Abstract

Numerical methods for simulating etching and deposition processes were combined with electromagnetic modeling to design guided-mode resonance (GMR) filters with accurately positioned resonances and study how fabrication affects their optical behavior. GMR filters are highly sensitive to structural deformations that arise during fabrication, making accurate placement of their resonances very difficult without active tuning while in operation. Inspired by how thin film resistors are trimmed during fabrication, the numerical tools were used to design a method for adjusting position of GMR resonances at the time of fabrication.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. W. Wood,Proc. Roy. Soc (London) XVIII, 396 (1902.
  2. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag.14, 60 (1907).
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  4. L. Mashev and E. Popov, “Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings,” Opt. Commun 55,377–380 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Niederer, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, T. Overstolz, W. Noell, and F. N., “Resonant grating filter for a MEMS based add-drop device at oblique incidence,” IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS, 99–100 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. A. Cox, R. A. Morgan, R. Wilke, and C. Ford, “Guided-mode grating resonant filter for VCSEL applications,” Proc. SPIE 3291,70–76 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett 61,1022–1024 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. M. Norton, “Resonant grating structures: theory, design, and applications,” PhD dissertation, Rochester, New York: University of Rochester, 1997.
  9. M. T. Gale, K. Knop, and R. Morf, “Zero-order diffractive microstructures for security applications,” Proc. SPIE Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems 1210,83–89 (1990).
  10. J. E. Roman and K. A. Winick, “Waveguide Grating Filters for Dispersion Compensation and Pulse Compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 29,975–982 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Vallius, P. Vahimaa, and J. Turunen, “Pulse deformations at guided-mode resonance filters,” Opt. Express 10,840–843 (2002). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-16-840
    [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt 32,2606–2613 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. S. Bagby, and M. G. Moharam, “Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7,1470–1474 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  15. C. Zuffada, T. Cwik, and C. Ditchman, “Synthesis of novel all-dielectric grating filters using genetic algorithms,” presented at Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 1997, Montreal, Canada, 1997.
  16. A. Fehrembach, D. Maystre, and A. Sentenac, “Phenomenological theory of filtering by resonant dielectric gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,1136–1144 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Fehrembach and A. Sentenac, “Study of waveguide grating eigenmodes for unpolarized filtering applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20,481–488 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Mizutani, H. Kikuta, K. Nakajima, and K. Iwata, “Nonpolarizing guided-mode resonant grating filter for oblique incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,1261–1266 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Experimental demonstration of resonant anomalies in diffraction from two-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Lett 21,549–551 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. T. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Resonant scattering from two-dimensional gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13,993Morris1005 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. Lacour, P. Plumey, G. Granet, and A. M. Ravaud, “Resonant waveguide grating: Analysis of polarization independent filtering,” Opt. Quantum Electron 33,451–470 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. P. Herzig, Micro-optics: Elements, systems and applications, (Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, PA1998).
  23. R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, Second ed., (IEE Press, New York, NY, 1991).
  24. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, (Academic Press, New York, NY, 2000.
  25. Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Doubly resonant single-layer bandpass optical filters,” Opt. Lett 29,1135–1137 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Kawakami, T. Kawashima, and T. Sato, “Mechanism of shape formation of three-dimensional periodic nanostructures by bias sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett 74,463–465 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. A. Sethian, “Curvature and the Evolution of Fronts,” Comm. in Math. Phys 54,425–499 (1985).
  28. S. Tazawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Saito, “A General Characterization and Simulation Method for Deposition and Etching Technology,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf 5,27–33 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. A. Sethian, “An Analysis of Flame Propagation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1982.
  30. J. A. Sethian, Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods: Evolving interfaces in computational geometry, fluid mechanics, computer vision, and materials science, (Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1999).
  31. R. C. Rumpf, “Design and optimization of nano-optical elements by coupling fabrication to optical behavior”, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 2006.
  32. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, and D. A. Pommet, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12,1068–1076 (1995).
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2006 (1)

R. C. Rumpf, “Design and optimization of nano-optical elements by coupling fabrication to optical behavior”, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 2006.

