Abstract

Refractive index and microclimate fluctuations can significantly affect free-space laser communications. To better understand these physics relationships, optical scintillometer data were collected over a near-horizontal propagation path along with in-situ rooftop measurements of temperature variance. Regression analysis of time-averaged data revealed that fairly high correlation values (i.e., R ≥ 0.80) occurred in 8 of 21 cases studied. Analysis suggests that point sensors can provide valuable information on optical turbulence for extended paths. Additional research is recommended to further explore point measurements and their relation to integrated values of optical turbulence over inhomogeneous paths.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Chiba, "Spot dancing of the laser beam propagated through the turbulent atmosphere," Appl. Opt. 10, 2456-2461 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. L. Fried, G. E. Mevers, and M. P. Keister, "Measurements of laser beam scintillation in the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 787-797 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ishimaru, "The beam wave case and remote sensing," in Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, (Springer-Verlag, 1978), pp. 129-170.
  4. G. Parry, "Measurement of atmospheric turbulence induced intensity fluctuation in a laser beam," Opt. Acta. 28, 715-728 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. L. Andreas, "Estimating Cn2 over snow and sea ice from meteorological data," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 481-495 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. I. Tatarski, The Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).
  7. M. L. Wesely, "The combined effect of temperature and humidity fluctuations on refractive index," J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 43-49 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. User’s Guide. LOA-004-xR Long Baseline Optical Anemometer and Atmospheric Turbulence Sensor. Revision 3/20/2003. Optical Scientific, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (2003). http://www.opticalscientific.com/
  10. S. F. Clifford, G. R. Ochs, and R. S. Lawrence, "Saturation of optical scintillation by strong turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am 64, 148-154 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Kaimal and J. J. Finnigan, "Principle of the sonic anemometer and thermometer," in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows: Their Structure and Measurement, Appendix 6.1, (Oxford University Press, 1994)
  12. J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Interscience Publishers, 1964).
  13. A. Tunick, "Modeling microphysical influences on optical turbulence in complex areas," Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. (2006). http://www.springerlink.com/content/dh8471650t5u4r67/.
  14. P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "A Comparison of Near-Surface Bulk and Scintillation Cn2 during EOSPACE," Proc. SPIE 3433, 77-88 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Near surface scintillation in a coastal ocean region," Proc. SPIE 3763, 230-238 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. R. Weiss-Wrana, "Turbulence statistics in littoral area," Proc. SPIE 6364, 63640F (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. R. Weiss-Wrana and L. S. Balfour, "Statistical analysis of measurements of atmospheric turbulence in different climates," Proc. SPIE 4538, 93-101 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Tunick, M. Grobaker, and R. Meyers, "Characterizing A_LOT optical turbulence intensity for free-space laser communications," Technical Report, ARL-MR-0657, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (2006). http://stinet.dtic.mil/str/guided-tr.html.
  19. M. L. Wesely and E. C. Alcarez, "Diurnal cycles of the refractive index structure function coefficient," J. Geophys. Res. 78, 6224-6232 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. E. Kunkel and D. L. Walters, "Modeling the diurnal dependence of the optical refractive index structure parameter," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10999-11004 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Tunick, "CN2 model to calculate the micrometeorological influences on the refractive index structure parameter," Environ. Modell. Softw. 18, 165-171 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001).
  24. M. J. Curley, B. H. Peterson, J. C. Wang, S. S. Sarkisov, S. S. SarkisovII, G. R. Edlin, R. A. Snow, and J. F. Rushing, "Statistical analysis of cloud-cover mitigation of optical turbulence in the boundary layer," Opt. Express 14,8929-8946 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2003 (2)

A. Tunick, "CN2 model to calculate the micrometeorological influences on the refractive index structure parameter," Environ. Modell. Softw. 18, 165-171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. R. Weiss-Wrana and L. S. Balfour, "Statistical analysis of measurements of atmospheric turbulence in different climates," Proc. SPIE 4538, 93-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Near surface scintillation in a coastal ocean region," Proc. SPIE 3763, 230-238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "A Comparison of Near-Surface Bulk and Scintillation Cn2 during EOSPACE," Proc. SPIE 3433, 77-88 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

