Abstract

A simple and cost-effective technique for generating a flat, square-shaped multi-wavelength optical comb with 42.6 GHz line spacing and over 0.5 THz of total bandwidth is presented. A detailed theoretical analysis is presented, showing that using two concatenated modulators driven with voltages of 3.5 Vπ are necessary to generate 11 comb lines with a flatness below 2dB. This performance is experimentally demonstrated using two cascaded Versawave 40 Gbit/s low drive voltage electro-optic polarisation modulators, where an 11 channel optical comb with a flatness of 1.9 dB and a side-mode-suppression ratio (SMSR) of 12.6 dB was obtained.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. C. Zeller, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, U. Keller and K. P. Hansen, "Frequency comb generation with 50-GHz channel spacing in the telecom C-band," Tech Dig. CLEO’ 05, San Francisco, 2005, pp. 221.
  2. J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and B. Ortega, "Microwave signal processing using optics," Tech Dig. OFC ’05, Anaheim, 2005, pp. 23-76.
  3. J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, W. Smulakovsky and B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.  24, 2663-2675 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. D. Ellis, F. C. Garcia-Gunning and T. Healy, "Coherent WDM: The achievement of high spectral density through phase control within the transmitter," Tech. Dig. OFC ’06, Anaheim, 2006, OThR4.
  5. F. C. Garcia-Gunning and A. D. Ellis, "Generation of widely spaced optical frequency comb using an amplitude modulator pair," in Proc. SPIE - Opto-Ireland Symposium 5825B-74, pp. 469-474 (2005).
  6. S. Yamashita and G. J. Cowle, "Bidirectional 10-GHz Optical Comb Genereation with an Intracavity Fiber DFB Pumped Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett.,  10, 796-798 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, P. J. Delfyett, J. J. Plant and P. W. Judoawlkis, "Optical Frequency Comb Generation from Modelocked Diode Lasers - Techniques and Applications," Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, pp. 71-72, (2005).
  8. T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M Izutsu, "Optoelectronic oscillator using a LiNbO3 phase modulator for self-oscillating frequency comb generation," Opt. Lett.,  31, 811-813 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann and R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992)
  12. Q. Chen and X. Guan, "Spectrum analysis of phase amplitude modulation," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting  36, 34-36 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, W. Smulakovsky and B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.  24, 2663-2675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Sakamoto, T. Kawanishi, and M Izutsu, "Optoelectronic oscillator using a LiNbO3 phase modulator for self-oscillating frequency comb generation," Opt. Lett.,  31, 811-813 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Yamashita and G. J. Cowle, "Bidirectional 10-GHz Optical Comb Genereation with an Intracavity Fiber DFB Pumped Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett.,  10, 796-798 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990

Q. Chen and X. Guan, "Spectrum analysis of phase amplitude modulation," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting  36, 34-36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Azana, J.

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, W. Smulakovsky and B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.  24, 2663-2675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berger, N.K.

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, W. Smulakovsky and B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.  24, 2663-2675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bull, J. D.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen and X. Guan, "Spectrum analysis of phase amplitude modulation," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting  36, 34-36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cowle, G. J.

S. Yamashita and G. J. Cowle, "Bidirectional 10-GHz Optical Comb Genereation with an Intracavity Fiber DFB Pumped Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett.,  10, 796-798 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fairburn, M.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, W. Smulakovsky and B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.  24, 2663-2675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
[CrossRef]

Ghanipour, P.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guan, X.

Q. Chen and X. Guan, "Spectrum analysis of phase amplitude modulation," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting  36, 34-36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, R.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann and R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992)

Hofstetter, R.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann and R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992)

Inoue, Y

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
[CrossRef]

Izutsu, M

Jaeger, N. A. F.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Lane, P. M.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann and R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992)

Levit, B.

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, W. Smulakovsky and B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.  24, 2663-2675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mori, K.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Reilly, J. J.

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann and R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992)

Ohara, T.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reid, A.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Sato, K.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K-I.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smulakovsky, W.

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, W. Smulakovsky and B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.  24, 2663-2675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
[CrossRef]

Takachio, N.

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
[CrossRef]

Takara, H.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, M.

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
[CrossRef]

Yamada, E.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

S. Yamashita and G. J. Cowle, "Bidirectional 10-GHz Optical Comb Genereation with an Intracavity Fiber DFB Pumped Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett.,  10, 796-798 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T Morioka and K-I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett.  36, 2089-2090 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.

J. Azana, N. K. Berger, B. Levit, W. Smulakovsky and B. Fischer, "Broadband arbitrary waveform generation based on microwave frequency upshifting in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Tech.  24, 2663-2675 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.

M. Fujiwara, M. Teshima, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, N. Takachio and K. Iwatsuki, "Optical carrier supply module using flattened multicarrier generation based on sinusoidal amplitude and phase hybrid modulation," IEEE J. of Lightwave Tech.  21, 2705-2714 (2003)..
[CrossRef]

IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett.

S. Yamashita and G. J. Cowle, "Bidirectional 10-GHz Optical Comb Genereation with an Intracavity Fiber DFB Pumped Brillouin/Erbium Fiber Laser," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett.,  10, 796-798 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting

Q. Chen and X. Guan, "Spectrum analysis of phase amplitude modulation," IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting  36, 34-36 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid and P. Ghanipour, "40 GHz electro-optic polarization modulator for fiber optic communications systems," Proc. SPIE  5577, 133-143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Gee, F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, P. J. Delfyett, J. J. Plant and P. W. Judoawlkis, "Optical Frequency Comb Generation from Modelocked Diode Lasers - Techniques and Applications," Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, pp. 71-72, (2005).

J. J. O’Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann and R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309 (1992)

A. D. Ellis, F. C. Garcia-Gunning and T. Healy, "Coherent WDM: The achievement of high spectral density through phase control within the transmitter," Tech. Dig. OFC ’06, Anaheim, 2006, OThR4.

F. C. Garcia-Gunning and A. D. Ellis, "Generation of widely spaced optical frequency comb using an amplitude modulator pair," in Proc. SPIE - Opto-Ireland Symposium 5825B-74, pp. 469-474 (2005).

S. C. Zeller, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, R. Paschotta, U. Keller and K. P. Hansen, "Frequency comb generation with 50-GHz channel spacing in the telecom C-band," Tech Dig. CLEO’ 05, San Francisco, 2005, pp. 221.

J. Capmany, D. Pastor, and B. Ortega, "Microwave signal processing using optics," Tech Dig. OFC ’05, Anaheim, 2005, pp. 23-76.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of comb generator experimental configuration

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optimised comb flatness versus relative drive amplifier amplitude for 7 (squares), 9 (circles), 11 (triangles), 13 (diamonds) and 15 (star) comb lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optimised comb flatness versus drive voltage applied to each modulator for 11 lines.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental spectrum of an 11 channel optical comb.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E k = E 0 p ε p , ε p = A p , k cos [ 2 π ( f 0 + pf ) t + θ p , k ]
A p , k = 1 2 cos [ ( a k + p ) π 2 ] J p ( b k π 4 ) , θ p , k = [ 1 + p + ( 1 ) p ] π 2 + p ϕ 1 + ϕ in
E out = E 0 q ε q '
ε q ' = 1 2 p A p , 1 { [ ( 1 ) 2 p q A p q , 2 + ( 1 ) q A q p , 2 ] .
cos [ 2 π ( f 0 + qf ) t + q π 2 + ( q p ) ϕ 2 ] }

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