Abstract

Nanoscale features as small as 65 ± 5 nm have been formed reproducibly by using 520 nm femtosecond pulsed excitation of a 4,4’-bis(di-n-butylamino)biphenyl chromophore to initiate crosslinking in a triacrylate blend. Dosimetry studies of the photoinduced polymerization were performed on chromophores with sizable two-photon absorption cross-sections at 520 and 730 nm. These studies show that sub-diffraction limited line widths are obtained in both cases with the lines written at 520 nm being smaller. Three-dimensional multiphoton lithography at 520 nm has been used to fabricate polymeric woodpile photonic crystal structures that show stop bands in the near-infrared spectral region.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2005

K. Takada, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerizationbased laser nanowriting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 - 071121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Galajda, and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 - 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 - 698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

Alain, V.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Amari, N.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S.

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andraud, C.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anemian, R.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baldeck, P.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, S.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, C. A.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beljonne, D.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Braun, K.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braun, K. L.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bredas, J. L.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bur, J.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cammack, J. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campagnola, P. J.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

Cronauer, C.

Cumpston, B. H.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Domann, G.

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Egbert, A.

Ehrlich, J. E.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Epling, G. A.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L. L.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. G.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fröhlich, L.

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda, and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 - 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, S. L.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
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Gu, M.

Heikal, A. A.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
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M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
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S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
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B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
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S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
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S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
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Houbertz, R.

Hu, Z.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
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K. Takada, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerizationbased laser nanowriting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 - 071121 (2005).
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Kuebler, S. M.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
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B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. R.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I. Y. S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
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Lemercier, G.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martineau, C.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCord-Maughon, D.

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
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Meyer-Friedrichsen, T.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
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Miwa, M.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
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Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mulatier, J.-C.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ober, C. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda, and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 - 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

Parker, T. C.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
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Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004).
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Perry, J. W.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pond, S. J. K.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popall, M.

Qin, J.

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockel, H.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, J.

Seet, K. K.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

Sigalas, M. M.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. K.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stellacci, F.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stephan, O.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

Sun, H.-B.

K. Takada, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerizationbased laser nanowriting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 - 071121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 - 698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerizationbased laser nanowriting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 - 071121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 - 698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 - 698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thayumanavan, S.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Von Freymann, G.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, I.

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenseleers, W.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.-L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yu, T.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubrzycki, W.

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Galajda, and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 - 251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerizationbased laser nanowriting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 - 071121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

CR Chimie

G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol.

S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 - 698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Rumi, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (unpublished results, 2006).

K. Takada, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "The study on spatial resolution in two-photon induced polymerization," Proc. SPIE 6110, 61100A-1 - 61100A-7 (2006).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Molecular structures of photoinitiators used in this work, DABP (left) and DABSB (right).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic illustrations of both types of support structures used for dosimetry studies: (a) rectangular solid walls and (b) rectangular “stack of logs” structure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM overview images of lines fabricated at threshold powers with (a) 730 nm excitation using DABSB-triacrylate resin and with (b) 520 nm excitation using DABP-triacrylate resin. Aerial views of support structures described in Fig. 2 are clearly visible in each image. Magnified images of a single line are shown below their respective overview images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dosimetry studies on lines fabricated with 730 nm excitation using DABSB-triacrylate resin. Measured (a) line widths and (b) calculated voxel volumes (see text) as a function of inverse scan speed for different excitation powers. Error bars are given by standard deviations of experimentally measured line widths. The solid lines in (a) are guides for the eye whereas in (b) they represent fittings according to Eq. (1) as described in the text.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Polymer growth rates (as determined in text) derived from the dosimetry studies shown in Fig. 4(b) as a function of excitation power. The experimentally determined values are given as filled black squares and the red solid line indicates a fitting according to Eq. 2. The fitting parameters are: C = 1770, P th = 0.66, and N = 3.14.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dosimetry studies on lines fabricated with 520 nm excitation using the DABP-triacrylate resin. Error bars are given by standard deviations of experimentally measured line widths. The solid lines are guides for the eye.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SEM overview images of woodpile-type PC structures fabricated with 520 nm excitation at (a) 0.60 μW and at (b) 0.45 μW using the DABP-triacrylate resin. Fabrication parameters of PCs were: lateral line-to-line spacings of (a) 0.85 μm and (b) 0.5 μ m, axial layer-to-layer spacings of ~0.34 μ m, and scan speeds of 60 μm/sec. Magnified images of the PC structures are shown below their respective overview images.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transmission spectra of PBG structure fabricated with 520 nm excitation at 0.60 μW using the DABP-triacrylate resin. The dotted lines indicate experimentally observed spectra while the solid lines are merely guides for the eye. Observed stop bands have been indicated by appropriately colored arrows. Fabrication parameters of PBG were: average line width of 75 nm, lateral line-to-line spacing of 0.5 μ m, axial layer-to-layer spacing of ~0.34 μ m, scan speed of 60 μm/sec.

Equations (2)

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V = A [ 1 exp ( B∙t ) ]
R p = C∙ P P th N 2 ,

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