawata, "Application of tip-enhanced microscopy for nonlinear Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1768-1770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yang, G. A. Lessard and S. R. Quake, "An apertureless near-field microscope for fluorescence imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 378-380 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Bachelot, F . H'Dhili, D. Barchiesi et al. "Apertureless near-field optical microscopy: A study of the local tip field enhancement using photosensitive azobenzene-containing films," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2060-2072 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Keilmann, "Surface-polariton propagation for scanning near-field optical microscopy application," J. Microsc. 194, 567-570 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, N. Anderson and L. Novotny, "Near-field Raman spectroscopy using a sharp metal tip," J. Microsc. 210, 234-240 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Microsc. Res. Tech.

A. Bouhelier, "Field-enhanced scanning near-field optical microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 69, 563-579 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

H. Frey, C. Bolwien, A. Brandenburg, R. Ros and D. Anselmetti, "Optimized apertureless optical near-field probes with 15 nm optical resolution," Nanotechnology 17, 3105-3110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Fikri, D. Barchiesi, F. H'Dhili, R. Bachelot, A. Vial and P. Royer, "Modeling recent experiments of apertureless near-field optical microscopy using 2D finite element method," Opt. Commun. 221, 13-22 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Janunts, K. S. Baghdasaryan, Kh.V. Nerkararyan and B. Hecht, "Excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip," Opt. Commun. 253, 118-124 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

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[CrossRef]

Science

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1998) pg. 356.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (364 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (384 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of an apertureless NSOM probe structure with radial polarization input.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) 2-D electric energy density distribution at the end of probe tip. (b) 3-D electric energy density distribution at the end of probe tip.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Movie showing the propagation of (a) longitudinal, and [Media 1] (b) radial, components of the electric field. Only half of the cone is shown in this figure. [Media 2]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized electric energy density distribution at 0nm, 5nm, 10nm distances from the tip.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Electric field enhancement factor with respect to half taper angle of probe.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Electric field enhancement factor with respect to illumination spot size.

Equations (1)

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E ( r ) = r exp [ ( r w ) 2 ] e r

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