Abstract

We measure the effective nonlinearity of various hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers. Our findings indicate that differences of tens of nanometers in the fiber structure result in significant changes to the power propagating in the silica glass and thus in the effective nonlinearity of the fiber. These results show that it is possible to engineer the nonlinear response of these fibers via small changes to the glass structure.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. A. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, K.W. Koch, and N. F. Borrelli, "Photonic crystal fibers: effective-index and band-gap guidance," in Photonic crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordecht, Netherlands, 2001) pp. 305-320.
  3. J. A. West, N. Venkataraman, C. M. Smith, and M. T. Gallagher, "Photonic Crystal Fibers" in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2001) pp. 582-585.
  4. C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12,835-840 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer and A. Tünnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Lim and F. W. Wise, "Control of dispersion in a femtosecond ytterbium laser by use of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 2231-2235 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. de Matos, J. Taylor, T. Hansen, K. Hansen, and J. Broeng, "All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly-dispersive air-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2832-2837 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Rusu and O. G. Okhotnikov, "All-fiber picosecond laser source based on nonlinear spectral compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. K. Nielsen, K. G. Jespersen, and S. R. Keiding, "A 158 fs 5.3 nJ fiber-laser system at 1 μm using photonic bandgap fibers for dispersion control and pulse compression," Opt. Express 14, 6063-6068 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Lægsgaard, N. A. Mortensen, J. Riishede and A. Bjarklev, "Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2046-2051 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. V. Fedotov, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Raman-resonance-enhanced composite nonlinearity of air-guided modes in hollow photonic-crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 2604-2606 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. Oberthaler and R. A. Höpfel, "Spectral narrowing of ultrashort laser pulses by self-phase modulation in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1017-1019 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282-3285 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Blömer, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Nonlinear refractive index of fs-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 14, 2151-2157 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1989).
  23. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, ed. 2, 2003).

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

2004 (5)

2003 (5)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lægsgaard, N. A. Mortensen, J. Riishede and A. Bjarklev, "Material effects in air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2046-2051 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. de Matos, J. Taylor, T. Hansen, K. Hansen, and J. Broeng, "All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly-dispersive air-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2832-2837 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer and A. Tünnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. A. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282-3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Oberthaler and R. A. Höpfel, "Spectral narrowing of ultrashort laser pulses by self-phase modulation in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1017-1019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. A. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Blömer, D.

Borrelli, N. F.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282-3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Campbell, S.

Couny, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. A. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Matos, C.

Dreisow, F.

Farr, L.

Fedotov, A. B.

Fedotov, I. V.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hand, D. P.

Hansen, K.

Hansen, T.

Höpfel, R. A.

M. Oberthaler and R. A. Höpfel, "Spectral narrowing of ultrashort laser pulses by self-phase modulation in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1017-1019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

Jespersen, K. G.

Jones, J. D. C.

Keiding, S. R.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

Koch, K. W.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282-3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lægsgaard, J.

Lim, H.

Limpert, J.

Luan, F.

Mangan, B.

Mangan, B. J.

Mason, M.

Mortensen, N. A.

Muller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, C. K.

Nolte, S.

Oberthaler, M.

M. Oberthaler and R. A. Höpfel, "Spectral narrowing of ultrashort laser pulses by self-phase modulation in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1017-1019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

M. Rusu and O. G. Okhotnikov, "All-fiber picosecond laser source based on nonlinear spectral compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, D. T.

Riishede, J.

Roberts, P.

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12,835-840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. A. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusu, M.

M. Rusu and O. G. Okhotnikov, "All-fiber picosecond laser source based on nonlinear spectral compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sabert, H.

Schreiber, T.

Shephard, J. D.

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. M.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szameit, A.

Taylor, J.

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, A.

Tünnermann, A.

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

West, J. A.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D.

Williams, D. P.

Wise, F. W.

Xiao, D.

Zellmer, H.

Zheltikov, A. M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Rusu and O. G. Okhotnikov, "All-fiber picosecond laser source based on nonlinear spectral compression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Oberthaler and R. A. Höpfel, "Spectral narrowing of ultrashort laser pulses by self-phase modulation in optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1017-1019 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (11)

C. de Matos, J. Taylor, T. Hansen, K. Hansen, and J. Broeng, "All-fiber chirped pulse amplification using highly-dispersive air-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 2832-2837 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer and A. Tünnermann, "All fiber chirped-pulse amplification system based on compression in air-guiding photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 11, 3332-3337 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and B. J. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717-723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, S. Campbell, D. Xiao, D. T. Reid, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Williams and P. J. Roberts, "Femtosecond soliton pulse delivery at 800 nm wavelength in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12,835-840 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St. J. Russell, D. P. Williams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, "Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery," Opt. Express 12, 1477-1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lim and F. W. Wise, "Control of dispersion in a femtosecond ytterbium laser by use of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 12, 2231-2235 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Blömer, A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Nonlinear refractive index of fs-laser-written waveguides in fused silica," Opt. Express 14, 2151-2157 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Nielsen, K. G. Jespersen, and S. R. Keiding, "A 158 fs 5.3 nJ fiber-laser system at 1 μm using photonic bandgap fibers for dispersion control and pulse compression," Opt. Express 14, 6063-6068 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Nonlinear optical pulse propagation in the single-cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3282-3285 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. A. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

D. C. Allan, J. A. West, J. C. Fajardo, M. T. Gallagher, K.W. Koch, and N. F. Borrelli, "Photonic crystal fibers: effective-index and band-gap guidance," in Photonic crystals and Light Localization in the 21st Century, C. M. Soukoulis, ed. (Kluwer Academic, Dordecht, Netherlands, 2001) pp. 305-320.

J. A. West, N. Venkataraman, C. M. Smith, and M. T. Gallagher, "Photonic Crystal Fibers" in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (IEEE, 2001) pp. 582-585.

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R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, ed. 2, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SEM image of Corning fiber I. All three fibers characterized in this work have this same general structure. Closeup SEM of air-core wall of Corning fiber II (b) and Corning fiber III (c). Indicated dimensions have an error of ±5 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup showing the beam from the femtosecond optical parametric amplifier attenuated by neutral density filters (ND) and then coupled in and out of the hollow-core photonic band-gap fiber (HC-PBGF) by two 10× aspheric objectives (AO).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Output spectra for energies of pulses propagating in air and vacuum in the HC-800-01 fiber that produces nearly identical spectral shapes. (b) Output spectrum for a pulse with an energy of 2 μJ propagating in vacuum for Corning fiber I.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Several iterations are shown to produce the best numerical fit (red) for the experimental output spectrum (black) for a 2.054-μJ pulse energy in Corning fiber I [(a)-(c)]. In addition, we show the numerical best fit (red) and experimental (black) output autocorrelation (d).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output pulse spectral broadening per unit fiber length for Corning fiber I (circles) and fiber II (squares).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Effective fiber nonlinearity γeff , for various fibers.

Equations (1)

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L NL = λ 2 πn 2 I o silica = λ 2 πn 2 η I o core = 1 γ eff P o core .

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