Abstract

A ring resonator in SOI photonic wire waveguides is demonstrated using a compact MMI coupler with 3μm × 9 μm footprint as the coupling element. We achieved high bandwidth of 0.25 nm, and a quality factor Q of ∼ 6000 for rings with a radius of 50 μm. Unlike directional coupler based rings, these resonators have a wavelength independent Q and extinction ratio over more than 30 nm wavelength range, and there is no loss penalty for increasing the bandwidth. Compared to their directional coupler based counterparts, these resonators also have less demanding fabrication requirements and are compatible with high speed signal processing and optical delay lines.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998–1005 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. K. Madsen, “Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass designs,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10,1136–1138 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. J. Emelett and R. Soref,“Design and simulation of silicon microring optical routing switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23,1800–1807 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y.-H Kuo, H.-S Rong, and M. Paniccia, “High bandwidth silicon ring resonator Raman amplifier,” Proc. IEEE 3rd Group IV Photon. Conf., Ottawa, CD-FB2,228–230 (2006).
    [PubMed]
  6. J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, and A. Yariv, “Towards the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News36–40, (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 14,3872–3886 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Niehusmann, A. Vöckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, “Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 29,2861–2863 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  13. D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in SOI using cladding stress engineering and MMI Couplers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,343–345 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. L. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,615–627 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  18. M.-K. Chin, C.-L. Xu, and W.-P. Huang, “Theoretical approach to a polarization-insensitive single-mode microring resonator,” Opt. Express 12,3245–3250 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28,1302–1304 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. C. Xu, X. Hong, and W.-P. Huang, “Design optimization of integrated BiDi triplexer optical filter based on planar lightwave circuit,” Opt. Express 1494675–4686 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

2006 (5)

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in SOI using cladding stress engineering and MMI Couplers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,343–345 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 14,3872–3886 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, X. Hong, and W.-P. Huang, “Design optimization of integrated BiDi triplexer optical filter based on planar lightwave circuit,” Opt. Express 1494675–4686 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. J. Emelett and R. Soref,“Design and simulation of silicon microring optical routing switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23,1800–1807 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

M.-K. Chin, C.-L. Xu, and W.-P. Huang, “Theoretical approach to a polarization-insensitive single-mode microring resonator,” Opt. Express 12,3245–3250 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Niehusmann, A. Vöckel, P. H. Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, and W. Henschel, “Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 29,2861–2863 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36,321–323 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. K. Madsen, “Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass designs,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10,1136–1138 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

P. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, and H. Melchior, “New 2×2 and 1×3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2286–2293 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

L. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De la Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,1500–1507 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
[Crossref]

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Augustin, L. M.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, M.

P. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, and H. Melchior, “New 2×2 and 1×3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2286–2293 (1996).
[Crossref]

Baert, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barabarin, Y.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bente, E.A.J. M.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Besse, P.

P. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, and H. Melchior, “New 2×2 and 1×3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2286–2293 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bolivar, P. H.

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheben, P.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in SOI using cladding stress engineering and MMI Couplers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,343–345 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chin, M.-K.

Chu, S.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cole, S.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

De la Rue, R. M.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De la Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,1500–1507 (1995).
[Crossref]

Delâge, A.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Emelett, S. J.

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gill, D.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gini, E.

P. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, and H. Melchior, “New 2×2 and 1×3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2286–2293 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hanfoug, R.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Henschel, W.

Hong, X.

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.-P.

Janz, S.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in SOI using cladding stress engineering and MMI Couplers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,343–345 (2006).
[Crossref]

Karouta, F.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

King, O.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krauss, T. F.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De la Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,1500–1507 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.-H

Y.-H Kuo, H.-S Rong, and M. Paniccia, “High bandwidth silicon ring resonator Raman amplifier,” Proc. IEEE 3rd Group IV Photon. Conf., Ottawa, CD-FB2,228–230 (2006).
[PubMed]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lamontagne, B.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

Laybourn, P. J. R.

T. F. Krauss, R. M. De la Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,1500–1507 (1995).
[Crossref]

Leijtens, X.J.M.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28,1302–1304 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Little, B.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15,998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Luyssert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen, “Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass designs,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10,1136–1138 (1998).
[Crossref]

Melchior, H.

P. Besse, E. Gini, M. Bachmann, and H. Melchior, “New 2×2 and 1×3 multimode interference couplers with free selection of power splitting ratios,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2286–2293 (1996).
[Crossref]

Niehusmann, J.

