Abstract

An output coupler comprising a resonant grating submirror monolithically associated with a standard multilayer submirror polarizes the emission of a Nd:YAG microchip laser linearly over its full emission bandwidth by intra-mirror destructive interference for the undesired polarization. A polarization extinction ratio of more than 25 dB is obtained up to 6.1μJ pulse energy. This passively Q-switched laser performance is almost identical to that of a gratingless non-polarized microchip laser. The design and fabrication of the resonant grating mirror are described.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. N. Bel’tyugov, S. G. Protsenko, and Y. V. Troitsky, "Polarizing laser mirrors for normal light incidence," Proc. SPIE 1782, 206 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Mashev and E. Popov, "Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings," Opt. Commun. 55, 377 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. A. Avrutsky, V.A. Sychugov, "Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide," J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Popov, L. Mashev, and D. Maystre, "Theoretical study of anomalies of coated dielectric gratings," Opt. Acta 33, 607 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, J.C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, and K. Ueda, "A polarization-stabilized microchip laser using a resonant mirror," Appl. Phys.B: Lasers Opt. 85, 519 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. M. Ostermann, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, "Surface-grating VCSELs with dynamically stable light output polarization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D.-S. Song, Y.-J. Lee, H.-W. Choi, and Y.-H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, N. Destouches, A. V. Tishchenko, and K. Ueda, "99% diffraction efficiency leaky mode sustained resonant gratings and susceptibility to laser damage," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2005. CLEO/Pacific Rim 2005, Tokyo, 30 July-02 Aug. 2005, pp. 435- 436.
  11. F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Polarizing grating mirror for CW Nd:YAG microchip laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 648 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. V. Tishchenko and N. Lyndin, "The true modal method solves intractable problems: TM incidence on fine metal slits (but the C method also !)," Workshop on Grating Theory, Clermont-Ferrand, France (June 2004).
  13. M. Abdou Ahmed, J. C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, "Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror," Proc. SPIE 5250, 229 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, J.C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, and K. Ueda, "A polarization-stabilized microchip laser using a resonant mirror," Appl. Phys.B: Lasers Opt. 85, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. M. Ostermann, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, "Surface-grating VCSELs with dynamically stable light output polarization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Abdou Ahmed, J. C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, "Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror," Proc. SPIE 5250, 229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Song, Y.-J. Lee, H.-W. Choi, and Y.-H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Polarizing grating mirror for CW Nd:YAG microchip laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

V. N. Bel’tyugov, S. G. Protsenko, and Y. V. Troitsky, "Polarizing laser mirrors for normal light incidence," Proc. SPIE 1782, 206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

I. A. Avrutsky, V.A. Sychugov, "Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide," J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

E. Popov, L. Mashev, and D. Maystre, "Theoretical study of anomalies of coated dielectric gratings," Opt. Acta 33, 607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

L. Mashev and E. Popov, "Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings," Opt. Commun. 55, 377 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abdou Ahmed, M.

M. Abdou Ahmed, J. C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, "Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror," Proc. SPIE 5250, 229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Avrutsky, I. A.

I. A. Avrutsky, V.A. Sychugov, "Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide," J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bel’tyugov, V. N.

V. N. Bel’tyugov, S. G. Protsenko, and Y. V. Troitsky, "Polarizing laser mirrors for normal light incidence," Proc. SPIE 1782, 206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bisson, J.-F.

J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, J.C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, and K. Ueda, "A polarization-stabilized microchip laser using a resonant mirror," Appl. Phys.B: Lasers Opt. 85, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boons, S.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caekebeke, K.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.-W.

D.-S. Song, Y.-J. Lee, H.-W. Choi, and Y.-H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Debernardi, P.

J. M. Ostermann, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, "Surface-grating VCSELs with dynamically stable light output polarization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dhoedt, B.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, J.

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goeman, S.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Golubenko, G. A.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

D.-S. Song, Y.-J. Lee, H.-W. Choi, and Y.-H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-J.

D.-S. Song, Y.-J. Lee, H.-W. Choi, and Y.-H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mashev, L.

E. Popov, L. Mashev, and D. Maystre, "Theoretical study of anomalies of coated dielectric gratings," Opt. Acta 33, 607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. Mashev and E. Popov, "Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings," Opt. Commun. 55, 377 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Maystre, D.

E. Popov, L. Mashev, and D. Maystre, "Theoretical study of anomalies of coated dielectric gratings," Opt. Acta 33, 607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Michalzik, R.

J. M. Ostermann, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, "Surface-grating VCSELs with dynamically stable light output polarization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ostermann, J. M.

J. M. Ostermann, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, "Surface-grating VCSELs with dynamically stable light output polarization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ouerdane, Y.

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Polarizing grating mirror for CW Nd:YAG microchip laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, J.C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, and K. Ueda, "A polarization-stabilized microchip laser using a resonant mirror," Appl. Phys.B: Lasers Opt. 85, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Abdou Ahmed, J. C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, "Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror," Proc. SPIE 5250, 229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Polarizing grating mirror for CW Nd:YAG microchip laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pigeon, F.

