Abstract

A family of coupled nanostrips with varying dimensions is demonstrated exhibiting optical magnetic responses across the whole visible spectrum, from red to blue. We refer to such a phenomenon as rainbow magnetism. The experimental and analytical studies of such structures provide us with a universal building block and a general recipe for producing controllable optical magnetism for various practical implementations.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Koschny, P. Markoŝ, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602(R) (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

H.-K. Yuan, U. K. Chettiar, W. Cai, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "A negative permeability material at red light," Opt. Express 15, 1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (10)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative refractive index in optics of metal-dielectric composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 423 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, "Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, T. A. Klar, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative index metamaterial combining magnetic resonators with metal films," Opt. Express 14, 7872 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ourir, A. de Lustrac, and J.-M. Lourtioz, "All-metamaterial-based subwavelength cavities (λ/60) for ultrathin directive antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, Y. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, "Doubly negative metamaterials in the near infrared and visible regimes based on thin film nanocomposites," Opt. Express 14, 11164 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

V. A., Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, and N. I. Zheludev, "Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure," Phys. Rev. E 72, 056613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Belov and C. R. Simovski, "Subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial resonant scatterers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 30, 3356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

R. W. Wood, "Anomalous diffractive gratings," Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belov, P. A.

P. A. Belov and C. R. Simovski, "Subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial resonant scatterers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

H.-K. Yuan, U. K. Chettiar, W. Cai, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "A negative permeability material at red light," Opt. Express 15, 1078 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G. D.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Chettiar, U. K.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lustrac, A.

A. Ourir, A. de Lustrac, and J.-M. Lourtioz, "All-metamaterial-based subwavelength cavities (λ/60) for ultrathin directive antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Economou, E. N.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gundogdu, T. F.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsarakis, N.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Klar, T. A.

Klein, M. W.

Konstantinidis, G.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kostopoulos, A.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

Lourtioz, J.-M.

A. Ourir, A. de Lustrac, and J.-M. Lourtioz, "All-metamaterial-based subwavelength cavities (λ/60) for ultrathin directive antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markoš, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minhas, B. K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ourir, A.

A. Ourir, A. de Lustrac, and J.-M. Lourtioz, "All-metamaterial-based subwavelength cavities (λ/60) for ultrathin directive antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penciu, R. S.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piestun, R.

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puscasu, I.

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schaich, W. L.

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, B. T.

Shalaev, V. M.

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, "Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Lomakin, Y. Fainman, Y. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, "Doubly negative metamaterials in the near infrared and visible regimes based on thin film nanocomposites," Opt. Express 14, 11164 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simovski, C. R.

P. A. Belov and C. R. Simovski, "Subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial resonant scatterers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsiapa, I.

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Urzhumov, Y.

Urzhumov, Y. A.

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, "Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Single-slit split-ring resonators at optical frequencies: limits of size scaling," Opt. Lett. 31, 1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 31, 1800 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, "Anomalous diffractive gratings," Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Ourir, A. de Lustrac, and J.-M. Lourtioz, "All-metamaterial-based subwavelength cavities (λ/60) for ultrathin directive antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Gundogdu, I. Tsiapa, A. Kostopoulos, G. Konstantinidis, N. Katsarakis, R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative magnetic permeability in the far-infrared frequency regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 084103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, "Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. W. Wood, "Anomalous diffractive gratings," Phys. Rev. 48, 928 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

V. A., Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, and N. I. Zheludev, "Planar electromagnetic metamaterial with a fish scale structure," Phys. Rev. E 72, 056613 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov and C. R. Simovski, "Subwavelength metallic waveguides loaded by uniaxial resonant scatterers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 036618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

T. Koschny, P. Markoŝ, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 68, 065602(R) (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Structure of the coupled nanostrip samples. (a) The cross-sectional schematic of arrays of coupled nanostrips; (b) The FE-SEM image of a typical sample; (c) The AFM image of a typical sample. Pictures in panels (b) and (c) correspond to sample E in Table 1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscopy images of the magnetic samples for two orthogonal polarizations. (a) Transmission mode with TM polarization; (b) Transmission mode with TE polarization; (c) Reflection mode with TM polarization; (d) Reflection mode with TE polarization. Letters A-F correspond to the sample naming in Table 1.

Fig.3.
Fig.3.

Experimental setup for collecting broadband transmission and reflection spectra of small samples.

Fig 4.
Fig 4.

Transmission (T) and Reflection (R) spectra of the coupled nanostrip samples for two orthogonal polarizations. (a) T with TM polarization; (b) T with TE polarization; (c) R with TM polarization; (d) R with TE polarization. Letters A-F correspond to the sample naming in Table 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission (T) and Reflection (R) and absorption (A, including diffractive scattering) spectra under TM polarization for a typical coupled nanostrip sample (Sample E) with three characteristic wavelengths marked. Solid lines show the experimental data, and dashed lines represent simulated results. The two cross-sectional schematics of the strip-pair illustrate the current modes at electric and magnetic resonances, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulated electric displacement and magnetic field distributions at (a) the electric resonance λe and (b) the magnetic resonance λm .

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The dependence of the magnetic resonance wavelength λm on the average width w of the trapezoidal-shape paired strip samples, and the minimum values of permeability μ′ for the six samples around λm . Square: experimental data for λm as a function of w from Figs. 4(a) and 4(c); Triangles: analytical λm (w) relationship determined by Eq. (1); Diamond: retrieved minimum effective permeability for each sample.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Geometric parameters of the magnetic nanostrip samples

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε′ m ( λ m ) = 1 n d 2 [ 1 + coth ( 2 ) ] , κ = ( π w ) 2 ( 2 π n d λ m ) 2 ,
λ m = 4 + n d 2 w πt + 2 n d 2 w 2 π 2 td λ p .

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