E. L. Andreas, "Estimating Cn2 over snow and sea ice from meteorological data," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 481-495 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K. E. Kunkel and D. L. Walters, "Modeling the diurnal dependence of the optical refractive index structure parameter," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10999-11004 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. Parry, "Measurement of atmospheric turbulence induced intensity fluctuation in a laser beam," Opt. Acta. 28, 715-728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. L. Wesely, "The combined effect of temperature and humidity fluctuations on refractive index," J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 43-49 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

S. F. Clifford, G. R. Ochs, and R. S. Lawrence, "Saturation of optical scintillation by strong turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am 64, 148-154 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. L. Wesely and E. C. Alcarez, "Diurnal cycles of the refractive index structure function coefficient," J. Geophys. Res. 78, 6224-6232 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

Alcarez, E. C.

M. L. Wesely and E. C. Alcarez, "Diurnal cycles of the refractive index structure function coefficient," J. Geophys. Res. 78, 6224-6232 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Andreas, E. L.

E. L. Andreas, "Estimating Cn2 over snow and sea ice from meteorological data," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 481-495 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balfour, L. S.

K. R. Weiss-Wrana and L. S. Balfour, "Statistical analysis of measurements of atmospheric turbulence in different climates," Proc. SPIE 4538, 93-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Banta, M.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bendall, I.

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Near surface scintillation in a coastal ocean region," Proc. SPIE 3763, 230-238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "A Comparison of Near-Surface Bulk and Scintillation Cn2 during EOSPACE," Proc. SPIE 3433, 77-88 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carhart, G.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carrano, J.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, T.

Clifford, S. F.

S. F. Clifford, G. R. Ochs, and R. S. Lawrence, "Saturation of optical scintillation by strong turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am 64, 148-154 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Curley, M. J.

Davidson, K.

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Near surface scintillation in a coastal ocean region," Proc. SPIE 3763, 230-238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "A Comparison of Near-Surface Bulk and Scintillation Cn2 during EOSPACE," Proc. SPIE 3433, 77-88 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edlin, G. R.

Frederickson, P.

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Near surface scintillation in a coastal ocean region," Proc. SPIE 3763, 230-238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "A Comparison of Near-Surface Bulk and Scintillation Cn2 during EOSPACE," Proc. SPIE 3433, 77-88 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Gowens, J.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keister, M. P.

Kunkel, K. E.

K. E. Kunkel and D. L. Walters, "Modeling the diurnal dependence of the optical refractive index structure parameter," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10999-11004 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. S.

S. F. Clifford, G. R. Ochs, and R. S. Lawrence, "Saturation of optical scintillation by strong turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am 64, 148-154 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mevers, G. E.

Ochs, G. R.

S. F. Clifford, G. R. Ochs, and R. S. Lawrence, "Saturation of optical scintillation by strong turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am 64, 148-154 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Parry, G.

G. Parry, "Measurement of atmospheric turbulence induced intensity fluctuation in a laser beam," Opt. Acta. 28, 715-728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, B. H.

Rushing, J. F.

Sarkisov, S. S.

Snow, R. A.

Tunick, A.

A. Tunick, "CN2 model to calculate the micrometeorological influences on the refractive index structure parameter," Environ. Modell. Softw. 18, 165-171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vorontsov, M.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walters, D. L.

K. E. Kunkel and D. L. Walters, "Modeling the diurnal dependence of the optical refractive index structure parameter," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10999-11004 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. C.

Weiss-Wrana, K. R.

K. R. Weiss-Wrana, "Turbulence statistics in littoral area," Proc. SPIE 6364, 63640F (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Weiss-Wrana and L. S. Balfour, "Statistical analysis of measurements of atmospheric turbulence in different climates," Proc. SPIE 4538, 93-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wesely, M. L.

M. L. Wesely, "The combined effect of temperature and humidity fluctuations on refractive index," J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 43-49 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Wesely and E. C. Alcarez, "Diurnal cycles of the refractive index structure function coefficient," J. Geophys. Res. 78, 6224-6232 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Weyrauch, T.

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeisse, C.

