Abstract

A core component of all scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) systems is the optical probe, which has evolved greatly but still represents the limiting component for the system. Here, we introduce a new type of optical probe, based on a Fractal Fibre which is a special class of photonic crystal fibre (PCF), to directly address the issue of increasing the optical throughput in SNOM probes. Optical measurements through the Fractal Fibre probes have shown superior power levels to that of conventional SNOM probes. The results presented in this paper suggest that a novel fibre design is critical in order to maximize the potential of the SNOM.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. L. Williamson and M. J. Miles, "Melt-drawn scanning near-field optical microscopy probe profiles," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4804-4812, (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Gibson, S. Huntington, S. Rubanov, P. Olivero, K. Digweed-Lyytik ainen, J. Canning, and J. Love, "Exposure and characterization of nano-structured hole arrays in tapered photonic crystal fibres using a combined FIB/SEM technique," Opt. Express 13, 9023-9028 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9023.
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    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. Minea and G. Louarn, "Nanoprobes for near-field optical microscopy manufactured by substitute-sheath etching and hollow cathode sputtering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

B. H. Lee, J. B. Eom, J. Kim, D. S. Moon, U. C. Paek, and G. H. Yang, "Photonic crystal fiber coupler," Opt. Lett.,  27, 812-814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, and D. F. Murphy, "Photonic crystal fiber devices," in Fiber-based Component Fabrication, Testing, and Connectorization,Proc. SPIE,  4943, 142-151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. T. Huntington, S. J. Ashby, M. C. Elias, and J. D. Love, "Direct measurement of core profile diffusion and ellipticity in fused-taper fibre couplers using atomic force microscopy," Electron. Lett.,  36, 121-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

R. L. Williamson and M. J. Miles, "Melt-drawn scanning near-field optical microscopy probe profiles," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4804-4812, (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Mononobe andM. Ohtsu, "Fabrication of a pencil-shaped fibre probe for near-field optics by selective chemical etching," J. Lightwave Technol.,  14, 2231-2235, (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. A. Valaskovic, M. Holton and G. H. Morrison, "Parameter control, characterization, and optimization in the fabrication of optical fibre near-field probes," Appl. Opt. 34, 1215-28, (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit and R. Salathe, "Comparison of and protection layer chemically etched optical fibre tips," Ultramicroscopy,  61, 165-170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Davis, C. C. Williams and P. Neuzil, "Micromachined submicrometer photodiode for scanning probe microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  66, 2309-2311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier - optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science,  251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, "Tapered singlemode fibres and devices Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron.,  138, 343-354, (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Drig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249-251 (1988)
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lambda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1928 (1)

E. H. Synge, "A suggested method for extending the microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region," Phil. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).

Ashby, S. J.

S. T. Huntington, S. J. Ashby, M. C. Elias, and J. D. Love, "Direct measurement of core profile diffusion and ellipticity in fused-taper fibre couplers using atomic force microscopy," Electron. Lett.,  36, 121-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier - optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science,  251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Black, R.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, "Tapered singlemode fibres and devices Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron.,  138, 343-354, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bolger, J. A.

Cahill, L. W.

Canning, J.

Chaigneau, M.

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. Minea and G. Louarn, "Nanoprobes for near-field optical microscopy manufactured by substitute-sheath etching and hollow cathode sputtering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, N.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, R. C.

R. C. Davis, C. C. Williams and P. Neuzil, "Micromachined submicrometer photodiode for scanning probe microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  66, 2309-2311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lambda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Drig, U. T.

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Drig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249-251 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Dutoit, B.

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit and R. Salathe, "Comparison of and protection layer chemically etched optical fibre tips," Ultramicroscopy,  61, 165-170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

Elias, M. C.

S. T. Huntington, S. J. Ashby, M. C. Elias, and J. D. Love, "Direct measurement of core profile diffusion and ellipticity in fused-taper fibre couplers using atomic force microscopy," Electron. Lett.,  36, 121-123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eom, J. B.

Fischer, U. Ch.

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Drig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249-251 (1988)
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B.

Gibson, B. C.

Gonthier, F.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, "Tapered singlemode fibres and devices Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron.,  138, 343-354, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier - optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science,  251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, "Tapered singlemode fibres and devices Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron.,  138, 343-354, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, P.

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit and R. Salathe, "Comparison of and protection layer chemically etched optical fibre tips," Ultramicroscopy,  61, 165-170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holton, M.

Huntington, S.

Huntington, S. T.

Ichihara, S.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kakarantzas, G.

T. A. Birks, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, and D. F. Murphy, "Photonic crystal fiber devices," in Fiber-based Component Fabrication, Testing, and Connectorization,Proc. SPIE,  4943, 142-151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Katsifolis, J.

Kerbage, C.

C. Kerbage and B. J. Eggleton, "Tunable microfluidic optical fiber gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  82, 1338-1340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Y. Youk, D. Y. Kim, and K.W. Park, "Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber," Fiber Integrated Opt.,  23, 439-446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Knight, J. C.

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier - optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science,  251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroix, S.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, "Tapered singlemode fibres and devices Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron.,  138, 343-354, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lambda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Lewis, A.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lizé, Y. K.

Louarn, G.

