Abstract

Beam deflection methods such as rotary mirrors and motorized turning optical heads suffer from a variety of electro-mechanical related problems which affect laser scanning performance. These include wobble, jitter, wear, windage and synchronization issues. A novel optical structure consisting of two concentric and cylindrical interfaces with unique optical coating properties for the static projection of a laser spot array over a wide angle is demonstrated. The resulting ray trajectory through the waveguide is modeled using linear equations. Spot size growth is modeled using previously defined ray transfer matrices for tilted optical elements. The model is validated by comparison with experimental spot size measurements for 20 transmitted beams. This novel form of spot projection can be used as the projection unit in optical sensing devices which range to multiple laser footprints.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Besl "Active, Optical Range Imaging Sensors," Mach. Vision and Appl. 1, 127-152 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Blais, "Review of 20 Years of Range Sensor Development," Electronic Imaging 13,231-240 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Stutz, "Guiding Light," SPIE OE Magazine 5,25-27 (2005).
  4. A. B. Colquhoun, D. W. Cowan, and J. Shepherd "Trade-offs in rotary mirror scanner design," Proc. SPIE 1454,12-19 (1991).
  5. G. A. Massey and A. E. Siegman, "Reflection and Refraction of Gaussian Light Beams at Tilted Ellipsoidal Surfaces," Appl. Opt. 8,975-978 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals Of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kogelnik and T. Li, "Laser Beams and Resonators," Appl. Opt. 10,1550-1567 (1966).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

G. Stutz, "Guiding Light," SPIE OE Magazine 5,25-27 (2005).

2004 (1)

F. Blais, "Review of 20 Years of Range Sensor Development," Electronic Imaging 13,231-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. B. Colquhoun, D. W. Cowan, and J. Shepherd "Trade-offs in rotary mirror scanner design," Proc. SPIE 1454,12-19 (1991).

1988 (1)

J. Besl "Active, Optical Range Imaging Sensors," Mach. Vision and Appl. 1, 127-152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1966 (1)

Besl, J.

J. Besl "Active, Optical Range Imaging Sensors," Mach. Vision and Appl. 1, 127-152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Blais, F.

F. Blais, "Review of 20 Years of Range Sensor Development," Electronic Imaging 13,231-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Colquhoun, A. B.

A. B. Colquhoun, D. W. Cowan, and J. Shepherd "Trade-offs in rotary mirror scanner design," Proc. SPIE 1454,12-19 (1991).

Cowan, D. W.

A. B. Colquhoun, D. W. Cowan, and J. Shepherd "Trade-offs in rotary mirror scanner design," Proc. SPIE 1454,12-19 (1991).

Kogelnik, H.

Li, T.

Massey, G. A.

Shepherd, J.

A. B. Colquhoun, D. W. Cowan, and J. Shepherd "Trade-offs in rotary mirror scanner design," Proc. SPIE 1454,12-19 (1991).

Siegman, A. E.

Stutz, G.

G. Stutz, "Guiding Light," SPIE OE Magazine 5,25-27 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electronic Imaging (1)

F. Blais, "Review of 20 Years of Range Sensor Development," Electronic Imaging 13,231-240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mach. Vision and Appl. (1)

J. Besl "Active, Optical Range Imaging Sensors," Mach. Vision and Appl. 1, 127-152 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. B. Colquhoun, D. W. Cowan, and J. Shepherd "Trade-offs in rotary mirror scanner design," Proc. SPIE 1454,12-19 (1991).

SPIE OE Magazine (1)

G. Stutz, "Guiding Light," SPIE OE Magazine 5,25-27 (2005).

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals Of Photonics (Wiley-Interscience, 1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The novel optical quasi-cavity. (a) shows a top view schematic where θc = 90° and (b) is a photo of the fabricated product where θc = 45°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modeling of the ray trajectory showing a close up of the incident ray and the resulting refracted, transmitted and reflected rays.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Modeling of the ray trajectory showing the generated fan of rays from a quasi-cavity of 90° curvature.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Data flow diagram for determining q at various stages in the optical system, from the laser aperture to a projected range from the front interface.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Modeled spot sizes at reflections from the front and rear interfaces, and refraction at the front interface using non-paraxial ABCD matrices.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spot size evolution of transmitted beams over a half meter range using non-paraxial ABCD matrices, where R1 = 0.25mm and R2 = 0.263mm

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spot size growth rate decline with respect to an increase in interface radii. Spot sizes are modeled at a half meter range using non-paraxial ABCD matrices.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured and modeled spot size growth for beams transmitted from the front side at a half meter range.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured and modeled spot positions on screen.

Equations (6)

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y = mz + b ,
y = R n 2 z 2 ,
q = z + iz R
W 0 = λ π θ 0 .
z R = π W 0 2 λ .
z output = z R ( ( W out W 0 ) 2 1 ) 1 2 .

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