Abstract

We use the numerically exact superposition T-matrix method to perform extensive computations of electromagnetic scattering by a 3D volume filled with randomly distributed wavelength-sized particles. These computations are used to simulate and analyze the effect of randomness of particle positions as well as the onset and evolution of various multiple-scattering effects with increasing number of particles in a statistically homogeneous volume of discrete random medium. Our exact results illustrate and substantiate the methodology underlying the microphysical theories of radiative transfer and coherent backscattering. Furthermore, we show that even in densely packed media, the light multiply scattered along strings of widely separated particles still provides a significant contribution to the total scattered signal and thereby makes quite pronounced the classical radiative transfer and coherent backscattering effects.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  35. V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
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  38. E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering of agglomerate particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 163-171 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  41. Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  42. A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  44. F. Scheffold, R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, "Localization or classical diffusion of light?" Nature 398, 206-207 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  45. D. S. Wiersma, J. G. Rivas, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization or classical diffusion of light? Reply," Nature 398, 207 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  46. A. A. Chabanov, M. Stoytchev, and A. Z. Genack, "Statistical signatures of photon localization," Nature 404, 850-853 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  47. M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007

P. Litvinov, V. Tishkovets, and K. Ziegler, "Coherent backscattering effects for discrete random media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 131-145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, V. K. Rosenbush, and N. N. Kiselev, "Weak localization of electromagnetic waves and opposition phenomena exhibited by high-albedo atmosphereless solar system objects," Appl. Opt. 45, 4459-4463 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, and V. Backman, "Pseudospectral time domain simulations of multiple light scattering in three-dimensional macroscopic random media," Radio Sci. 41, RS4009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mackowski, "Direct simulation of scattering and absorption by particle deposits," Proc. IMECE 2006, 14615 (2006).

D. W. Mackowski, "A simplified model to predict the effects of aggregation on the absorption properties of soot particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 237-249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, "T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 357-406 (2004).

K. Muinonen, "Coherent backscattering of light by complex random media of spherical scatterers: numerical solution," Waves Random Media 14, 365-388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tishkovets and M. I. Mishchenko, "Coherent backscattering of light by a layer of discrete random medium," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 161-180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering of agglomerate particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 163-171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effects for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, "Scattering by randomly oriented thin ice disks with moderate equivalent-sphere size parameters," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 465-471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

F. Scheffold, R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, "Localization or classical diffusion of light?" Nature 398, 206-207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, J. G. Rivas, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization or classical diffusion of light? Reply," Nature 398, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. C. W. van Rossum and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. Amic, J. M. Luck, and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple Rayleigh scattering of electromagnetic waves," J. Phys. I (France) 7, 445-483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. L. Kuz’min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, "Calculation of the T matrix and the scattering matrix for ensembles of spheres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2266-2278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. J. Ostro, "Planetary radar astronomy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 1235-1279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, "On the nature of the polarization opposition effect exhibited by Saturn’s rings," Astrophys. J. 411, 351-361 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Andrejco, S. John, and F. C. MacKintosh, "Weak localization of photons: termination of coherent random walks by absorption and confined geometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420-1423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, "Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575-578 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aegerter, C. M.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amic, E.

E. Amic, J. M. Luck, and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple Rayleigh scattering of electromagnetic waves," J. Phys. I (France) 7, 445-483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Andrejco, S. John, and F. C. MacKintosh, "Weak localization of photons: termination of coherent random walks by absorption and confined geometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420-1423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, "Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575-578 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avramchuk, V. V.

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Babenko, V. A.

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, "T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 357-406 (2004).

Backman, V.

S. H. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, and V. Backman, "Pseudospectral time domain simulations of multiple light scattering in three-dimensional macroscopic random media," Radio Sci. 41, RS4009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Tseng, Y. L. Kim, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. T. Walsh, Jr., "Simulation of enhanced backscattering of light by numerically solving Maxwell’s equations without heuristic approximations," Opt. Express 13, 3666-3672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolini, P.

D. S. Wiersma, J. G. Rivas, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization or classical diffusion of light? Reply," Nature 398, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, S.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chabanov, A. A.

