Abstract

A novel all-optical frequency up-converter utilizing four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The frequency up-converter converted an optical intermediate frequency (IF) signal (fIF = 2.5 GHz) to an optical radio frequency (RF) signal (fRF = 35 and 40 GHz) through mixing with an optical local oscillator (LO) signal (fLO = 37.5 GHz). The up-converter showed positive conversion efficiency of 5.77 dB for the optical IF power of -22 dBm and the optical LO power of -13 dBm. This scheme showed broad bandwidths with respect to both LO and IF frequencies. The up-converter showed a phase noise of -84.5 dBc/Hz for the LO frequency of 37.5 GHz (fLO) and the offset frequency of 10 kHz after the frequency up-conversion.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, "A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, and D. Richards, "Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 417-427 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Optical singlesideband modulator for broad-band subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y.-K. Seo, C.-S. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, "All-optical signal up-conversion for radio-over-fiber applications using cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1448-1450 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-J. Song, J. S. Lee, and J.-I. Song, "Signal Up-Conversion by Using a Cross-Phase-Modulation in All-Optical SOA-MZI Wavelength Converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Connely, Semiconductor optical amplifiers (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002).
  8. G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, D. F. Geraghty, K. J. Vahala, and U. Koren, "Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by Dual-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in a Strained Semiconductor Optical Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1633-1635 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. D’ Ottavi, F. Martelli, P. Spano, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, R. Dall’ Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Very high efficiency four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor traveling-wave amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2186-2188 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Giuliani and D. D’Alessandro, "Noise Analysis of Conventional and Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1256-1263 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Wu, H. Fan, and N. K. Dutta, "Small signal analysis of frequency response of four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 2076-2078 (2000).

2004 (1)

H.-J. Song, J. S. Lee, and J.-I. Song, "Signal Up-Conversion by Using a Cross-Phase-Modulation in All-Optical SOA-MZI Wavelength Converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Optical singlesideband modulator for broad-band subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y.-K. Seo, C.-S. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, "All-optical signal up-conversion for radio-over-fiber applications using cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1448-1450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Hui, B. Zhu, R. Huang, C. T. Allen, K. R. Demarest, and D. Richards, "Subcarrier multiplexing for high-speed optical transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 417-427 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

G. Giuliani and D. D’Alessandro, "Noise Analysis of Conventional and Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 1256-1263 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Fan, and N. K. Dutta, "Small signal analysis of frequency response of four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 2076-2078 (2000).

1998 (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, "A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, D. F. Geraghty, K. J. Vahala, and U. Koren, "Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by Dual-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in a Strained Semiconductor Optical Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1633-1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. D’ Ottavi, F. Martelli, P. Spano, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, R. Dall’ Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Very high efficiency four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor traveling-wave amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2186-2188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. T.

Benito, D.

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Optical singlesideband modulator for broad-band subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C.-S.

Y.-K. Seo, C.-S. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, "All-optical signal up-conversion for radio-over-fiber applications using cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1448-1450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.-Y.

Y.-K. Seo, C.-S. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, "All-optical signal up-conversion for radio-over-fiber applications using cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1448-1450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D’ Ottavi, A.

A. D’ Ottavi, F. Martelli, P. Spano, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, R. Dall’ Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Very high efficiency four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor traveling-wave amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2186-2188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Alessandro, D.

D’Ottavi, A.

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dall’Ara, R.

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Demarest, K. R.

Dutta, N. K.

C. Wu, H. Fan, and N. K. Dutta, "Small signal analysis of frequency response of four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 2076-2078 (2000).

Eckner, J.

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H.

C. Wu, H. Fan, and N. K. Dutta, "Small signal analysis of frequency response of four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 2076-2078 (2000).

Geraghty, D. F.

G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, D. F. Geraghty, K. J. Vahala, and U. Koren, "Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by Dual-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in a Strained Semiconductor Optical Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1633-1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

Guekos, G.

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, R.

Hui, R.

Hunziker, G.

G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, D. F. Geraghty, K. J. Vahala, and U. Koren, "Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by Dual-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in a Strained Semiconductor Optical Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1633-1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Iannone, E.

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, D. F. Geraghty, K. J. Vahala, and U. Koren, "Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by Dual-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in a Strained Semiconductor Optical Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1633-1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

H.-J. Song, J. S. Lee, and J.-I. Song, "Signal Up-Conversion by Using a Cross-Phase-Modulation in All-Optical SOA-MZI Wavelength Converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, C.

