Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge the first observation of a diffusing-wave-spectroscopy signal recorded in-vivo on the ocular fundus. A modified ophthalmic microscope was developed which can acquire diffusing-wave-spectroscopy signal from the eye fundus. The diffusing-wave-spectroscopy signal was recorded in-vivo on a rabbit eye during transpupillary thermotherapy. Experimental results show the ability of the system to detect motion of the scattering sites in the ocular fundus layers during laser thermal heating.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D.J. Pine, D.A. Weitz, P.M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, ll34-ll37 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, B. Chance and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of Diffuse Photon Density Waves by Spherical Inhomogeneties within Turbid Media: Analytic Solution and Applications," Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D.A. Boas, L.E. Campbell and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F.C. MacKintosh and S. John, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media," Phys. Rev. B 40, 2382-2406 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Scweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissue-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D.A. Weitz and D.J. Pine, Dynamic Light Scattering: The Method and Some Applications (Claredon Press, Oxford,1993).
  7. A.D. Gopal and D.J. Durian, "Shear-Induced "Melting" of an Aqueous Foam," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 213, 169-178 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P.A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498-4515 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Kienle, "Non-invasive determination of muscle blood flow in the extremities from laser Doppler spectra," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1231-1244 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, " Compact tissue oximeter based on dual-wavelength multichannel time-resolved reflectance," App. Opt. 38, 3670-3680 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Rovati, F. FankhauserII, and J. Ricka, "Design and performance of a new ophthalmic instrument for dynamic light scattering in the human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2615-2620 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R.S. Newsom, J.C. McAlister, M. Saeed and J.D. McHugh, "Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation," Br J Ophthalmol. 85, 173-178 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W.S. Weinberg, R. Birngruber and B. Lorenz, "The Change in Light Reflection of the Retina During Therapeutic Laser-Photocoagulation determined by histological examination," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1481-1489 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S.E. Skipetrov and I.V. Meglinski, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in randomly inhomogeneous media with spatially localized scatterer flows," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 86, 661-665 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Physical Review E 63, 0614041-06140411 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Maret and P.E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of brownian motion of scatterers," Z Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.E. Skinpetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217,181-185 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber and R. Brinkmann, "Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0411111-04111113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M.A. Mainster and E. Reichel, "Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 359-73 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  20. R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, "Choroidal blood flow as a heat dissipating mechanism in macula," Am J Ophthalmol 89, 641-646 (1980).
    [PubMed]
  22. L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, "The stabilizing effect of the choroidal circulation on the temperature environment of the macula," Retina 2, 117-120 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. L.M. Parver C.R. Auker, D.O. Carpenter and I. Doyle, "Choroidal blood flow, II: reflexive control in the monkey," Arch Ophthalmol 100, 1327-1330 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, ""Choroidal blood flow, III: : reflexive control in human eye," Arch Ophthalmol 101, 1604-1606 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  26. T. Nagaoka, and A. Yoshida, "The effect of ocular warming on ocular circulation in healthy humans," Arch Ophthalmol 122, 1477-1481 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber and R. Brinkmann, "Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0411111-04111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Nagaoka, and A. Yoshida, "The effect of ocular warming on ocular circulation in healthy humans," Arch Ophthalmol 122, 1477-1481 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Physical Review E 63, 0614041-06140411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R.S. Newsom, J.C. McAlister, M. Saeed and J.D. McHugh, "Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation," Br J Ophthalmol. 85, 173-178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kienle, "Non-invasive determination of muscle blood flow in the extremities from laser Doppler spectra," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1231-1244 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M.A. Mainster and E. Reichel, "Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 359-73 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999 (2)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, " Compact tissue oximeter based on dual-wavelength multichannel time-resolved reflectance," App. Opt. 38, 3670-3680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A.D. Gopal and D.J. Durian, "Shear-Induced "Melting" of an Aqueous Foam," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 213, 169-178 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

P.A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498-4515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S.E. Skipetrov and I.V. Meglinski, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in randomly inhomogeneous media with spatially localized scatterer flows," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 86, 661-665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

L. Rovati, F. FankhauserII, and J. Ricka, "Design and performance of a new ophthalmic instrument for dynamic light scattering in the human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2615-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S.E. Skinpetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217,181-185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

D.A. Boas, L.E. Campbell and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Scweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissue-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, B. Chance and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of Diffuse Photon Density Waves by Spherical Inhomogeneties within Turbid Media: Analytic Solution and Applications," Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

F.C. MacKintosh and S. John, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media," Phys. Rev. B 40, 2382-2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D.J. Pine, D.A. Weitz, P.M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, ll34-ll37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

G. Maret and P.E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of brownian motion of scatterers," Z Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