A. A. Chabanov, M. Stoytchev, and A. Z. Genack, "Statistical signatures of photon localization," Nature 404, 850-853 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etemad, S.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Andrejco, S. John, and F. C. MacKintosh, "Weak localization of photons: termination of coherent random walks by absorption and confined geometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420-1423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, "Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575-578 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eversole, J.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering of agglomerate particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 163-171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles," Opt. Lett. 28, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genack, A. Z.

A. A. Chabanov, M. Stoytchev, and A. Z. Genack, "Statistical signatures of photon localization," Nature 404, 850-853 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, P.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hart, M.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering of agglomerate particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 163-171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles," Opt. Lett. 28, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiroi, T.

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Andrejco, S. John, and F. C. MacKintosh, "Weak localization of photons: termination of coherent random walks by absorption and confined geometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420-1423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlebtsov, N. G.

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, "T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 357-406 (2004).

Kim, Y. L.

Kiselev, N. N.

Kuz’min, V. L.

V. L. Kuz’min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma, J. G. Rivas, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization or classical diffusion of light? Reply," Nature 398, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lenke, R.

F. Scheffold, R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, "Localization or classical diffusion of light?" Nature 398, 206-207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Litvinov, P.

P. Litvinov, V. Tishkovets, and K. Ziegler, "Coherent backscattering effects for discrete random media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 131-145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Litvinov, P. V.

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effects for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luck, J. M.

E. Amic, J. M. Luck, and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple Rayleigh scattering of electromagnetic waves," J. Phys. I (France) 7, 445-483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lyubchenko, M. V.

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effects for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacKintosh, F. C.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Andrejco, S. John, and F. C. MacKintosh, "Weak localization of photons: termination of coherent random walks by absorption and confined geometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420-1423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackowski, D. W.

D. W. Mackowski, "A simplified model to predict the effects of aggregation on the absorption properties of soot particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 237-249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mackowski, "Direct simulation of scattering and absorption by particle deposits," Proc. IMECE 2006, 14615 (2006).

D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, "Calculation of the T matrix and the scattering matrix for ensembles of spheres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2266-2278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maitland, D.

S. H. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, and V. Backman, "Pseudospectral time domain simulations of multiple light scattering in three-dimensional macroscopic random media," Radio Sci. 41, RS4009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Tseng, Y. L. Kim, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. T. Walsh, Jr., "Simulation of enhanced backscattering of light by numerically solving Maxwell’s equations without heuristic approximations," Opt. Express 13, 3666-3672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maret, G.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Scheffold, R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, "Localization or classical diffusion of light?" Nature 398, 206-207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merritt, C.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, V. K. Rosenbush, and N. N. Kiselev, "Weak localization of electromagnetic waves and opposition phenomena exhibited by high-albedo atmosphereless solar system objects," Appl. Opt. 45, 4459-4463 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Tishkovets and M. I. Mishchenko, "Coherent backscattering of light by a layer of discrete random medium," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 161-180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, "T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 357-406 (2004).

N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, "Scattering by randomly oriented thin ice disks with moderate equivalent-sphere size parameters," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 465-471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, "Scattering properties of needlelike and platelike ice spheroids with moderate size parameters," Appl. Opt. 39, 5052-5057 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, "Calculation of the T matrix and the scattering matrix for ensembles of spheres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2266-2278 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, "On the nature of the polarization opposition effect exhibited by Saturn’s rings," Astrophys. J. 411, 351-361 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Muinonen, K.

K. Muinonen, "Coherent backscattering of light by complex random media of spherical scatterers: numerical solution," Waves Random Media 14, 365-388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, O.

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nieuwenhuizen, T. M.

M. C. W. van Rossum and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Amic, J. M. Luck, and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple Rayleigh scattering of electromagnetic waves," J. Phys. I (France) 7, 445-483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ostro, S. J.

S. J. Ostro, "Planetary radar astronomy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 1235-1279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ovcharenko, A.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pieters, C.

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Righini, R.