2004 (1)

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Doubly resonant single-layer bandpass optical filters,” Opt. Lett 29,1135–1137 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

D. Lacour, P. Plumey, G. Granet, and A. M. Ravaud, “Resonant waveguide grating: Analysis of polarization independent filtering,” Opt. Quantum Electron 33,451–470 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Mizutani, H. Kikuta, K. Nakajima, and K. Iwata, “Nonpolarizing guided-mode resonant grating filter for oblique incidence,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,1261–1266 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, T. A. Maldonado, P. P. Young, and T. R. Holzheimer, “Dielectric Frequency-Selective Structures Incorporating Waveguide Gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech 48,553–561 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, (Academic Press, New York, NY, 2000.

1999 (1)

S. Kawakami, T. Kawashima, and T. Sato, “Mechanism of shape formation of three-dimensional periodic nanostructures by bias sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett 74,463–465 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. A. Cox, R. A. Morgan, R. Wilke, and C. Ford, “Guided-mode grating resonant filter for VCSEL applications,” Proc. SPIE 3291,70–76 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

S. M. Norton, “Resonant grating structures: theory, design, and applications,” PhD dissertation, Rochester, New York: University of Rochester, 1997.

C. Zuffada, T. Cwik, and C. Ditchman, “Synthesis of novel all-dielectric grating filters using genetic algorithms,” presented at Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 1997, Montreal, Canada, 1997.

1996 (2)

S. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Experimental demonstration of resonant anomalies in diffraction from two-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Lett 21,549–551 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Resonant scattering from two-dimensional gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13,993Morris1005 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

1993 (2)

J. E. Roman and K. A. Winick, “Waveguide Grating Filters for Dispersion Compensation and Pulse Compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 29,975–982 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt 32,2606–2613 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett 61,1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Tazawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Saito, “A General Characterization and Simulation Method for Deposition and Etching Technology,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf 5,27–33 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

S. S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. S. Bagby, and M. G. Moharam, “Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7,1470–1474 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, and R. Morf, “Zero-order diffractive microstructures for security applications,” Proc. SPIE Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems 1210,83–89 (1990).

1985 (2)

L. Mashev and E. Popov, “Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings,” Opt. Commun 55,377–380 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. A. Sethian, “Curvature and the Evolution of Fronts,” Comm. in Math. Phys 54,425–499 (1985).

1982 (1)

J. A. Sethian, “An Analysis of Flame Propagation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1982.

1962 (1)

A. Hessel and A. Oliner, “Wood’s anomalies and leaky waves,” presented at 1962 Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory and Antennas, Copenhagan, Denmark, 1962.

Bagby, J. S.

Collin, R. E.

R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, Second ed., (IEE Press, New York, NY, 1991).

Cox, J. A.

J. A. Cox, R. A. Morgan, R. Wilke, and C. Ford, “Guided-mode grating resonant filter for VCSEL applications,” Proc. SPIE 3291,70–76 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cwik, T.

C. Zuffada, T. Cwik, and C. Ditchman, “Synthesis of novel all-dielectric grating filters using genetic algorithms,” presented at Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 1997, Montreal, Canada, 1997.

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Doubly resonant single-layer bandpass optical filters,” Opt. Lett 29,1135–1137 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditchman, C.

C. Zuffada, T. Cwik, and C. Ditchman, “Synthesis of novel all-dielectric grating filters using genetic algorithms,” presented at Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 1997, Montreal, Canada, 1997.

Fehrembach, A.

Ford, C.

J. A. Cox, R. A. Morgan, R. Wilke, and C. Ford, “Guided-mode grating resonant filter for VCSEL applications,” Proc. SPIE 3291,70–76 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, and R. Morf, “Zero-order diffractive microstructures for security applications,” Proc. SPIE Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems 1210,83–89 (1990).

Gaylord, T. K.

Granet, G.

D. Lacour, P. Plumey, G. Granet, and A. M. Ravaud, “Resonant waveguide grating: Analysis of polarization independent filtering,” Opt. Quantum Electron 33,451–470 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grann, E. B.

Herzig, H. P.

G. Niederer, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, T. Overstolz, W. Noell, and F. N., “Resonant grating filter for a MEMS based add-drop device at oblique incidence,” IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS, 99–100 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. P. Herzig, Micro-optics: Elements, systems and applications, (Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, PA1998).

Hessel, A.

A. Hessel and A. Oliner, “Wood’s anomalies and leaky waves,” presented at 1962 Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory and Antennas, Copenhagan, Denmark, 1962.

Holzheimer, T. R.

