Abstract

We discovered a unique pattern of optical reflectance from fresh prerigor skeletal muscles, which can not be described using existing theories. A numerical fitting function was developed to quantify the equi-intensity contours of acquired reflectance images. Using this model, we studied the changes of reflectance profile during stretching and rigor process. We found that the prominent anisotropic features diminished after rigor completion. These results suggested that muscle sarcomere structures played important roles in modulating light propagation in whole muscle. When incorporating the sarcomere diffraction in a Monte Carlo model, we showed that the resulting reflectance profiles quantitatively resembled the experimental observation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. Koohmaraie, M. P. Kent, S. D. Shackelford, E. Veiseth, T. L. Wheeler, "Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship," Meat Sci. 62, 345-352 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, G. Yao, "Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse reflectance," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, G. Yao, "A photon migration method for quantifying fiber formation in meat analogs," J. Food Sci. 71, E227-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, G. Yao, "An image processing method for quantifying fiber formation in meat analogs under high moisture extrusion," J. Food Sci. 70, E450-454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue like phantoms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

L. Daddug, G.H. Weiss, A. Gandjbakhche, "Effects of anisotropic optical properties on photon migration in structural tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1361-1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Goll, V. F. Thompson, H. Li, W. Wei, J. Cong, "The calpain system," Physiol. Rev. 83, 731-801 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Koohmaraie, M. P. Kent, S. D. Shackelford, E. Veiseth, T. L. Wheeler, "Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship," Meat Sci. 62, 345-352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, R. B. Fisher, "Direct Least Square Fitting of Ellipses", IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 21, 476-480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. R. Zijp, J. J. ter Bosch, "Optical properties of bovine muscle tissue in vitro; a comparison methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3065-3081 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Marquez, L. H. Wang, S. P. Lin, J. A. Schwartz, S. L. Thompsen, "Anisotropy in the absorption and scattering spectra of chicken breast tissue," Appl. Opt. 37, 798-804 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. P. Roos, "Optical methods to evaluate the contractile function of unloaded isolated cardiac myocytes," J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 29, 11-25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

C. Hertzman, U. Olsson, E. Tornberg, "The influence of high temperature, type of muscle and electrical stimulation on the course of rigor, ageing and tenderness of beef muscles," Meat Sci. 35, 119-141 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

E. Sidick, A. Knosen, K. Xian, Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, "Rigorous analysis of light diffraction by a striated muscle Fiber," Bio. Sci. Royal Soc. 249, 247-57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. A. Thornhill, N. Thomas, N. Berovic, "Optical diffraction by well ordered muscle fibers," Eur. Biophys. 20, 87-99 (1991).

1989 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, K. P. Roos, "Theory of light diffraction by single skeletal muscle fibers," Biophys. J. 29, 509-522 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

W. A. Gillis, and R. L. Hendrickson, "The Influence of Tension on Pre-Rigor Excised Bovine Muscle," J. Food Sci.  34, 375-375 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Baskin, R. J.

E. Sidick, A. Knosen, K. Xian, Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, "Rigorous analysis of light diffraction by a striated muscle Fiber," Bio. Sci. Royal Soc. 249, 247-57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, K. P. Roos, "Theory of light diffraction by single skeletal muscle fibers," Biophys. J. 29, 509-522 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berovic, N.

R. A. Thornhill, N. Thomas, N. Berovic, "Optical diffraction by well ordered muscle fibers," Eur. Biophys. 20, 87-99 (1991).

Chance, B.

Chernomordik, V.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue like phantoms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, J. J. G. Guerero, V. Chernomordik, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Experimental evaluation of an anisotropic scattering model of a slab geometry," Opt. Lett. 29, 2518-20 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chernomordik, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3979-3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, J.

D. E. Goll, V. F. Thompson, H. Li, W. Wei, J. Cong, "The calpain system," Physiol. Rev. 83, 731-801 (2003).
[PubMed]

Daddug, L.

L. Daddug, G.H. Weiss, A. Gandjbakhche, "Effects of anisotropic optical properties on photon migration in structural tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1361-1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Delbridge, L. M. D.

L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. P. Roos, "Optical methods to evaluate the contractile function of unloaded isolated cardiac myocytes," J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 29, 11-25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudko, O. K.

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chernomordik, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3979-3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eidsath, A.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue like phantoms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Essenpreis, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farrell, T. J.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, R. B.

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, R. B. Fisher, "Direct Least Square Fitting of Ellipses", IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 21, 476-480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgibbon, A.