W.S. Weinberg, R. Birngruber and B. Lorenz, "The Change in Light Reflection of the Retina During Therapeutic Laser-Photocoagulation determined by histological examination," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1481-1489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, ""Choroidal blood flow, III: : reflexive control in human eye," Arch Ophthalmol 101, 1604-1606 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, "The stabilizing effect of the choroidal circulation on the temperature environment of the macula," Retina 2, 117-120 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.M. Parver C.R. Auker, D.O. Carpenter and I. Doyle, "Choroidal blood flow, II: reflexive control in the monkey," Arch Ophthalmol 100, 1327-1330 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, "Choroidal blood flow as a heat dissipating mechanism in macula," Am J Ophthalmol 89, 641-646 (1980).
[PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber and R. Brinkmann, "Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0411111-04111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W.S. Weinberg, R. Birngruber and B. Lorenz, "The Change in Light Reflection of the Retina During Therapeutic Laser-Photocoagulation determined by histological examination," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1481-1489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Boas, D.A.

D.A. Boas, L.E. Campbell and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, B. Chance and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of Diffuse Photon Density Waves by Spherical Inhomogeneties within Turbid Media: Analytic Solution and Applications," Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, R.

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber and R. Brinkmann, "Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0411111-04111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, L.E.

D.A. Boas, L.E. Campbell and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaikin, P.M.

D.J. Pine, D.A. Weitz, P.M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, ll34-ll37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chance, B.

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, B. Chance and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of Diffuse Photon Density Waves by Spherical Inhomogeneties within Turbid Media: Analytic Solution and Applications," Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, " Compact tissue oximeter based on dual-wavelength multichannel time-resolved reflectance," App. Opt. 38, 3670-3680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durian, D. J.

P.A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498-4515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durian, D.J.

A.D. Gopal and D.J. Durian, "Shear-Induced "Melting" of an Aqueous Foam," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 213, 169-178 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, C.

R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elsner, H.

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber and R. Brinkmann, "Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0411111-04111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ernest, A.

R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fankhauser, F.

L. Rovati, F. FankhauserII, and J. Ricka, "Design and performance of a new ophthalmic instrument for dynamic light scattering in the human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2615-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flower, R.W.

R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A.D.

A.D. Gopal and D.J. Durian, "Shear-Induced "Melting" of an Aqueous Foam," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 213, 169-178 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, M.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Scweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissue-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herbolzheimer, E.

D.J. Pine, D.A. Weitz, P.M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, ll34-ll37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

F.C. MacKintosh and S. John, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media," Phys. Rev. B 40, 2382-2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kandulla, J.

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber and R. Brinkmann, "Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0411111-04111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kienle, A.

A. Kienle, "Non-invasive determination of muscle blood flow in the extremities from laser Doppler spectra," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1231-1244 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemieux, P.A.

P.A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498-4515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, B.

W.S. Weinberg, R. Birngruber and B. Lorenz, "The Change in Light Reflection of the Retina During Therapeutic Laser-Photocoagulation determined by histological examination," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1481-1489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

MacKintosh, F.C.

F.C. MacKintosh and S. John, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media," Phys. Rev. B 40, 2382-2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mainster, M.A.

M.A. Mainster and E. Reichel, "Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 359-73 (2000).
[PubMed]

Maret, G.

G. Maret and P.E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of brownian motion of scatterers," Z Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, R.

S.E. Skinpetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217,181-185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, J.C.

R.S. Newsom, J.C. McAlister, M. Saeed and J.D. McHugh, "Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation," Br J Ophthalmol. 85, 173-178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McHugh, J.D.

R.S. Newsom, J.C. McAlister, M. Saeed and J.D. McHugh, "Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation," Br J Ophthalmol. 85, 173-178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meglinski, I.V.

S.E. Skipetrov and I.V. Meglinski, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in randomly inhomogeneous media with spatially localized scatterer flows," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 86, 661-665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müller, G.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Scweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissue-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagaoka, T.

T. Nagaoka, and A. Yoshida, "The effect of ocular warming on ocular circulation in healthy humans," Arch Ophthalmol 122, 1477-1481 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newsom, R.S.

R.S. Newsom, J.C. McAlister, M. Saeed and J.D. McHugh, "Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation," Br J Ophthalmol. 85, 173-178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Leary, M.A.

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, B. Chance and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of Diffuse Photon Density Waves by Spherical Inhomogeneties within Turbid Media: Analytic Solution and Applications," Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pifferi, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, " Compact tissue oximeter based on dual-wavelength multichannel time-resolved reflectance," App. Opt. 38, 3670-3680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pine, D.J.

D.J. Pine, D.A. Weitz, P.M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, ll34-ll37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, E.

