Two novel camera calibration methods are compared with traditional pinhole
calibration: one new method uses an analytic geometrical version of
Snell’s law (denoted as the Snell model); the other uses
6×6 matrix-based paraxial ray-tracing (referred to as the paraxial
model). Pinhole model uses a perspective projection approximation to give a
single lumped result for the multiple optical elements in a camera system. It is
mathematically simple, but suffers from accuracy limitations since it does not
consider the lens system. The Snell model is mathematically the most complex but
potentially has the highest levels of accuracy for the widest range of
conditions. The paraxial model has the merit of offering analytical equations
©2007 Optical Society of America
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