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Optical singlesideband modulator for broad-band subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, "A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Loayssa, A.

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Optical singlesideband modulator for broad-band subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, F.

A. D’ Ottavi, F. Martelli, P. Spano, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, R. Dall’ Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Very high efficiency four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor traveling-wave amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2186-2188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

A. D’ Ottavi, F. Martelli, P. Spano, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, R. Dall’ Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Very high efficiency four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor traveling-wave amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2186-2188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nirmalathas, A.

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Optical singlesideband modulator for broad-band subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, "A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, D. F. Geraghty, K. J. Vahala, and U. Koren, "Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by Dual-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in a Strained Semiconductor Optical Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1633-1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richards, D.

Scotti, S.

A. D’ Ottavi, F. Martelli, P. Spano, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, R. Dall’ Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Very high efficiency four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor traveling-wave amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2186-2188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Seo, C.-S. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, "All-optical signal up-conversion for radio-over-fiber applications using cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1448-1450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, "A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.-J.

H.-J. Song, J. S. Lee, and J.-I. Song, "Signal Up-Conversion by Using a Cross-Phase-Modulation in All-Optical SOA-MZI Wavelength Converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.-I.

H.-J. Song, J. S. Lee, and J.-I. Song, "Signal Up-Conversion by Using a Cross-Phase-Modulation in All-Optical SOA-MZI Wavelength Converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spano, P.

A. D’ Ottavi, F. Martelli, P. Spano, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, R. Dall’ Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Very high efficiency four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor traveling-wave amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2186-2188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, D. F. Geraghty, K. J. Vahala, and U. Koren, "Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by Dual-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in a Strained Semiconductor Optical Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1633-1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, H. Fan, and N. K. Dutta, "Small signal analysis of frequency response of four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 2076-2078 (2000).

Zhu, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. D’ Ottavi, F. Martelli, P. Spano, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, R. Dall’ Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Very high efficiency four-wave mixing in a single semiconductor traveling-wave amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2186-2188 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Fan, and N. K. Dutta, "Small signal analysis of frequency response of four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 2076-2078 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and C. Lim, "A millimeter-wave full-duplex fiber-radio star-tree architecture incorporating WDM and SCM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1650-1652 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, and D. Benito, "Optical singlesideband modulator for broad-band subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Seo, C.-S. Choi, and W.-Y. Choi, "All-optical signal up-conversion for radio-over-fiber applications using cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1448-1450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Song, J. S. Lee, and J.-I. Song, "Signal Up-Conversion by Using a Cross-Phase-Modulation in All-Optical SOA-MZI Wavelength Converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. D’Ottavi, E. Iannone, A. Mecozzi, S. Scotti, P. Spano, R. Dall’Ara, J. Eckner, and G. Guekos, "Efficiency and Noise Performance of Wavelength Converters Based on FWM in Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 357-359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Hunziker, R. Paiella, D. F. Geraghty, K. J. Vahala, and U. Koren, "Polarization-Independent Wavelength Conversion at 2.5 Gb/s by Dual-Pump Four-Wave Mixing in a Strained Semiconductor Optical Amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1633-1635 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Other (1)

M. J. Connely, Semiconductor optical amplifiers (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of the photonic frequency up-conversion. (a) RoF system configured by using the all-optical frequency up-converter. (b) Optical spectra of SOA input signals. (c) Optical spectra of SOA output signals. (d) Optical spectra of filtered SOA output signals.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for a FWM-based frequency up-converter (LD: Laser diode, EAM: Electro-absorption modulator, MZM: Mach-zehnder modulator, VOA: Variable optical attenuator, EDFA: Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, PD: Photodiode, ESA: Electrical spectrum analyzer, OSA: Optical spectrum analyzer).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Optical spectra of input signals to the SOA and output signal of the SOA. (b) Optical spectra of the filtered output signal of the SOA. (c) Electrical spectra of the photodiode output. (d) Phase noise characteristics.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Conversion efficiency and OSNR as a function of the optical LO power.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Normalized conversion efficiency as a function of the LO frequency. (b) Electrical power of optical IF and RF signals as a function of the IF frequency.

Equations (3)

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v RF 1 = 2 × v LO 1 v IF
v RF 2 = v LO 1 + v LO 2 v IF ,
v RF 3 = 2 × v LO 2 v IF

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