D. S. Wiersma, J. G. Rivas, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization or classical diffusion of light? Reply," Nature 398, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

D. S. Wiersma, J. G. Rivas, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization or classical diffusion of light? Reply," Nature 398, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, V. P.

V. L. Kuz’min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbush, A. E.

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbush, V. K.

M. I. Mishchenko, V. K. Rosenbush, and N. N. Kiselev, "Weak localization of electromagnetic waves and opposition phenomena exhibited by high-albedo atmosphereless solar system objects," Appl. Opt. 45, 4459-4463 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scheffold, F.

F. Scheffold, R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, "Localization or classical diffusion of light?" Nature 398, 206-207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scotto, C.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shkuratov, Yu.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering of agglomerate particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 163-171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles," Opt. Lett. 28, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Störzer, M.

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoytchev, M.

A. A. Chabanov, M. Stoytchev, and A. Z. Genack, "Statistical signatures of photon localization," Nature 404, 850-853 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taflove, A.

S. H. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, and V. Backman, "Pseudospectral time domain simulations of multiple light scattering in three-dimensional macroscopic random media," Radio Sci. 41, RS4009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Tseng, Y. L. Kim, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. T. Walsh, Jr., "Simulation of enhanced backscattering of light by numerically solving Maxwell’s equations without heuristic approximations," Opt. Express 13, 3666-3672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Andrejco, S. John, and F. C. MacKintosh, "Weak localization of photons: termination of coherent random walks by absorption and confined geometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420-1423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, "Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575-578 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tishkovets, V.

P. Litvinov, V. Tishkovets, and K. Ziegler, "Coherent backscattering effects for discrete random media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 131-145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tishkovets, V. P.

V. P. Tishkovets and M. I. Mishchenko, "Coherent backscattering of light by a layer of discrete random medium," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 161-180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effects for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, S. H.

S. H. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, and V. Backman, "Pseudospectral time domain simulations of multiple light scattering in three-dimensional macroscopic random media," Radio Sci. 41, RS4009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Tseng, Y. L. Kim, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. T. Walsh, Jr., "Simulation of enhanced backscattering of light by numerically solving Maxwell’s equations without heuristic approximations," Opt. Express 13, 3666-3672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tweer, R.

F. Scheffold, R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, "Localization or classical diffusion of light?" Nature 398, 206-207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Albada, M. P.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van der Mark, M. B.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van Rossum, M. C. W.

M. C. W. van Rossum and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Videen, G.

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, "T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 357-406 (2004).

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering of agglomerate particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 163-171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles," Opt. Lett. 28, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volten, H.

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, J. T.

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, J. G. Rivas, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization or classical diffusion of light? Reply," Nature 398, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wriedt, T.

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, "T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 357-406 (2004).

Zakharova, N. T.

N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, "Scattering by randomly oriented thin ice disks with moderate equivalent-sphere size parameters," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 465-471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, "Scattering properties of needlelike and platelike ice spheroids with moderate size parameters," Appl. Opt. 39, 5052-5057 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, K.

P. Litvinov, V. Tishkovets, and K. Ziegler, "Coherent backscattering effects for discrete random media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 131-145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zubko, E.

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering of agglomerate particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 163-171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles," Opt. Lett. 28, 1504-1506 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

M. I. Mishchenko, "On the nature of the polarization opposition effect exhibited by Saturn’s rings," Astrophys. J. 411, 351-361 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Rosenbush, V. V. Avramchuk, A. E. Rosenbush, and M. I. Mishchenko, "Polarization properties of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter: observations and preliminary analysis," Astrophys. J. 487, 402-414 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Polarization effects in weak localization of light," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 21, S28-S31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. I (France)

E. Amic, J. M. Luck, and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple Rayleigh scattering of electromagnetic waves," J. Phys. I (France) 7, 445-483 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

V. P. Tishkovets and M. I. Mishchenko, "Coherent backscattering of light by a layer of discrete random medium," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 86, 161-180 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Zakharova and M. I. Mishchenko, "Scattering by randomly oriented thin ice disks with moderate equivalent-sphere size parameters," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 465-471 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, V. A. Babenko, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, "T-matrix theory of electromagnetic scattering by particles and its applications: a comprehensive reference database," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 357-406 (2004).