S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, T. A. Maldonado, P. P. Young, and T. R. Holzheimer, “Dielectric Frequency-Selective Structures Incorporating Waveguide Gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech 48,553–561 (2000).
[Crossref]

Iwata, K.

Kawakami, S.

S. Kawakami, T. Kawashima, and T. Sato, “Mechanism of shape formation of three-dimensional periodic nanostructures by bias sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett 74,463–465 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, T.

S. Kawakami, T. Kawashima, and T. Sato, “Mechanism of shape formation of three-dimensional periodic nanostructures by bias sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett 74,463–465 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kikuta, H.

Knop, K.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, and R. Morf, “Zero-order diffractive microstructures for security applications,” Proc. SPIE Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems 1210,83–89 (1990).

Lacour, D.

D. Lacour, P. Plumey, G. Granet, and A. M. Ravaud, “Resonant waveguide grating: Analysis of polarization independent filtering,” Opt. Quantum Electron 33,451–470 (2001).
[Crossref]

Magnusson, R.

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Doubly resonant single-layer bandpass optical filters,” Opt. Lett 29,1135–1137 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, T. A. Maldonado, P. P. Young, and T. R. Holzheimer, “Dielectric Frequency-Selective Structures Incorporating Waveguide Gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech 48,553–561 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt 32,2606–2613 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett 61,1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. S. Bagby, and M. G. Moharam, “Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7,1470–1474 (1990).
[Crossref]

Maldonado, T. A.

S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, T. A. Maldonado, P. P. Young, and T. R. Holzheimer, “Dielectric Frequency-Selective Structures Incorporating Waveguide Gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech 48,553–561 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mashev, L.

L. Mashev and E. Popov, “Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings,” Opt. Commun 55,377–380 (1985).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

S. Tazawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Saito, “A General Characterization and Simulation Method for Deposition and Etching Technology,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf 5,27–33 (1992).
[Crossref]

Maystre, D.

Mizutani, A.

Moharam, M. G.

Morf, R.

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, and R. Morf, “Zero-order diffractive microstructures for security applications,” Proc. SPIE Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems 1210,83–89 (1990).

Morgan, R. A.

J. A. Cox, R. A. Morgan, R. Wilke, and C. Ford, “Guided-mode grating resonant filter for VCSEL applications,” Proc. SPIE 3291,70–76 (1998).
[Crossref]

Morris, G. M.

S. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Experimental demonstration of resonant anomalies in diffraction from two-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Lett 21,549–551 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Resonant scattering from two-dimensional gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13,993Morris1005 (1996).
[Crossref]

N., F.

G. Niederer, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, T. Overstolz, W. Noell, and F. N., “Resonant grating filter for a MEMS based add-drop device at oblique incidence,” IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS, 99–100 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, K.

Niederer, G.

G. Niederer, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, T. Overstolz, W. Noell, and F. N., “Resonant grating filter for a MEMS based add-drop device at oblique incidence,” IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS, 99–100 (2002).
[Crossref]

Noell, W.

G. Niederer, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, T. Overstolz, W. Noell, and F. N., “Resonant grating filter for a MEMS based add-drop device at oblique incidence,” IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS, 99–100 (2002).
[Crossref]

Norton, S. M.

S. M. Norton, “Resonant grating structures: theory, design, and applications,” PhD dissertation, Rochester, New York: University of Rochester, 1997.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, (Academic Press, New York, NY, 2000.

Oliner, A.

A. Hessel and A. Oliner, “Wood’s anomalies and leaky waves,” presented at 1962 Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory and Antennas, Copenhagan, Denmark, 1962.

Overstolz, T.

G. Niederer, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, T. Overstolz, W. Noell, and F. N., “Resonant grating filter for a MEMS based add-drop device at oblique incidence,” IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS, 99–100 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peng, S.

S. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Experimental demonstration of resonant anomalies in diffraction from two-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Lett 21,549–551 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, S. T.

Plumey, P.

D. Lacour, P. Plumey, G. Granet, and A. M. Ravaud, “Resonant waveguide grating: Analysis of polarization independent filtering,” Opt. Quantum Electron 33,451–470 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pommet, D. A.

Popov, E.

L. Mashev and E. Popov, “Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings,” Opt. Commun 55,377–380 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ravaud, A. M.