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. Minea and G. Louarn, "Nanoprobes for near-field optical microscopy manufactured by substitute-sheath etching and hollow cathode sputtering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Love, J.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, "Tapered singlemode fibres and devices Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron.,  138, 343-354, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

Lyytikainen, K.

Magi, E. C.

Mason, M. W.

Miles, M. J.

R. L. Williamson and M. J. Miles, "Melt-drawn scanning near-field optical microscopy probe profiles," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4804-4812, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minea, T.

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. Minea and G. Louarn, "Nanoprobes for near-field optical microscopy manufactured by substitute-sheath etching and hollow cathode sputtering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuoka, Y.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mononobe, S.

S. Mononobe andM. Ohtsu, "Fabrication of a pencil-shaped fibre probe for near-field optics by selective chemical etching," J. Lightwave Technol.,  14, 2231-2235, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Morrison, G. H.

Muramatsu, H.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, D. F.

T. A. Birks, G. Kakarantzas, P. St. J. Russell, and D. F. Murphy, "Photonic crystal fiber devices," in Fiber-based Component Fabrication, Testing, and Connectorization,Proc. SPIE,  4943, 142-151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, K.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neuzil, P.

R. C. Davis, C. C. Williams and P. Neuzil, "Micromachined submicrometer photodiode for scanning probe microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  66, 2309-2311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Niwa, T.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

S. Mononobe andM. Ohtsu, "Fabrication of a pencil-shaped fibre probe for near-field optics by selective chemical etching," J. Lightwave Technol.,  14, 2231-2235, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Olivero, P.

Ollivier, G.

M. Chaigneau, G. Ollivier, T. Minea and G. Louarn, "Nanoprobes for near-field optical microscopy manufactured by substitute-sheath etching and hollow cathode sputtering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 103702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Park, K.W.

Y. Youk, D. Y. Kim, and K.W. Park, "Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber," Fiber Integrated Opt.,  23, 439-446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

U. Ch. Fischer, U. T. Drig, and D. W. Pohl, "Near-field optical scanning microscopy in reflection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 249-251 (1988)
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lambda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rubanov, S.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sakuhara, T.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R.

P. Hoffmann, B. Dutoit and R. Salathe, "Comparison of and protection layer chemically etched optical fibre tips," Ultramicroscopy,  61, 165-170 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shin-Ogi, M.

T. Niwa, Y. Mitsuoka, K. Kato, S. Ichihara, N. Chiba,M. Shin-Ogi, K. Nakajima, H. Muramatsu and T. Sakuhara, "Optical microcantilever consisting of channel waveguide for scanning near-field optical microscopy controlled by atomic force," J. of Micros.,  194388-392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

Stewart, W.

J. Love, W. Henry, W. Stewart, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, "Tapered singlemode fibres and devices Part1: Adiabaticity criteria," IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron.,  138, 343-354, (1991).
[CrossRef]

Synge, E. H.

E. H. Synge, "A suggested method for extending the microscopic resolution into the ultramicroscopic region," Phil. Mag. 6, 356 (1928).

Ta’eed, V. G.

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier - optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science,  251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valaskovic, G. A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the diffraction barrier - optical microscopy on a nanometric scale," Science,  251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C. C.

R. C. Davis, C. C. Williams and P. Neuzil, "Micromachined submicrometer photodiode for scanning probe microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett.,  66, 2309-2311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. L.

R. L. Williamson and M. J. Miles, "Melt-drawn scanning near-field optical microscopy probe profiles," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4804-4812, (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. H.

Youk, Y.

Y. Youk, D. Y. Kim, and K.W. Park, "Guiding properties of a tapered photonic crystal fiber compared with those of a tapered single-mode fiber," Fiber Integrated Opt.,  23, 439-446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zagari, J.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, and M. Lanz, "Optical stethoscopy: Image recording with resolution lambda/20," Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651-653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Evolution of the refractive index profile in a standard tapered fibre which shows the dopant diffusion, (b) mode evolution along a standard metal coated taper which shows a strong interaction between the field and the coating at the tip and (c) metal coated tapered Fractal fibre which depicts minimal interaction between the modal field and the metal coating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Schematic representation of the Fractal fibre cross-section which clearly shows the π/n rotation of each consecutive ring of holes from the core along with the doubling of the radius of the holes in each consecutive ring, and (b) depicts when the Fractal fibre is tapered to form a near-field probe, the each inner ring of holes collapses into the core region and the modal field is then confined by successive rings of holes with minimal variation to the modal properties.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Stacked capillary tubes (outer diameter ∼ 25mm). Gentle collapsing of the outer layer reveals an octagonal profile determined by the use of eight capillaries. Interstitial gap fillers are also used to reduce the size of interstitial (unwanted) holes and minimize the fine adjustment in pressure control as much as possible, (b) Fractal preform after fusing and (c) the resulting fibre cane.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

CCD images of the cross-sections of a piece of (a) single-mode fibre, (b) PCF and (c) Fractal fibre. The diameter of each fibre type is 125 microns.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

CCD images of 488nm light transmission through (a) single-mode fibre probe, (b) photonic crystal fibre probe and (c) Fractal fibre probe. In each case, the tapered probes were immersed in a fluorescent solution which has an index of refraction greater than that of the silica fibre cladding.

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