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Near surface scintillation in a coastal ocean region," Proc. SPIE 3763, 230-238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "A Comparison of Near-Surface Bulk and Scintillation Cn2 during EOSPACE," Proc. SPIE 3433, 77-88 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Environ. Modell. Softw. (1)

A. Tunick, "CN2 model to calculate the micrometeorological influences on the refractive index structure parameter," Environ. Modell. Softw. 18, 165-171 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Estimating the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1770-1783 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Wesely, "The combined effect of temperature and humidity fluctuations on refractive index," J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 43-49 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

M. L. Wesely and E. C. Alcarez, "Diurnal cycles of the refractive index structure function coefficient," J. Geophys. Res. 78, 6224-6232 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Kunkel and D. L. Walters, "Modeling the diurnal dependence of the optical refractive index structure parameter," J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10999-11004 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am (1)

S. F. Clifford, G. R. Ochs, and R. S. Lawrence, "Saturation of optical scintillation by strong turbulence," J. Opt. Soc. Am 64, 148-154 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

D. L. Fried, G. E. Mevers, and M. P. Keister, "Measurements of laser beam scintillation in the atmosphere," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 787-797 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Andreas, "Estimating Cn2 over snow and sea ice from meteorological data," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 481-495 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta. (1)

G. Parry, "Measurement of atmospheric turbulence induced intensity fluctuation in a laser beam," Opt. Acta. 28, 715-728 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

M. Vorontsov, G. Carhart, M. Banta, T. Weyrauch, J. Gowens, and J. Carrano, "Atmospheric Laser Optics Testbed (A_LOT): Atmospheric propagation characterization, beam control, and imaging results," Proc. SPIE 5162, 37-48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "A Comparison of Near-Surface Bulk and Scintillation Cn2 during EOSPACE," Proc. SPIE 3433, 77-88 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Frederickson, K. Davidson, C. Zeisse, and I. Bendall, "Near surface scintillation in a coastal ocean region," Proc. SPIE 3763, 230-238 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Weiss-Wrana, "Turbulence statistics in littoral area," Proc. SPIE 6364, 63640F (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Weiss-Wrana and L. S. Balfour, "Statistical analysis of measurements of atmospheric turbulence in different climates," Proc. SPIE 4538, 93-101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

A. Tunick, M. Grobaker, and R. Meyers, "Characterizing A_LOT optical turbulence intensity for free-space laser communications," Technical Report, ARL-MR-0657, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (2006). http://stinet.dtic.mil/str/guided-tr.html.

User’s Guide. LOA-004-xR Long Baseline Optical Anemometer and Atmospheric Turbulence Sensor. Revision 3/20/2003. Optical Scientific, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (2003). http://www.opticalscientific.com/

V. I. Tatarski, The Effects of the Turbulent Atmosphere on Wave Propagation (Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 1971).

A. Ishimaru, "The beam wave case and remote sensing," in Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere, (Springer-Verlag, 1978), pp. 129-170.

J. C. Kaimal and J. J. Finnigan, "Principle of the sonic anemometer and thermometer," in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows: Their Structure and Measurement, Appendix 6.1, (Oxford University Press, 1994)

J. L. Lumley and H. A. Panofsky, The Structure of Atmospheric Turbulence (Interscience Publishers, 1964).

A. Tunick, "Modeling microphysical influences on optical turbulence in complex areas," Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. (2006). http://www.springerlink.com/content/dh8471650t5u4r67/.

R. B. Stull, An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the ARL A_LOT optical path

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

An aerial photo of the A_LOT propagation path (data from terrafly.com)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A_LOT data and regression analysis for 07 February 2006. In the top row of subplots are the 1 min. avg. values for C n 2 and T’. In the middle row are the 30 min. avg. values for C n 2 and the 1 min. avg. values for the variance T’2. On the bottom row is the linear regression of 30 min. avg. values of C n 2 and T’2 and the 30 min. avg. values for T’2. Note that correlation statistic (R-value) is annotated within the linear regression subplot.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Same as Fig. 3 except for 06 April 2006.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Same as Fig. 3 except for 04 June 2006.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Same as Fig. 3 except for 16 June 2006.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Summary of A_LOT regression analyses.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Several data sets with R ≥ 0.80 plotted concurrently.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Vector wind field analysis for selected case studies in February 2006.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Same as Fig. 9 except for April 2006.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Same as Fig. 9 except for June 2006.

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