Approximate expressions of the ray aberrations for off-axis collimated beams and free form phase plates with a small derivative magnitude are derived with the defocus aberration taken into account. The cubic phase plate, which is one of the most commonly used phase plates in wavefront coding imaging systems, is illustrated as an example. The approximate expressions for the upper and lower boundaries of ray map, and the spot size in the vicinity of the focal plane are derived. The sensitivity to the defocus aberration and the variation of the induced aberrations with respect to the field positions are analyzed with derived approximate expressions as well. Some characteristics unmentioned before are derived, showing a good agreement with the exact aberrations. Finally some useful guidelines are given for the design of imaging systems with phase plates.
© 2007 Optical Society of America
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