D. W. Mackowski, "A simplified model to predict the effects of aggregation on the absorption properties of soot particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 237-249 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Zubko, Yu. Shkuratov, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscattering of agglomerate particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 163-171 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Tishkovets, P. V. Litvinov, and M. V. Lyubchenko, "Coherent opposition effects for semi-infinite discrete random medium in the double-scattering approximation," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 72, 803-811 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Litvinov, V. Tishkovets, and K. Ziegler, "Coherent backscattering effects for discrete random media," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 131-145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu. Shkuratov, S. Bondarenko, A. Ovcharenko, C. Pieters, T. Hiroi, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, and G. Videen, "Comparative studies of the reflectance and degree of linear polarization of particulate surfaces and independently scattering particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 100, 340-358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovcharenko, S. Bondarenko, Yu. Shkuratov, C. Scotto, C. Merritt, M. Hart, J. Eversole, and G. Videen, "Backscatter effects of surfaces composed of dry biological particles," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 101, 462-470 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

D. S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature 390, 671-673 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Scheffold, R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, "Localization or classical diffusion of light?" Nature 398, 206-207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, J. G. Rivas, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendijk, and R. Righini, "Localization or classical diffusion of light? Reply," Nature 398, 207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Chabanov, M. Stoytchev, and A. Z. Genack, "Statistical signatures of photon localization," Nature 404, 850-853 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, and M. J. Andrejco, "Weak localization of photons: universal fluctuations and ensemble averaging," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 575-578 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Etemad, R. Thompson, M. J. Andrejco, S. John, and F. C. MacKintosh, "Weak localization of photons: termination of coherent random walks by absorption and confined geometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1420-1423 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Störzer, P. Gross, C. M. Aegerter, and G. Maret, "Observation of the critical regime near Anderson localization of light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 063904 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IMECE

D. W. Mackowski, "Direct simulation of scattering and absorption by particle deposits," Proc. IMECE 2006, 14615 (2006).

Radio Sci.

S. H. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, and V. Backman, "Pseudospectral time domain simulations of multiple light scattering in three-dimensional macroscopic random media," Radio Sci. 41, RS4009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

M. C. W. van Rossum and T. M. Nieuwenhuizen, "Multiple scattering of classical waves: microscopy, mesoscopy, and diffusion," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 313-371 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Ostro, "Planetary radar astronomy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 1235-1279 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uspekhi

V. L. Kuz’min and V. P. Romanov, "Coherent phenomena in light scattering from disordered systems," Phys.-Uspekhi 39, 231-260 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Waves Random Media

K. Muinonen, "Coherent backscattering of light by complex random media of spherical scatterers: numerical solution," Waves Random Media 14, 365-388 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. A. Campbell, Radar Remote Sensing of Planetary Surfaces (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002).

F. T. Ulaby and C. Elachi, eds., Radar Polarimetry for Geoscience Applications (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1990).

P. H. Kaye, K. Aptowicz, R. K. Chang, V. Foot, and G. Videen, "Angularly resolved elastic scattering from airborne particles," in Optics of Biological Particles, A. Hoekstra, V. Maltsev, and G. Videen, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 2007), pp. 31-60.

P. A. Martin, Multiple Scattering: Interaction of Time-Harmonic Waves with N Obstacles (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Brown, ed., Dynamic Light Scattering (Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1993).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic Press, New York, 1978).

M. I. Mishchenko and L. Liu, "Weak localization of electromagnetic waves by densely packed many-particle groups: exact 3D results," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.01.039 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002). http://www.giss.nasa.gov/~crmim/books.html.

D. Mackowski, K. Fuller, and M. Mishchenko, "Codes for calculation of scattering by clusters of spheres." ftp://ftp.eng.auburn.edu/pub/dmckwski/scatcodes/index.html.

L. Tsang and J. A. Kong, Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves: Advanced Topics (Wiley, New York, 2001).