M. Abdou Ahmed, J. C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, "Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror," Proc. SPIE 5250, 229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Polarizing grating mirror for CW Nd:YAG microchip laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pommier, J. C.

M. Abdou Ahmed, J. C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, "Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror," Proc. SPIE 5250, 229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pommier, J.C.

J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, J.C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, and K. Ueda, "A polarization-stabilized microchip laser using a resonant mirror," Appl. Phys.B: Lasers Opt. 85, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

E. Popov, L. Mashev, and D. Maystre, "Theoretical study of anomalies of coated dielectric gratings," Opt. Acta 33, 607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. Mashev and E. Popov, "Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings," Opt. Commun. 55, 377 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Protsenko, S. G.

V. N. Bel’tyugov, S. G. Protsenko, and Y. V. Troitsky, "Polarizing laser mirrors for normal light incidence," Proc. SPIE 1782, 206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, S.

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, D.-S.

D.-S. Song, Y.-J. Lee, H.-W. Choi, and Y.-H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Svakhin, A. S.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sychugov, V. A.

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sychugov, V.A.

I. A. Avrutsky, V.A. Sychugov, "Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide," J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tishchenko, A. V.

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Polarizing grating mirror for CW Nd:YAG microchip laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, S.

J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, J.C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, and K. Ueda, "A polarization-stabilized microchip laser using a resonant mirror," Appl. Phys.B: Lasers Opt. 85, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Troitsky, Y. V.

V. N. Bel’tyugov, S. G. Protsenko, and Y. V. Troitsky, "Polarizing laser mirrors for normal light incidence," Proc. SPIE 1782, 206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, J.C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, and K. Ueda, "A polarization-stabilized microchip laser using a resonant mirror," Appl. Phys.B: Lasers Opt. 85, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vandeputte, K.

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D.-S. Song, Y.-J. Lee, H.-W. Choi, and Y.-H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B: Lasers Opt. (1)

J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, J.C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, and K. Ueda, "A polarization-stabilized microchip laser using a resonant mirror," Appl. Phys.B: Lasers Opt. 85, 519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

M. Abdou Ahmed, F. Pigeon, A. V. Tishchenko, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, S. Reynaud, J. C. Pommier, and J. Fuchs, "Polarizing grating coupler for high Q laser cavities," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 39, 614 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. Pigeon, O. Parriaux, Y. Ouerdane, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Polarizing grating mirror for CW Nd:YAG microchip laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 648 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Goeman, S. Boons, B. Dhoedt, K. Vandeputte, K. Caekebeke, P. Van Daele, and R. Baets, "First demonstration of highly reflective and highly polarization selective diffraction gratings (GIRO-Gratings) for long-wavelength VCSELs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.  10, 1205 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Ostermann, P. Debernardi, and R. Michalzik, "Surface-grating VCSELs with dynamically stable light output polarization," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

I. A. Avrutsky, V.A. Sychugov, "Reflection of a beam of finite size from a corrugated waveguide," J. Mod. Opt. 36, 1527 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

E. Popov, L. Mashev, and D. Maystre, "Theoretical study of anomalies of coated dielectric gratings," Opt. Acta 33, 607 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Mashev and E. Popov, "Zero order anomaly of dielectric coated gratings," Opt. Commun. 55, 377 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

V. N. Bel’tyugov, S. G. Protsenko, and Y. V. Troitsky, "Polarizing laser mirrors for normal light incidence," Proc. SPIE 1782, 206 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Abdou Ahmed, J. C. Pommier, F. Pigeon, and O. Parriaux, "Flux resistance degradation in resonant grating multilayer mirror," Proc. SPIE 5250, 229 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. A. Golubenko, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, "Total reflection of light from a corrugated surface of a dielectric waveguide," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 886 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J.-F. Bisson, O. Parriaux, N. Destouches, A. V. Tishchenko, and K. Ueda, "99% diffraction efficiency leaky mode sustained resonant gratings and susceptibility to laser damage," Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2005. CLEO/Pacific Rim 2005, Tokyo, 30 July-02 Aug. 2005, pp. 435- 436.

A. V. Tishchenko and N. Lyndin, "The true modal method solves intractable problems: TM incidence on fine metal slits (but the C method also !)," Workshop on Grating Theory, Clermont-Ferrand, France (June 2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Destructive interference polarizing mechanism resulting from the association of a multilayer submirror and a polarization selective resonant submirror.

Fig.2.
Fig.2.

Theoretical 0th order TM and TE reflection spectra and reflected ± 1st order TE diffraction efficiency with excitation from the substrate side.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Calculated electric field distribution of the two neighboring lowest order TE modes of the optimized structure giving rise to the spectra of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

RIBE etching rate calibration tests. (a) Chemically neutral argon ion beam, (b) 60% CF4 - 40% Ar ion beam.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

3D representation of AFM topographic data. The measurement was performed with the intermittent contact mode using a high aspect ration silicon probe.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

TE and TM reflected power at 1064nm versus incidence angle measured upon incidence from the air side.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Bottom curve: direction of polarization (measured from horizontal) versus angle α between the grating lines and the horizontal. The top curve represents the corresponding variation of the PER.

Equations (1)

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Δϕ = 2 k 0 ( n b w b + n w w w ) + π

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