Abstract

A photonic-crystal waveguide sensor is presented for biosensing. The sensor is applied for refractive index measurements and detection of protein-concentrations. Concentrations around 10 μg/ml (0.15μMolar) are measured with excellent signal to noise ratio, and a broad, dynamic refractive index sensing range extending from air to high viscous fluids is presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

L. L. Chan, B. T. Cunningham, P. Y. Li, and D. Puff, "Self-referenced assay method for photonic crystal biosensors: Application to small molecule analytes," Sens. Actuators B 120, 392-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

J. B. Jensen, P. E. Hoiby, G. Emiliyanov, O. Bang, L. H. Pedersen, and A. Bjarklev, "Selective detection of antibodies in microstructured polymer optical fibers," Opt. Express 13, 5883-5889 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near.field characterization of low-loss photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2003 (4)

J. Topolancik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, "Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multi channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143-1145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Yuk, S. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips," Sens. Actuators B 94, 161-164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, "Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity," Opt. Lett. 29, 1093-1095 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harpøth, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen, and H. M. H. Chong, "Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light," Opt. Express 11, 1757-1762 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

R. A. Stile, T. A. Barber, D. G. Castner & K. E. Healy, "Sequential robust design methodology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the grafting of hyaluronic acid to glass substrates," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 61, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8218-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Acuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Rickert, A. brecht, and W. Göpel, "QCM operation in liquids: Constant sensitivity during formation of extended protein multilayers by affinity," Anal. Chem. 69, 1441-1448 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G. A. Robinson, "Optical immunosensing systems - meeting the market needs," Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 183-191 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas-detection by means of surface-plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

Armelles, G.

Bang, O.

Barber, T. A.

R. A. Stile, T. A. Barber, D. G. Castner & K. E. Healy, "Sequential robust design methodology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the grafting of hyaluronic acid to glass substrates," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 61, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, P.

J. Topolancik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, "Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multi channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143-1145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

Boni, P.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near.field characterization of low-loss photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brand, S.

N. J. Freeman, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, G. H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, and J. R. Lu, "Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry," J..Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S2493-S2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calle, A.

Carlsen, A.

Castner, D. G.

R. A. Stile, T. A. Barber, D. G. Castner & K. E. Healy, "Sequential robust design methodology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the grafting of hyaluronic acid to glass substrates," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 61, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, L. L.

L. L. Chan, B. T. Cunningham, P. Y. Li, and D. Puff, "Self-referenced assay method for photonic crystal biosensors: Application to small molecule analytes," Sens. Actuators B 120, 392-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. M. H.

Chow, E.

Cross, G. H.

N. J. Freeman, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, G. H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, and J. R. Lu, "Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry," J..Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S2493-S2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

L. L. Chan, B. T. Cunningham, P. Y. Li, and D. Puff, "Self-referenced assay method for photonic crystal biosensors: Application to small molecule analytes," Sens. Actuators B 120, 392-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, L.A.

Emery, T.

Emiliyanov, G.

Erickson, D.

Fan, S.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8218-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Frandsen, L. H.

Freeman, N. J.

N. J. Freeman, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, G. H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, and J. R. Lu, "Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry," J..Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S2493-S2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Acuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Girolami, G.

Gold, J.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grot, A.

Ha, K.

J. S. Yuk, S. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips," Sens. Actuators B 94, 161-164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harpøth, A.

Healy, K. E.

R. A. Stile, T. A. Barber, D. G. Castner & K. E. Healy, "Sequential robust design methodology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the grafting of hyaluronic acid to glass substrates," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 61, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoiby, P. E.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Acuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hook, F.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

Jensen, J. B.

Jensen, J. S.

Jensen, J.B.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8218-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8218-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kasemo, B.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

J. S. Yuk, S. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips," Sens. Actuators B 94, 161-164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

Kurrat, R.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A.

Lechuga, L. M.

Lee, H. G.

J. S. Yuk, S. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips," Sens. Actuators B 94, 161-164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

J. S. Yuk, S. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips," Sens. Actuators B 94, 161-164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, P. Y.

L. L. Chan, B. T. Cunningham, P. Y. Li, and D. Puff, "Self-referenced assay method for photonic crystal biosensors: Application to small molecule analytes," Sens. Actuators B 120, 392-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas-detection by means of surface-plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas-detection by means of surface-plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. R.

N. J. Freeman, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, G. H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, and J. R. Lu, "Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry," J..Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S2493-S2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marti, A.

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martz, J.

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Mulot, M.

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Niemi, T.

Noordegraaf, D.

Nylander, C.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas-detection by means of surface-plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Peel, L. L.

N. J. Freeman, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, G. H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, and J. R. Lu, "Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry," J..Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S2493-S2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, J.

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Puff, D.

L. L. Chan, B. T. Cunningham, P. Y. Li, and D. Puff, "Self-referenced assay method for photonic crystal biosensors: Application to small molecule analytes," Sens. Actuators B 120, 392-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ramsden, J. J.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, A.

N. J. Freeman, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, G. H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, and J. R. Lu, "Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry," J..Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S2493-S2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rickert, J.

J. Rickert, A. brecht, and W. Göpel, "QCM operation in liquids: Constant sensitivity during formation of extended protein multilayers by affinity," Anal. Chem. 69, 1441-1448 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riishede, J.

Robinson, G. A.

G. A. Robinson, "Optical immunosensing systems - meeting the market needs," Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 183-191 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockwood, T.

Rodahl, M.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sabarinathan, J.

J. Topolancik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, "Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multi channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143-1145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Sepulveda, B.

Shi, P.

Sigalas, M.

Sigmund, O.

Spencer, N. D.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stile, R. A.