D. Lacour, P. Plumey, G. Granet, and A. M. Ravaud, “Resonant waveguide grating: Analysis of polarization independent filtering,” Opt. Quantum Electron 33,451–470 (2001).
[Crossref]

Roman, J. E.

J. E. Roman and K. A. Winick, “Waveguide Grating Filters for Dispersion Compensation and Pulse Compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 29,975–982 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rumpf, R. C.

R. C. Rumpf, “Design and optimization of nano-optical elements by coupling fabrication to optical behavior”, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 2006.

Saito, K.

S. Tazawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Saito, “A General Characterization and Simulation Method for Deposition and Etching Technology,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf 5,27–33 (1992).
[Crossref]

Salt, M.

G. Niederer, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, T. Overstolz, W. Noell, and F. N., “Resonant grating filter for a MEMS based add-drop device at oblique incidence,” IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS, 99–100 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

S. Kawakami, T. Kawashima, and T. Sato, “Mechanism of shape formation of three-dimensional periodic nanostructures by bias sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett 74,463–465 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sentenac, A.

Sethian, J. A.

J. A. Sethian, “Curvature and the Evolution of Fronts,” Comm. in Math. Phys 54,425–499 (1985).

J. A. Sethian, “An Analysis of Flame Propagation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1982.

J. A. Sethian, Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods: Evolving interfaces in computational geometry, fluid mechanics, computer vision, and materials science, (Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1999).

Tazawa, S.

S. Tazawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Saito, “A General Characterization and Simulation Method for Deposition and Etching Technology,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf 5,27–33 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tibuleac, S.

S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, T. A. Maldonado, P. P. Young, and T. R. Holzheimer, “Dielectric Frequency-Selective Structures Incorporating Waveguide Gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech 48,553–561 (2000).
[Crossref]

Turunen, J.

Vahimaa, P.

Vallius, T.

Wang, S. S.

S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt 32,2606–2613 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett 61,1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. S. Wang, R. Magnusson, J. S. Bagby, and M. G. Moharam, “Guided-mode resonances in planar dielectric-layer diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 7,1470–1474 (1990).
[Crossref]

Wilke, R.

J. A. Cox, R. A. Morgan, R. Wilke, and C. Ford, “Guided-mode grating resonant filter for VCSEL applications,” Proc. SPIE 3291,70–76 (1998).
[Crossref]

Winick, K. A.

J. E. Roman and K. A. Winick, “Waveguide Grating Filters for Dispersion Compensation and Pulse Compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 29,975–982 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood,Proc. Roy. Soc (London) XVIII, 396 (1902.

Young, P. P.

S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, T. A. Maldonado, P. P. Young, and T. R. Holzheimer, “Dielectric Frequency-Selective Structures Incorporating Waveguide Gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech 48,553–561 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zuffada, C.

C. Zuffada, T. Cwik, and C. Ditchman, “Synthesis of novel all-dielectric grating filters using genetic algorithms,” presented at Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 1997, Montreal, Canada, 1997.

Appl. Opt (1)

S. S. Wang and R. Magnusson, “Theory and applications of guided-mode resonance filters,” Appl. Opt 32,2606–2613 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett (2)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, “New principle for optical filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett 61,1022–1024 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Kawakami, T. Kawashima, and T. Sato, “Mechanism of shape formation of three-dimensional periodic nanostructures by bias sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett 74,463–465 (1999).
[Crossref]

Comm. in Math. Phys (1)

J. A. Sethian, “Curvature and the Evolution of Fronts,” Comm. in Math. Phys 54,425–499 (1985).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

J. E. Roman and K. A. Winick, “Waveguide Grating Filters for Dispersion Compensation and Pulse Compression,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 29,975–982 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech (1)

S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, T. A. Maldonado, P. P. Young, and T. R. Holzheimer, “Dielectric Frequency-Selective Structures Incorporating Waveguide Gratings,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech 48,553–561 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf (1)

S. Tazawa, S. Matsuo, and K. Saito, “A General Characterization and Simulation Method for Deposition and Etching Technology,” IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf 5,27–33 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (1)

G. Niederer, M. Salt, H. P. Herzig, T. Overstolz, W. Noell, and F. N., “Resonant grating filter for a MEMS based add-drop device at oblique incidence,” IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS, 99–100 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

Opt. Commun (1)

L. Mashev and E. Popov, “Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings,” Opt. Commun 55,377–380 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett (2)