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, R. B. Fisher, "Direct Least Square Fitting of Ellipses", IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 21, 476-480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forster, F.K

Gandjbakhche, A.

L. Daddug, G.H. Weiss, A. Gandjbakhche, "Effects of anisotropic optical properties on photon migration in structural tissues," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 1361-1370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gandjbakhche, A. H.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue like phantoms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, J. J. G. Guerero, V. Chernomordik, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Experimental evaluation of an anisotropic scattering model of a slab geometry," Opt. Lett. 29, 2518-20 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. K. Dudko, G. H. Weiss, V. Chernomordik, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Photon migration in turbid media with anisotropic optical properties," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 3979-3989 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gerrard, D. E.

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, G. Yao, "Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse reflectance," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillis, W. A.

W. A. Gillis, and R. L. Hendrickson, "The Influence of Tension on Pre-Rigor Excised Bovine Muscle," J. Food Sci.  34, 375-375 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Goll, D. E.

D. E. Goll, V. F. Thompson, H. Li, W. Wei, J. Cong, "The calpain system," Physiol. Rev. 83, 731-801 (2003).
[PubMed]

Guerero, J. J. G.

Hassan, M.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue like phantoms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hebden, J. C.

Hendrickson, R. L.

W. A. Gillis, and R. L. Hendrickson, "The Influence of Tension on Pre-Rigor Excised Bovine Muscle," J. Food Sci.  34, 375-375 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, M.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzman, C.

C. Hertzman, U. Olsson, E. Tornberg, "The influence of high temperature, type of muscle and electrical stimulation on the course of rigor, ageing and tenderness of beef muscles," Meat Sci. 35, 119-141 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hibst, R.

Hsieh, F.

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, G. Yao, "A photon migration method for quantifying fiber formation in meat analogs," J. Food Sci. 71, E227-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, G. Yao, "An image processing method for quantifying fiber formation in meat analogs under high moisture extrusion," J. Food Sci. 70, E450-454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kent, M. P.

M. Koohmaraie, M. P. Kent, S. D. Shackelford, E. Veiseth, T. L. Wheeler, "Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship," Meat Sci. 62, 345-352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienle, A.

Knosen, A.

E. Sidick, A. Knosen, K. Xian, Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, "Rigorous analysis of light diffraction by a striated muscle Fiber," Bio. Sci. Royal Soc. 249, 247-57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koohmaraie, M.

M. Koohmaraie, M. P. Kent, S. D. Shackelford, E. Veiseth, T. L. Wheeler, "Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship," Meat Sci. 62, 345-352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, U.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

D. E. Goll, V. F. Thompson, H. Li, W. Wei, J. Cong, "The calpain system," Physiol. Rev. 83, 731-801 (2003).
[PubMed]

Lin, S. P.

Marquez, G.

Moharam, M. G.

Nickell, S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsson, U.

C. Hertzman, U. Olsson, E. Tornberg, "The influence of high temperature, type of muscle and electrical stimulation on the course of rigor, ageing and tenderness of beef muscles," Meat Sci. 35, 119-141 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

S. Nickell, M. Hermann, M. Essenpreis, T. J. Farrell, U. Kramer, M. S. Patterson, "Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin," Phys. Med. Biol. 45, 2873-2886 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, B. C. Wilson, "Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the noninvasive measurement of tissue optical properties," Appl. Opt. 28, 2331-2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilu, M.

A. Fitzgibbon, M. Pilu, R. B. Fisher, "Direct Least Square Fitting of Ellipses", IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 21, 476-480 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ranasinghesagara, J.

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, G. Yao, "A photon migration method for quantifying fiber formation in meat analogs," J. Food Sci. 71, E227-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ranasinghesagara, F. Hsieh, G. Yao, "An image processing method for quantifying fiber formation in meat analogs under high moisture extrusion," J. Food Sci. 70, E450-454 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roos, K. P.

L. M. D. Delbridge, and K. P. Roos, "Optical methods to evaluate the contractile function of unloaded isolated cardiac myocytes," J. Mol. Cell Cardiol. 29, 11-25 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, K. P. Roos, "Theory of light diffraction by single skeletal muscle fibers," Biophys. J. 29, 509-522 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russo, A.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue like phantoms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, J. A.

Shackelford, S. D.

M. Koohmaraie, M. P. Kent, S. D. Shackelford, E. Veiseth, T. L. Wheeler, "Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship," Meat Sci. 62, 345-352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidick, E.