Oei, Y. S.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Paloczi, G. T.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, and A. Yariv, “Towards the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News36–40, (2005).
[Crossref]

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

Y.-H Kuo, H.-S Rong, and M. Paniccia, “High bandwidth silicon ring resonator Raman amplifier,” Proc. IEEE 3rd Group IV Photon. Conf., Ottawa, CD-FB2,228–230 (2006).
[PubMed]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
[Crossref]

Poon, J.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, and A. Yariv, “Towards the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News36–40, (2005).
[Crossref]

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Post, E.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, D.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rong, H.-S

Y.-H Kuo, H.-S Rong, and M. Paniccia, “High bandwidth silicon ring resonator Raman amplifier,” Proc. IEEE 3rd Group IV Photon. Conf., Ottawa, CD-FB2,228–230 (2006).
[PubMed]

Scheuer, J.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, and A. Yariv, “Towards the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News36–40, (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

Smit, M. K.

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
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L. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,615–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Soref, R.

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ünlü, M. S.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van, V.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

van der Heijden, J. M. M.

R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
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R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
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R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
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R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
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R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
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P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Verbeek, B. H.

R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
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Vlasov, Y.

Vöckel, A.

Wahlbrink, T.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Xu, C.

Xu, C.-L.

Xu, D.-X.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in SOI using cladding stress engineering and MMI Couplers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,343–345 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yalçin, A.

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36,321–323 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, and A. Yariv, “Towards the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News36–40, (2005).
[Crossref]

Ye, W. N.

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. van Roijin, E. C. M. Pennings, M. J. N. van Stalen, T. van Dongen, B. H. Verbeek, and J. M. M. van der Heijden, “Compact InP-based ring lasers employing multimode interference couplers and combiners,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64,1753–1755 (1994).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36,321–323 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Hanfoug, L. M. Augustin, Y. Barabarin, J.J.G.M. van der Tol, E.A.J. M. Bente, F. Karouta, D. Rogers, S. Cole, Y. S. Oei, X.J.M. Leijtens, and M. K. Smit, “Reduced reflections from multimode interference couplers,” Electron. Lett. 42,465–466 (2006).
[Crossref]

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T. F. Krauss, R. M. De la Rue, and P. J. R. Laybourn, “Impact of output coupler configuration on operating characteristics of semiconductor ring lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,1500–1507 (1995).
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[Crossref]

L. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13,615–627 (1995).
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S. J. Emelett and R. Soref,“Design and simulation of silicon microring optical routing switches,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23,1800–1807 (2005).
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J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

A. Yalçin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, and M. S. Ünlü, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 12, 148155 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and P. Cheben, “Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in SOI using cladding stress engineering and MMI Couplers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,343–345 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baert, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16,1328–1330 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. K. Madsen, “Efficient architectures for exactly realizing optical filters with optimum bandpass designs,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10,1136–1138 (1998).
[Crossref]

SPIE Proc. (1)

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, E. Post, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization-insensitive MMI-coupled ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using cladding stress engineering,” Photonics West 2007, SPIE Proc. 6477–12 (2007).

Other (2)

Y.-H Kuo, H.-S Rong, and M. Paniccia, “High bandwidth silicon ring resonator Raman amplifier,” Proc. IEEE 3rd Group IV Photon. Conf., Ottawa, CD-FB2,228–230 (2006).
[PubMed]

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, and A. Yariv, “Towards the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News36–40, (2005).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). A ring resonator using an MMI coupler; (b) A close-up of the MMI section; (c) SEM image of an MMI-based ring resonator with a radius of 5 μm; (d) Close-up of the fabricated MMI section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Simulated and (b) Measured self (t2) and cross (κ2) power coupling ratios of a standalone 2×2 MMI coupler, with a 3 μm × 9 μm footprint.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured transmission spectrum of the (a) DC-based and (b) MMI-based resonator. The quality factor Q is shown in triangle symbols. The ring radius is 50 μm in both cases.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured transmission spectrum of the MMI-coupled ring resonators with a 3 μm × 9 μm coupler, for (a) a ring radius of 50 μ m, and (b) a ring radius of 5 μm. The wavelength scan step was 5 pm. The loss includes the fiber to waveguide coupling loss and the waveguide coupling and propagation loss.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Measured transmission spectrum of the MMI-ring resonator with a radius of 50 μm and a 4.5 μm × 20 μm coupler. The wavelength scan step was 5 pm. (b) a close-up of the resonance at 1540.6 nm.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T 2 = α MMI 2 [ α 2 2 α t cos θ + t 2 1 2 α t cos θ + α 2 t 2 ]
Q λ Δλ FWHM π n g L λ α t 1 α t
F FSR Δλ FWHM π α t 1 α t

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