Abstract

Using heterodyne Optical Phase-Locked Loops (OPLLs), two 1W high power 1550 nm master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) semiconductor lasers operating as current controlled oscillators are phase-locked to a 1 mW reference laser. The signals of the two MOPAs are then coherently combined and their mutual coherence is studied. In each OPLL, the acquisition range is increased to +/-1.1GHz with the help of an aided-acquisition circuit. Control of the phase of a single slave MOPA is demonstrated using a RF phase shifter. The differential phase error between two MOPAs locked to the common reference laser is typically 22 degrees.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. M. Steen, "Laser material processing - an overview," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S3-S7, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Kincade and S. G. Anderson, "Review and forecast of the laser markets - Part I: Nondiode lasers," Laser Focus World 39, 73, 2003.
  3. A. Yariv, "Dynamic analysis of the semiconductor laser as a current-controlled oscillator in the optical phased-lock loop: applications," Opt. Lett. 30, 2191-2193, 2005.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Liang, A. Yariv, A. Kewitsch, and G. Rakuljic, "Coherent Combining of the Output of Two Semiconductor Lasers Using Optical Phase-Lock Loops," Opt. Lett. 32,370-372, 2007.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. H. Enloe and J. L. Rodda, "Laser Phase-Locked Loop," Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 53, 165, 1965.
  6. L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Steele, "Optical Phase-Locked Loop Using Semiconductor-Laser Diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 69-71, 1983.
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, "Frequency-Domain Analysis of an Optical Fm Discriminator," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 787-793, 1992.
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Correc, O. Girard, and I. F. Defaria, "On the Thermal Contribution to the Fm Response of DFB Lasers - Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2485-2490, 1994.
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Aflatouni, W. Liang, S. N., A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, A. Yariv, and H. Hashemi, "A Coherent Array of Electro-Optical Phase-Locked Loops," submitted to International Microwave Symposium 2007.
  11. D. R. Stephens, Phase-locked loops for wireless communications - digital and analog implementations (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998) Chap. 12.
    [CrossRef]

2007

2005

2003

W. M. Steen, "Laser material processing - an overview," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S3-S7, 2003.
[CrossRef]

K. Kincade and S. G. Anderson, "Review and forecast of the laser markets - Part I: Nondiode lasers," Laser Focus World 39, 73, 2003.

1999

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Correc, O. Girard, and I. F. Defaria, "On the Thermal Contribution to the Fm Response of DFB Lasers - Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2485-2490, 1994.
[CrossRef]

1992

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, "Frequency-Domain Analysis of an Optical Fm Discriminator," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 787-793, 1992.
[CrossRef]

1983

R. C. Steele, "Optical Phase-Locked Loop Using Semiconductor-Laser Diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 69-71, 1983.
[CrossRef]

1965

L. H. Enloe and J. L. Rodda, "Laser Phase-Locked Loop," Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 53, 165, 1965.

Anderson, S. G.

K. Kincade and S. G. Anderson, "Review and forecast of the laser markets - Part I: Nondiode lasers," Laser Focus World 39, 73, 2003.

Chang, K. W.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, "Frequency-Domain Analysis of an Optical Fm Discriminator," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 787-793, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Conrad, G. A.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, "Frequency-Domain Analysis of an Optical Fm Discriminator," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 787-793, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Correc, P.

P. Correc, O. Girard, and I. F. Defaria, "On the Thermal Contribution to the Fm Response of DFB Lasers - Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2485-2490, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Defaria, I. F.

P. Correc, O. Girard, and I. F. Defaria, "On the Thermal Contribution to the Fm Response of DFB Lasers - Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2485-2490, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Edge, C.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Elkin, M. D.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Enloe, L. H.

L. H. Enloe and J. L. Rodda, "Laser Phase-Locked Loop," Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 53, 165, 1965.

Girard, O.

P. Correc, O. Girard, and I. F. Defaria, "On the Thermal Contribution to the Fm Response of DFB Lasers - Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2485-2490, 1994.
[CrossRef]

Gliese, U.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Hernday, P. R.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, "Frequency-Domain Analysis of an Optical Fm Discriminator," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 787-793, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Kewitsch, A.

Kincade, K.

K. Kincade and S. G. Anderson, "Review and forecast of the laser markets - Part I: Nondiode lasers," Laser Focus World 39, 73, 2003.

Langley, L. N.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

Rakuljic, G.

Rodda, J. L.

L. H. Enloe and J. L. Rodda, "Laser Phase-Locked Loop," Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 53, 165, 1965.

Seeds, A. J.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, "Frequency-Domain Analysis of an Optical Fm Discriminator," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 787-793, 1992.
[CrossRef]

Steele, R. C.

R. C. Steele, "Optical Phase-Locked Loop Using Semiconductor-Laser Diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 69-71, 1983.
[CrossRef]

Steen, W. M.

W. M. Steen, "Laser material processing - an overview," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S3-S7, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Wale, M. J.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Electron. Lett.

R. C. Steele, "Optical Phase-Locked Loop Using Semiconductor-Laser Diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 69-71, 1983.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

P. Correc, O. Girard, and I. F. Defaria, "On the Thermal Contribution to the Fm Response of DFB Lasers - Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2485-2490, 1994.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol.

L. N. Langley, M. D. Elkin, C. Edge, M. J. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, and A. J. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Technol. 47, 1257-1264, 1999.
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, "Frequency-Domain Analysis of an Optical Fm Discriminator," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 787-793, 1992.
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

W. M. Steen, "Laser material processing - an overview," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 5, S3-S7, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus World

K. Kincade and S. G. Anderson, "Review and forecast of the laser markets - Part I: Nondiode lasers," Laser Focus World 39, 73, 2003.

Opt. Lett.

Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

L. H. Enloe and J. L. Rodda, "Laser Phase-Locked Loop," Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 53, 165, 1965.

Other

F. Aflatouni, W. Liang, S. N., A. Kewitsch, G. Rakuljic, A. Yariv, and H. Hashemi, "A Coherent Array of Electro-Optical Phase-Locked Loops," submitted to International Microwave Symposium 2007.

D. R. Stephens, Phase-locked loops for wireless communications - digital and analog implementations (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998) Chap. 12.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the experimental setup to coherently combine the optical power of two MOPA SCLs local oscillator by phase-locking them, separately to the same low power master laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured power spectrum of the locked beat signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) and (b) Comparison of the time domain waveforms of the output signals of the photo detectors in the two OPLLs. (c) Time domain measurement of the coherently combined power.

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