E. Sidick, A. Knosen, K. Xian, Y. Yeh, R. J. Baskin, "Rigorous analysis of light diffraction by a striated muscle Fiber," Bio. Sci. Royal Soc. 249, 247-57 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue like phantoms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sviridov, A.

A. Sviridov, V. Chernomordik, M. Hassan, A. Russo, A. Eidsath, P. Smith, A. H. Gandjbakhche, "Intensity profiles of linearly polarized light backscattered from skin and tissue like phantoms," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 014012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ter Bosch, J. J.

J. R. Zijp, J. J. ter Bosch, "Optical properties of bovine muscle tissue in vitro; a comparison methods," Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 3065-3081 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, N.

R. A. Thornhill, N. Thomas, N. Berovic, "Optical diffraction by well ordered muscle fibers," Eur. Biophys. 20, 87-99 (1991).

Thompsen, S. L.

Thompson, V. F.

D. E. Goll, V. F. Thompson, H. Li, W. Wei, J. Cong, "The calpain system," Physiol. Rev. 83, 731-801 (2003).
[PubMed]

Thornhill, R. A.

R. A. Thornhill, N. Thomas, N. Berovic, "Optical diffraction by well ordered muscle fibers," Eur. Biophys. 20, 87-99 (1991).

Tornberg, E.

C. Hertzman, U. Olsson, E. Tornberg, "The influence of high temperature, type of muscle and electrical stimulation on the course of rigor, ageing and tenderness of beef muscles," Meat Sci. 35, 119-141 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veiseth, E.

M. Koohmaraie, M. P. Kent, S. D. Shackelford, E. Veiseth, T. L. Wheeler, "Meat tenderness and muscle growth: is there any relationship," Meat Sci. 62, 345-352 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. L. Jacques, L. Zheng, "MCML - Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues," Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47, 131-46 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. H.

Weaver, A.

J. Xia, A. Weaver, D. E. Gerrard, G. Yao, "Monitoring sarcomere structure changes in whole muscle using diffuse reflectance," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 040504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (904 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2458 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic illustration of the experimental setup. A laboratory coordinate system was set so that the x-axis is along the muscle fiber orientation. Light was incident obliquely via a 400 μm fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The reflectance images of (a) 20% Intralipid solution (2.28% concentration); (b) soy extrusion sample; (c) prerigor Sternomandibularis muscle. Images were displayed in pseudo color which represented the pixel intensity in 10-based Logarithm. All images had sizes of 2.54×2.54cm2. The graphs in the 2nd row were the fitting results for equi-intensity contours extracted at 8.0 mm from the incident point. Red dots indicated the extracted raw data points on the contour; while blue lines represented the fitting results. The obtained fitting parameters for the three media were: (a) DLSEE: B=1.01, LM: q=1.98, B=1.02; (b) DLSEE: B=1.40, LM: q=1.94, B=1.42; and (c) DLSEE: B=1.17, LM: q=1.46, B=1.21.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The dependence of fitting results on the distance between evaluation location and light incident location.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Change of reflectance profile during stretching. (a) Animated sequence (0.9 MB) of equi-intensity contour (red) with numeric fitting results (blue). The image was 2.47×2.47 cm2 in size. [Media 1] (b) Quantitative changes of fitting parameters.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Change of reflectance profile during rigor process. (a) Animated image sequence (2.5 MB). The image had a physical size of 3.05×3.05 cm2. [Media 2] (b) Fitting parameters q and B versus time. For clarity, data points measured ever hour were shown in the figure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The reflectance images of (a) prerigor Sternomandibularis muscle acquired in experiments; and (b) Monte Carlo simulation (107 photons). All images were 2.54 × 2.54 cm2. The graphs in the 2nd row show the corresponding equi-intensity contours (red dots) extracted at 10mm from the incident and the LM fitting results (blue lines). Fitting results were (a) q=1.54, B=1.15; and (b) q=1.55, B=1.13.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The dependence of fitting results (B and q) on the distance between evaluation location and light incident location: comparison between experiment (black) and simulation (red).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x = a Cos θ Cos θ p
y = b Sin θ Sin θ p
( x a ) 2 p + 1 + ( y b ) 2 p + 1 = 1
f ( x , y ) = ( x a ) q + ( y b ) q 1 = 0
B = ( b a ) 2
1 nab i = 1 n f ( x i , y i ) 2

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