Abstract

Photonic systems based on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology require the integration of passive and active photonic devices. The integration of waveguides and photodetector is one of the most important technologies. We report a Ge p-i-n photodetector that is monolithically integrated with silicon oxynitride and silicon nitride waveguides. All processes and materials are CMOS compatible and can be implemented in the current integrated circuit process technology. The small size of the devices results in low absolute dark current. The waveguide-coupled Ge devices show high efficiency (~90%) over a wide range of wavelengths well beyond the direct band gap of Ge, resulting in a responsivity of 1.08 A/W for 1550 nm light. The device speed of 7.2 GHz at 1V reverse bias is strongly affected by the capacitance of the probe pads. The high-performance of the devices at low voltage (≤ 1V) facilitates the integration with CMOS circuits.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada and M. R. Watts, "Monolithic silicon microphotonics," in Silicon Photonics: Topics in Applied Physics, L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds., (Springer, Berlin, 2004) Vol. 94.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, " Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Gunn, "10Gb/s CMOS photonics technology," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612501 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. J. Koester, L. Schares, C. L. Schow, G. Dehlinger, and R. A. John "Temperature-dependent analysis of Ge-on-SOI photodetectors and receiver," 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, (IEEE Cat. No. 06EX1276C), Ottawa, ON, Canada, Sep. 13-15 (2006), pp 179
  14. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Michel and L. C. Kimerling, "Efficient Evanescent-Wave Coupling from a SiON Waveguide to a Si p-i-n Photodetector," presented at Materials Research Society Meeting, San Franscisco, CA, 17-21 Apr. (2006). The manuscript to a journal paper is in preparation.
  15. Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gunn, "10Gb/s CMOS photonics technology," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, " Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1997

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

1993

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-Based Optoelectronics," Proceedings of IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Capellini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. O.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, D. T.

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Gaspare, L.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Evangelisti, F.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galluzi, F.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grove, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, "10Gb/s CMOS photonics technology," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C-Y

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ilday, F. O.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jongthammanurak, S.

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Koester, S. J.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, " Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.-C.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masini, G.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Q. C.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, " Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandland, J. G.

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, " Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-Based Optoelectronics," Proceedings of IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, " Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yasaitis, J.

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Cannon, J. Liu, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, "Tensile strained epitaxial Ge films on Si(100) substrates with potential application in L-band telecommunications," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  84, 906-908 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Michel, W. Giziewicz, D. Pan, K. Wada, D. Cannon, L. C. Kimerling, J. Chen, F. O. Ilday, F. X. Kartner and J. Yasaitis, "High-performance, tensile-strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a Si platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103501 (2005)
[CrossRef]

H. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, and L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Dehlinger and S. J. Koester and J. D. Schaub and J. O. Chu and Q. C. Ouyang and A. Grill, "High-Speed Germanium-on-SOI Lateral PIN photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2547-2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, " Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C-Y Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, "Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gunn, "10Gb/s CMOS photonics technology," Proc. SPIE 6125, 612501 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of IEEE

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-Based Optoelectronics," Proceedings of IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Phenom.

L. Colace, G. Masini, F. Galluzi, G. Assanto, G. Capellini, L. Di Gaspare, and F. Evangelisti, "Ge/Si(001) photodetector for near infrared light," Solid State Phenom. 54, 55-58 (1997)
[CrossRef]

Other

S. J. Koester, L. Schares, C. L. Schow, G. Dehlinger, and R. A. John "Temperature-dependent analysis of Ge-on-SOI photodetectors and receiver," 3rd IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, (IEEE Cat. No. 06EX1276C), Ottawa, ON, Canada, Sep. 13-15 (2006), pp 179

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Michel and L. C. Kimerling, "Efficient Evanescent-Wave Coupling from a SiON Waveguide to a Si p-i-n Photodetector," presented at Materials Research Society Meeting, San Franscisco, CA, 17-21 Apr. (2006). The manuscript to a journal paper is in preparation.

L. C. Kimerling, L. Dal Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada and M. R. Watts, "Monolithic silicon microphotonics," in Silicon Photonics: Topics in Applied Physics, L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds., (Springer, Berlin, 2004) Vol. 94.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic structure of a waveguide-integrated Ge p-i-n photodetector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

I-V characteristics of a 7μm × 10μm Ge p-i-n photodetector under dark environment (dotted line) and with 65μW 1550 nm illumination coupled to the detector through the waveguide (solid line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The responsivity of waveguide-coupled Ge photodetector vs. detector length. An inset is the schematic layout of waveguides and photodetector devices on the chip.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of responsivity on the wavelength. The Ge photodetector is 10μm long and coupled with a SiN waveguide.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Impulse response of a waveguide-integrated Ge photodetector at 1550nm. (b) The transfer function obtained by Fourier transform of the impulse response showing ~ 7.5 GHz 3dB frequency. The inset shows the dependence of 3dB frequency on applied reverse bias.

Equations (1)

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R = I ph P in I ph P out , ref × 10 α WG l 10 ,

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