P. Sebbah, ed., Waves and Imaging through Complex Media (Springer, Berlin, 2001).
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V. V. Tuchin, ed., Handbook of Optical Biomedical Diagnostics (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wa., 2002).

B. A. van Tiggelen and S. E. Skipetrov, eds., Wave Scattering in Complex Media: From Theory to Applications (Springer, Berlin, 2003).
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J. W. Hovenier, C. van der Mee, and H. Domke, Transfer of Polarized Light in Planetary Atmospheres - Basic Concepts and Practical Methods (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

G. Videen, Ya. Yatskiv, and M. Mishchenko, eds., Photopolarimetry in Remote Sensing (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, Multiple Scattering of Light by Particles: Radiative Transfer and Coherent Backscattering (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spherical scattering volume V filled with N randomly positioned particles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Electromagnetic scattering by a volume V of disretete random medium. In this case the scattering volume is filled with 20 randomly positioned particles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Angular distribution of scattered intensity in the far-field zone of the spherical volume V filled with N particles. (a) N = 1 and m = 1.32. (b) N = 5 and m = 1.32. (c) N = 20 and m = 1.32. (d) N = 40 and m = 1.32. (e) N = 80 and m = 1.32. (f) N = 80 and m = 1.32. (g) N = 80 and m = 1.5. (h) N = 80 and m = 1.32, random orientation. (i) N = 80 and m = 1.5, random orientation. The gray scale was individually adjusted in order to maximally reveal the details of each scattering pattern. Panel (a) also shows the angular coordinates used for all panels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Interference origin of (a) speckle and (b) coherent backscattering.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Two random realizations of the 80-particle group created with (a) RCG-1 and (b) RCG-2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Elements of the normalized Stokes scattering matrix computed for the volume V of discrete random medium filled with N = 1, …,240 particles having the same refractive index m = 1.32.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Elements of the normalized Stokes scattering matrix computed for the volume V of discrete random medium filled with N = 1, …, 160 particles having the same refractive index m = 1.5.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Elements of the normalized Stokes scattering matrix computed for the volume V of discrete random medium filled with a varying number of particles. (a) m = 1.32 (solid curves) and 1.5 (dotted curve). (b) – (d) m = 1.32. (e) and (f) m = 1.5.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Forward-scattering interference.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Polarization characteristics of backscattered light computed for the volume V of discrete random medium filled with N = 1, …, 240 particles having the same refractive index m = 1.32.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Polarization characteristics of backscattered light computed for the volume V of discrete random medium filled with N = 1, …, 160 particles having the same refractive index m = 1.5.

Equations (10)

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I sca Q sca U sca V sca Z n ̂ sca n ̂ inc I inc Q inc U inc V inc .
[ a 1 ( Θ ) b 1 ( Θ ) 0 0 b 1 ( Θ ) a 2 ( Θ ) 0 0 0 0 a 3 ( Θ ) b 2 ( Θ ) 0 0 b 2 ( Θ ) a 4 ( Θ ) ] .
1 2 0 π d Θ sin Θ a 1 ( Θ ) = 1 .
Δ = k 1 ( r n r 1 ) ( n ̂ inc + n ̂ sca ) .
1 2 ( I sca + Q sca ) 1 2 [ a 1 ( Θ ) + 2 b 1 ( Θ ) + a 2 ( Θ ) ] ,
1 2 ( I sca Q sca ) 1 2 [ a 1 ( Θ ) a 2 ( Θ ) ] ,
1 2 ( I sca + V sca ) 1 2 [ a 1 ( Θ ) + a 4 ( Θ ) ] ,
1 2 ( I sca V sca ) 1 2 [ a 1 ( Θ ) a 4 ( Θ ) ] ,
μ L = I sca Q sca I sca + Q sca = a 1 ( Θ ) a 2 ( Θ ) a 1 ( Θ ) + 2 b 1 ( Θ ) + a 2 ( Θ ) ,
μ C = I sca + V sca I sca V sca = a 1 ( Θ ) + a 4 ( Θ ) a 1 ( Θ ) a 4 ( Θ ) .

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