M.A. Mainster and E. Reichel, "Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 359-73 (2000).
[PubMed]

Ricka, J.

L. Rovati, F. FankhauserII, and J. Ricka, "Design and performance of a new ophthalmic instrument for dynamic light scattering in the human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2615-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roggan, A.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Scweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissue-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romer, S.

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Physical Review E 63, 0614041-06140411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rovati, L.

L. Rovati, F. FankhauserII, and J. Ricka, "Design and performance of a new ophthalmic instrument for dynamic light scattering in the human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2615-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saeed, M.

R.S. Newsom, J.C. McAlister, M. Saeed and J.D. McHugh, "Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation," Br J Ophthalmol. 85, 173-178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheffold, F.

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Physical Review E 63, 0614041-06140411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schurtenberger, P.

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Physical Review E 63, 0614041-06140411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scweitzer, D.

M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Scweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissue-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skinpetrov, S.E.

S.E. Skinpetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217,181-185 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skipetrov, S. E.

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Physical Review E 63, 0614041-06140411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skipetrov, S.E.

S.E. Skipetrov and I.V. Meglinski, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in randomly inhomogeneous media with spatially localized scatterer flows," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 86, 661-665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, " Compact tissue oximeter based on dual-wavelength multichannel time-resolved reflectance," App. Opt. 38, 3670-3680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Topoleski, L.D.T.

R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, " Compact tissue oximeter based on dual-wavelength multichannel time-resolved reflectance," App. Opt. 38, 3670-3680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, " Compact tissue oximeter based on dual-wavelength multichannel time-resolved reflectance," App. Opt. 38, 3670-3680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vera, M. U.

P.A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498-4515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Von Kerczek, C.

R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, W.S.

W.S. Weinberg, R. Birngruber and B. Lorenz, "The Change in Light Reflection of the Retina During Therapeutic Laser-Photocoagulation determined by histological examination," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1481-1489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D.A.

D.J. Pine, D.A. Weitz, P.M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, ll34-ll37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P.E.

G. Maret and P.E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of brownian motion of scatterers," Z Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A.G.

D.A. Boas, L.E. Campbell and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, B. Chance and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of Diffuse Photon Density Waves by Spherical Inhomogeneties within Turbid Media: Analytic Solution and Applications," Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, A.

T. Nagaoka, and A. Yoshida, "The effect of ocular warming on ocular circulation in healthy humans," Arch Ophthalmol 122, 1477-1481 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Am J Ophthalmol (1)

L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, "Choroidal blood flow as a heat dissipating mechanism in macula," Am J Ophthalmol 89, 641-646 (1980).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Opthamol. (1)

R.W. Flower, C. Von Kerczek, L. Zhu, A. Ernest, C. Eggleton and L.D.T. Topoleski, "Theoretical investigation of the role of choriocapillaris blood flow in treatment of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization associated with age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Opthamol. 132, 85-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

App. Opt. (1)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli and G. Valentini, " Compact tissue oximeter based on dual-wavelength multichannel time-resolved reflectance," App. Opt. 38, 3670-3680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arch Ophthalmol (3)

T. Nagaoka, and A. Yoshida, "The effect of ocular warming on ocular circulation in healthy humans," Arch Ophthalmol 122, 1477-1481 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.M. Parver C.R. Auker, D.O. Carpenter and I. Doyle, "Choroidal blood flow, II: reflexive control in the monkey," Arch Ophthalmol 100, 1327-1330 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, ""Choroidal blood flow, III: : reflexive control in human eye," Arch Ophthalmol 101, 1604-1606 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br J Ophthalmol. (1)

R.S. Newsom, J.C. McAlister, M. Saeed and J.D. McHugh, "Transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) for the treatment of choroidal neovascularisation," Br J Ophthalmol. 85, 173-178 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W.S. Weinberg, R. Birngruber and B. Lorenz, "The Change in Light Reflection of the Retina During Therapeutic Laser-Photocoagulation determined by histological examination," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1481-1489 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Kandulla, H. Elsner, R. Birngruber and R. Brinkmann, "Noninvasive optoacoustic online retinal temperature determination during continuous-wave laser irradiation," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 0411111-04111113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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A.D. Gopal and D.J. Durian, "Shear-Induced "Melting" of an Aqueous Foam," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 213, 169-178 (1999).
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J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

S.E. Skipetrov and I.V. Meglinski, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in randomly inhomogeneous media with spatially localized scatterer flows," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 86, 661-665 (1998).
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Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers (1)

M.A. Mainster and E. Reichel, "Transpupillary thermotherapy for age-related macular degeneration: long-pulse photocoagulation, apoptosis, and heat shock proteins," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers 31, 359-73 (2000).
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Phys. Lett. A (1)

