Abstract

Spectrally-encoded miniature endoscopy uses a single optical fiber and wavelength division multiplexing to obtain macroscopic images through miniature, flexible probes. In turn, it has the potential to enable two- and three-dimensional imaging within the body at locations that are currently difficult to access with conventional endoscopes. Here we present a novel detection scheme for spectrally-encoded endoscopy using spectral-domain interferometry. Compared to previous time-domain configurations, this new detection method results in greater than 1000-fold increase in sensitivity (77 dB), a 6-fold increase in imaging speed (30 volumes per second), and a 2-fold increase in depth range (2.8 mm). We demonstrate spectrally-encoded, spectral-domain detection by conducting video-rate, three-dimensional imaging in a variety of specimens, including the paws of a mouse embryo and excised human ear bones. Our results show that this new technology enables video rate spectrally-encoded endoscopy and will therefore be useful for a variety of minimally invasive medical applications.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, "Update on Coronary Angioscopy: Review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque," J. Interven. Cardio. 19, 17-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, "Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope," Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

D. Yelin, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional imaging using spectral encoding heterodyne interferometry," Opt. Lett. 30, 1794-1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastro. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, "Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions," J Minim Invasive Gynecol 12, 359-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral- and frequency-encoded fluorescence imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 2760-2762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, "Double-clad fiber for endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2408 - 2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fujita, Y. Noda, G. Kobayashi, K. Kimura, and K. Ito, "Endoscopic approach to early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer," Pancreas 28, 279-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Philipp, W. Feichtinger, M. I. Van Allen, E. Separovic, A. Reiner, and D. K. Kalousek, "Abnormal embryonic development diagnosed embryoscopically in early intrauterine deaths after in vitro fertilization: a preliminary report of 23 cases," Fertil. Steril. 82, 1337-1342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Senat, J. Deprest, M. Boulvain, A. Paupe, N. Winer, and Y. Ville, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," New Eng. J. Med. 351, 136-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, "Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast," Cancer 101, 2164-2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional spectrally encoded imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2321-2323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, "Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle," Opt. Commun. 222, 127-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

S. Rimbach, G. Bastert, and D. Wallwiener, "Technical results of falloposcopy for infertility diagnosis in a large multicentre study," Human Reprod. 16, 925-930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

O. D. Almeida, "Current state of office laparoscopic surgery," J. Am. Assoc. of Gynecol. Laparosc. 7, 545-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

E. A. Reece, "First trimester prenatal diagnosis: Embryoscopy and fetoscopy," Sem. Perinat. 23, 424-433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Klug, B. Fabinyi, and M. Tschabitscher, "Endoscopy of the middle ear through the Eustachian tube: Anatomic possibilities and limitations," Am. J. Otol. 20, 299-303 (1999).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (4)

1961 (1)

B. I. Hirschowitz, "Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope," Lancet 1, 1074-1078 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abela, G. S.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, "Update on Coronary Angioscopy: Review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque," J. Interven. Cardio. 19, 17-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, O. D.

O. D. Almeida, "Current state of office laparoscopic surgery," J. Am. Assoc. of Gynecol. Laparosc. 7, 545-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, K.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, "Update on Coronary Angioscopy: Review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque," J. Interven. Cardio. 19, 17-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bastert, G.

S. Rimbach, G. Bastert, and D. Wallwiener, "Technical results of falloposcopy for infertility diagnosis in a large multicentre study," Human Reprod. 16, 925-930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Boulvain, M.

M. V. Senat, J. Deprest, M. Boulvain, A. Paupe, N. Winer, and Y. Ville, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," New Eng. J. Med. 351, 136-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, M. E.

Brown, C. M.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, "Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope," Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cappabianca, P.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cavallo, L. M.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cianciulli, E.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cinalli, G.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Divitiis, E.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Falco, R.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, P. M.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastro. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, "Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle," Opt. Commun. 222, 127-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deprest, J.

M. V. Senat, J. Deprest, M. Boulvain, A. Paupe, N. Winer, and Y. Ville, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," New Eng. J. Med. 351, 136-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickensheets, D. L.

Esposito, F.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fabinyi, B.

C. Klug, B. Fabinyi, and M. Tschabitscher, "Endoscopy of the middle ear through the Eustachian tube: Anatomic possibilities and limitations," Am. J. Otol. 20, 299-303 (1999).
[PubMed]

Feichtinger, W.