R. A. Stile, T. A. Barber, D. G. Castner & K. E. Healy, "Sequential robust design methodology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the grafting of hyaluronic acid to glass substrates," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 61, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, M. J.

N. J. Freeman, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, G. H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, and J. R. Lu, "Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry," J..Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S2493-S2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tengvall, P.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Textor, M.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thorhauge, M.

Topolancik, J.

J. Topolancik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, "Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multi channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143-1145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8218-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near.field characterization of low-loss photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vorors, J.

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Walivaara, B.

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wild, B.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Acuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yi, S.

J. S. Yuk, S. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips," Sens. Actuators B 94, 161-164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P. C.

J. Topolancik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, "Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multi channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143-1145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuk, J. S.

J. S. Yuk, S. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips," Sens. Actuators B 94, 161-164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zabelin, V.

Zhuang, Y. X.

Zuppiroli, L.

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. Rickert, A. brecht, and W. Göpel, "QCM operation in liquids: Constant sensitivity during formation of extended protein multilayers by affinity," Anal. Chem. 69, 1441-1448 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Topolancik, P. Bhattacharya, J. Sabarinathan, and P. C. Yu, "Fluid detection with photonic crystal-based multi channel waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1143-1145 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

G. A. Robinson, "Optical immunosensing systems - meeting the market needs," Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 183-191 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colloids and surfaces B (1)

F. Hook, J. Vorors, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Boni, J. J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. D. Spencer, P. Tengvall, J. Gold, and B. Kasemo "A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation," Colloids and surfaces B 24, 155-170 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kurrat, B. Walivaara, A. Marti, M. Textor, P. Tengvall, J. J. Ramsden and N. D. Spencer, "Plasma protein adsorption on titanium: comparative in situ studies using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy and Ellipsometry," Colloids and Surfaces B 11, 187-201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1)

R. A. Stile, T. A. Barber, D. G. Castner & K. E. Healy, "Sequential robust design methodology and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the grafting of hyaluronic acid to glass substrates," J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 61, 391-398 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J..Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

N. J. Freeman, L. L. Peel, M. J. Swann, G. H. Cross, A. Reeves, S. Brand, and J. R. Lu, "Real time, high resolution studies of protein adsorption and structure at the solid-liquid interface using dual polarization interferometry," J..Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S2493-S2496 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. M. Fini, "Microstructure fibres for optical sensing in gases and liquids," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1120-1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. G. Johnson, P. R. Villeneuve, S. Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Linear waveguides in photonic-crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. B 62, 8218-8222 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, and M. Kristensen, "Near.field characterization of low-loss photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, "Gas-detection by means of surface-plasmon resonance," Sens. Actuators 3, 79-88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

J. S. Yuk, S. Yi, H. G. Lee, H. J. Lee, Y. Kim, and K. Ha, "Characterization of surface plasmon resonance wavelength by changes of protein concentration on protein chips," Sens. Actuators B 94, 161-164 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Cunningham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, "Colorimetric resonant reflection as a direct biochemical assay technique," Sens. Actuators B 81, 316-328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Chan, B. T. Cunningham, P. Y. Li, and D. Puff, "Self-referenced assay method for photonic crystal biosensors: Application to small molecule analytes," Sens. Actuators B 120, 392-398 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Acuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface Plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Acuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

BIOS-1, ASI AG, Zrich, Switzerland; IAsys, Affinity Sensors, Cambridge, UK; Analight Bio200, Farfield Sensors, Ltd., Manchester, UK; OWLS 110, Micro Vacuum, Budapest, Hungary.

L. W. Mirkarimi, S. Zlatanovic, M. S. Sigalas, M. A. Bynum, K. Robotti, E. Chow, and A. Grot, "Toward single molecule detection with photonic crystal microcavity biosensor," Presented at LEOS summer topical meetings, Quebec, Canada (2006).

W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "Large-scale production techniques for photonic nanostructures (invited)," Proceedings of SPIE (2003).

O. Levi, W. Suh, M. M. Lee, J. Zhang, S. R. J. Brueck, S. Fan, and J. S. Harris, "Guided-Resonance in Photonic crystal slabs for biosensing applications," presented at CLEO/QELS Technical Conference. Long Beach, USA, 23 May 2006.

I. Chorkendorff, and J. W. Niemantsverdriet, Concepts of modern catalysis and kinetics (Viley-vch, 2003).
[CrossRef]

Reitz et al, Foundations of electromagnetic theory (Addison-Wesley, 1993), Chap. 16.

Klein & Furtak, Optics (John Wiley & Sons, 1986), Chap. 2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(A) Experimental setup. (B) PC-WG configuration on a SOI wafer comprising a SiO2 layer with a thickness of 2 μm, RI, nS = 1.44, and a 320 nm thick silicon slab with RI, nSlab = 3.47. The lattice constant, a = 370 nm, and the hole diameter, d = 240 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated transmission spectra for TE-like polarization vs. wavelength from a PC-WG with a = 240 nm and d = 370 nm. Spectra for four different solutions are shown with RIs nC = 1 (black solid line), nC = 1.33 (blue dashed line), nC = 1.48 (red dotted line) and nC = 1.518 (green small dotted line). Calcutated using CrystalWave from Photon Design.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(A) Measured transmission spectra from the fabricated PC-WG for four different cover solutions: Air (nC = 1), MQw (nC = 1.33) and two immersion oils (nC = 1.48 and nC = 1.518). (B) Curves showing the experimental (circles, red line) and simulated (squares, black line) changes in cutoff wavelength vs. changes in cover RI.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time measurements of the change in cutoff wavelength for two BSA/MQw solutions of 10 μg/ml (squares, red line) and 100 μg/ml (circles, blue line), respectively.

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