S. Peng and G. M. Morris, “Experimental demonstration of resonant anomalies in diffraction from two-dimensional gratings,” Opt. Lett 21,549–551 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding and R. Magnusson, “Doubly resonant single-layer bandpass optical filters,” Opt. Lett 29,1135–1137 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Quantum Electron (1)

D. Lacour, P. Plumey, G. Granet, and A. M. Ravaud, “Resonant waveguide grating: Analysis of polarization independent filtering,” Opt. Quantum Electron 33,451–470 (2001).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. A. Cox, R. A. Morgan, R. Wilke, and C. Ford, “Guided-mode grating resonant filter for VCSEL applications,” Proc. SPIE 3291,70–76 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems (1)

M. T. Gale, K. Knop, and R. Morf, “Zero-order diffractive microstructures for security applications,” Proc. SPIE Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems 1210,83–89 (1990).

Other (11)

S. M. Norton, “Resonant grating structures: theory, design, and applications,” PhD dissertation, Rochester, New York: University of Rochester, 1997.

R. W. Wood,Proc. Roy. Soc (London) XVIII, 396 (1902.

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag.14, 60 (1907).

A. Hessel and A. Oliner, “Wood’s anomalies and leaky waves,” presented at 1962 Symposium on Electromagnetic Theory and Antennas, Copenhagan, Denmark, 1962.

C. Zuffada, T. Cwik, and C. Ditchman, “Synthesis of novel all-dielectric grating filters using genetic algorithms,” presented at Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 1997, Montreal, Canada, 1997.

H. P. Herzig, Micro-optics: Elements, systems and applications, (Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, PA1998).

R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, Second ed., (IEE Press, New York, NY, 1991).

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, (Academic Press, New York, NY, 2000.

J. A. Sethian, “An Analysis of Flame Propagation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 1982.

J. A. Sethian, Level Set Methods and Fast Marching Methods: Evolving interfaces in computational geometry, fluid mechanics, computer vision, and materials science, (Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1999).

R. C. Rumpf, “Design and optimization of nano-optical elements by coupling fabrication to optical behavior”, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 2006.

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: AVI (539 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (524 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Regions of resonance for a guided-mode resonance filter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Block diagram of string method.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Three main mechanisms for modeling sputter deposition and etching.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Concept and geometry of rigorous coupled-wave analysis.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

GMR tuning concept.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reflectance of “perfect” GMR filter.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Tuning response of “perfect” GMR filter.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Tune by deposition process: An initial grating is formed onto a substrate. As material is deposited onto the grating surface, thickness of the GMR core increases pushing resonance to a longer wavelength.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(545 kb) Movie showing how reflection spectrum evolves during additive tuning process. [Media 1]

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Tune by etching process: An initial core layer is deposited onto a bare substrate. A grating is formed into the core using a transfer etch process and mask is removed. Subsequent etching reduces thickness of the GMR core pushing resonance to a shorter wavelength.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(389 kb) Movie showing how reflection spectrum evolves during subtractive tuning process. [Media 2]

Equations (16)

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n g sin θ m = n 1 sin θ inc m λ 0 Λ
max [ n 1 , n 2 ] β m k 0 n g
β m k 0 = n g sin θ m
max [ n 1 , n 2 ] n 1 sin θ inc m λ 0 Λ n g
X = [ x 1 x 2 x N ]
R = [ r 1 r 2 r N ]
X ( t + Δ t ) = X ( t ) + Δ t · R ( t )
r dep ( x i ) = d 90° + 90° V T x i ϕ cos n ( ϕ ) cos ( ϕ θ ) 90° + 90° cos n + 1 ( ϕ )
r etch ( x i ) = b cos θ + c sin 2 θ cos θ
r redep ( x i ) = e 2 90° + 90° V S x i ϕ cos ( ϕ θ )
r ( x i ) = [ r dep ( x i ) + r etch ( x i ) + r redep ( x i ) ] n ̂ ( x i )
E i ( z ) = Σ m Σ n S i m , n exp [ j ( k x m , n x + k y m , n y ) ]
ε i x y = Σ m Σ n a i m , n exp [ j ( G x m , n x + G y m , n y ) ]
a i m , n = 1 A A ε i x y exp [ j ( G x m , n x + G y m , n y ) ] dA
k m , n = k inc G m , n
G m , n = m K 1 + n K 2

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