T. Philipp, W. Feichtinger, M. I. Van Allen, E. Separovic, A. Reiner, and D. K. Kalousek, "Abnormal embryonic development diagnosed embryoscopically in early intrauterine deaths after in vitro fertilization: a preliminary report of 23 cases," Fertil. Steril. 82, 1337-1342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Feste, J. R.

J. R. Feste, "Use of optical catheters for diagnostic office laparoscopy," J. Reprod. Med. 41, 307-312 (1996).
[PubMed]

Fischer, T.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, "Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions," J Minim Invasive Gynecol 12, 359-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froehly, L.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, "Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle," Opt. Commun. 222, 127-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, "Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast," Cancer 101, 2164-2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fujita, N.

N. Fujita, Y. Noda, G. Kobayashi, K. Kimura, and K. Ito, "Endoscopic approach to early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer," Pancreas 28, 279-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuller, P. N.

P. N. Fuller, "Microendoscopic surgery: A comparison of four microendoscopes and a review of the literature," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174, 1757-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirschowitz, B. I.

B. I. Hirschowitz, "Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope," Lancet 1, 1074-1078 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Ishibashi, F.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, "Update on Coronary Angioscopy: Review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque," J. Interven. Cardio. 19, 17-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, K.

N. Fujita, Y. Noda, G. Kobayashi, K. Kimura, and K. Ito, "Endoscopic approach to early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer," Pancreas 28, 279-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, V. R.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, "Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions," J Minim Invasive Gynecol 12, 359-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalousek, D. K.

T. Philipp, W. Feichtinger, M. I. Van Allen, E. Separovic, A. Reiner, and D. K. Kalousek, "Abnormal embryonic development diagnosed embryoscopically in early intrauterine deaths after in vitro fertilization: a preliminary report of 23 cases," Fertil. Steril. 82, 1337-1342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karasawa, S.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, "Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope," Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, "Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast," Cancer 101, 2164-2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiechle, M.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, "Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions," J Minim Invasive Gynecol 12, 359-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesslich, R.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastro. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, K.

N. Fujita, Y. Noda, G. Kobayashi, K. Kimura, and K. Ito, "Endoscopic approach to early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer," Pancreas 28, 279-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

Klug, C.

C. Klug, B. Fabinyi, and M. Tschabitscher, "Endoscopy of the middle ear through the Eustachian tube: Anatomic possibilities and limitations," Am. J. Otol. 20, 299-303 (1999).
[PubMed]

Kobayashi, G.

N. Fujita, Y. Noda, G. Kobayashi, K. Kimura, and K. Ito, "Endoscopic approach to early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer," Pancreas 28, 279-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Lang, F.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, "Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle," Opt. Commun. 222, 127-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lasser, T.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, "Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle," Opt. Commun. 222, 127-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

Maggi, G.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, S. N.

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, "Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle," Opt. Commun. 222, 127-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, T.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, "Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast," Cancer 101, 2164-2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastro. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral- and frequency-encoded fluorescence imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 2760-2762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namba, K.

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, "Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast," Cancer 101, 2164-2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastro. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noda, Y.

N. Fujita, Y. Noda, G. Kobayashi, K. Kimura, and K. Ito, "Endoscopic approach to early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer," Pancreas 28, 279-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paepke, S.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, "Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions," J Minim Invasive Gynecol 12, 359-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paupe, A.

M. V. Senat, J. Deprest, M. Boulvain, A. Paupe, N. Winer, and Y. Ville, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," New Eng. J. Med. 351, 136-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philipp, T.

T. Philipp, W. Feichtinger, M. I. Van Allen, E. Separovic, A. Reiner, and D. K. Kalousek, "Abnormal embryonic development diagnosed embryoscopically in early intrauterine deaths after in vitro fertilization: a preliminary report of 23 cases," Fertil. Steril. 82, 1337-1342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plattner, B.

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, "Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions," J Minim Invasive Gynecol 12, 359-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A. L.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastro. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reece, E. A.

E. A. Reece, "First trimester prenatal diagnosis: Embryoscopy and fetoscopy," Sem. Perinat. 23, 424-433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reiner, A.

T. Philipp, W. Feichtinger, M. I. Van Allen, E. Separovic, A. Reiner, and D. K. Kalousek, "Abnormal embryonic development diagnosed embryoscopically in early intrauterine deaths after in vitro fertilization: a preliminary report of 23 cases," Fertil. Steril. 82, 1337-1342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhall, P. G.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, "Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope," Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rimbach, S.