S.E. Skinpetrov and R. Maynard, "Dynamic multiple scattering of light in multilayer turbid media," Phys. Lett. A 217,181-185 (1996).
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A. Kienle, "Non-invasive determination of muscle blood flow in the extremities from laser Doppler spectra," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1231-1244 (2001).
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M. Hammer, A. Roggan, D. Scweitzer and G. Müller, "Optical properties of ocular fundus tissue-an in vitro study using the double-integrating-sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulation," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 963-978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F.C. MacKintosh and S. John, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy and multiple scattering of light in correlated random media," Phys. Rev. B 40, 2382-2406 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P.A. Lemieux, M. U. Vera and D. J. Durian, "Diffusing-light spectroscopies beyond the diffusion limit: The role of ballistic transport and anisotropic scattering," Phys. Rev. E 57, 4498-4515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D.A. Boas, L.E. Campbell and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.J. Pine, D.A. Weitz, P.M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, ll34-ll37 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Physical Review E (1)

F. Scheffold, S. E. Skipetrov, S. Romer and P. Schurtenberger, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy of nonergodic media," Physical Review E 63, 0614041-06140411 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

D.A. Boas, M.A. O'Leary, B. Chance and A.G. Yodh, "Scattering of Diffuse Photon Density Waves by Spherical Inhomogeneties within Turbid Media: Analytic Solution and Applications," Proc. Nail. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 4887-4891 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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L.M. Parver C.R. Auker and D.O. Carpenter, "The stabilizing effect of the choroidal circulation on the temperature environment of the macula," Retina 2, 117-120 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Rovati, F. FankhauserII, and J. Ricka, "Design and performance of a new ophthalmic instrument for dynamic light scattering in the human eye," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2615-2620 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z Phys. B (1)

G. Maret and P.E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of brownian motion of scatterers," Z Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

D.A. Weitz and D.J. Pine, Dynamic Light Scattering: The Method and Some Applications (Claredon Press, Oxford,1993).

M. Bonaiuti, C. Riva and L. Rovati, "Optic nerve blood flow response to flicker can be described by a second order linear system model" in Proceeding ARVO47 (Invest Opthalmol Vis Sci, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 2006), p. 493.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photon migration through the ocular fundus tissue. The “banana shaped” light red region represents the distribution of photons, which travel through the tissue from the illumination to the collection optics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Picture of the modified ophthalmic microscope (a); the ophthalmic microscope, the 30/70 beam splitter and the custom made fiber adapters including the collimation lenses are shown. Pigmented rabbit fundus (b). The green spot represents the laser heated area of about 4 mm in diameter whereas the red spots correspond to the illumination and the collections sites of the DWS system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electric field autocorrelation functions obtained before (●), after 30 seconds (■) and at the end (Þ) of the thermal laser treatment (a) and the corresponding dimensionless mean-squared displacements of the scattering sites (b). In the short delay range (red region) the main contribution becomes from scattering sites in the choroids whereas in the long delay range (blue region) becomes from scattering sites in the retina.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diffusion coefficient of scatterers in the retina (a), diffusion coefficient of the scatterers in the choroids (b) and Gaussian mean square velocity of the scatterers in the choroids (c). Empty squares represent the data collected during the thermal laser treatment whereas the bold squares data were collected before and after the treatment. The solid curve in (a) represents the exponential fitting to data whereas the dashed curves in (b) and (c) are guide lines for the eye through the experimental points

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical properties of bovine retina at 633 nm measured by Hammer et al. [5]

Equations (10)

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μ s = ( 1 g ) μ s ,
l * = ( μ a + μ s ) 1 ,
ρ ( τ ) = k 2 Δ r 2 ( τ ) ,
g 1 ( τ ) = Γ P ( s ) e ρ ( τ ) γ ( s ) 3 l * ( s ) ds ,
P ( s ) = δ ( s s o ) ,
g 1 ( τ ) = e ρ ( τ ) i = 1 6 γ ( s i ) 3 l * ( s i ) = e ρ ( τ ) 2 i = 1 3 γ ( s i ) 3 l i * ,
ρ ( τ ) = 3 2 l 1 * l 2 * l 3 * γ 1 l 2 * l 3 * + γ 2 l 1 * l 3 * + γ 3 l 1 * l 2 * ln ( g 1 ( τ ) ) ,
ρ ( τ ) = k 2 α ( 6 D B τ ) + β ( v 2 τ 2 ) ,
g 2 ( τ ) = 1 + h ( 1 + h ) 2 g 1 ( τ ) + 1 ( 1 + h ) 2 g 1 ( τ ) 2 ,
h = I s I d

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