S. Rimbach, G. Bastert, and D. Wallwiener, "Technical results of falloposcopy for infertility diagnosis in a large multicentre study," Human Reprod. 16, 925-930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruggiero, C.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saltzman, A. J.

A. J. Saltzman and S. Waxman, "Angioscopy and ischemic heart disease," Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 17, 633 - 637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, "Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope," Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Senat, M. V.

M. V. Senat, J. Deprest, M. Boulvain, A. Paupe, N. Winer, and Y. Ville, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," New Eng. J. Med. 351, 136-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Separovic, E.

T. Philipp, W. Feichtinger, M. I. Van Allen, E. Separovic, A. Reiner, and D. K. Kalousek, "Abnormal embryonic development diagnosed embryoscopically in early intrauterine deaths after in vitro fertilization: a preliminary report of 23 cases," Fertil. Steril. 82, 1337-1342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Skinner, S. A.

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastro. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

Spennato, P.

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

Tschabitscher, M.

C. Klug, B. Fabinyi, and M. Tschabitscher, "Endoscopy of the middle ear through the Eustachian tube: Anatomic possibilities and limitations," Am. J. Otol. 20, 299-303 (1999).
[PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

Van Allen, M. I.

T. Philipp, W. Feichtinger, M. I. Van Allen, E. Separovic, A. Reiner, and D. K. Kalousek, "Abnormal embryonic development diagnosed embryoscopically in early intrauterine deaths after in vitro fertilization: a preliminary report of 23 cases," Fertil. Steril. 82, 1337-1342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ville, Y.

M. V. Senat, J. Deprest, M. Boulvain, A. Paupe, N. Winer, and Y. Ville, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," New Eng. J. Med. 351, 136-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallwiener, D.

S. Rimbach, G. Bastert, and D. Wallwiener, "Technical results of falloposcopy for infertility diagnosis in a large multicentre study," Human Reprod. 16, 925-930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Waxman, S.

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, "Update on Coronary Angioscopy: Review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque," J. Interven. Cardio. 19, 17-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Saltzman and S. Waxman, "Angioscopy and ischemic heart disease," Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 17, 633 - 637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weissman, N. J.

White, W. M.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winer, N.

M. V. Senat, J. Deprest, M. Boulvain, A. Paupe, N. Winer, and Y. Ville, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," New Eng. J. Med. 351, 136-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yelin, D.

Yun, S. H.

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

P. N. Fuller, "Microendoscopic surgery: A comparison of four microendoscopes and a review of the literature," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 174, 1757-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Otol. (1)

C. Klug, B. Fabinyi, and M. Tschabitscher, "Endoscopy of the middle ear through the Eustachian tube: Anatomic possibilities and limitations," Am. J. Otol. 20, 299-303 (1999).
[PubMed]

Cancer (1)

T. Matsunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Namba, and M. Fujii, "Intraductal biopsy for diagnosis and treatment of intraductal lesions of the breast," Cancer 101, 2164-2169 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Cardiol. (1)

A. J. Saltzman and S. Waxman, "Angioscopy and ischemic heart disease," Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 17, 633 - 637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Rev. Med. Dev. (1)

G. Cinalli, P. Cappabianca, R. de Falco, P. Spennato, E. Cianciulli, L. M. Cavallo, F. Esposito, C. Ruggiero, G. Maggi, and E. de Divitiis, "Current state and future development of intracranial neuroendoscopic surgery," Expert Rev. Med. Dev. 2, 351-373 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fertil. Steril. (1)

T. Philipp, W. Feichtinger, M. I. Van Allen, E. Separovic, A. Reiner, and D. K. Kalousek, "Abnormal embryonic development diagnosed embryoscopically in early intrauterine deaths after in vitro fertilization: a preliminary report of 23 cases," Fertil. Steril. 82, 1337-1342 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastro. Endosc. (1)

A. L. Polglase, W. J. McLaren, S. A. Skinner, R. Kiesslich, M. F. Neurath, and P. M. Delaney, "A fluorescence confocal endomicroscope for in vivo microscopy of the upper- and the lower-GI tract," Gastro. Endosc. 62, 686-695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Human Reprod. (1)

S. Rimbach, G. Bastert, and D. Wallwiener, "Technical results of falloposcopy for infertility diagnosis in a large multicentre study," Human Reprod. 16, 925-930 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J Minim Invasive Gynecol (1)

V. R. Jacobs, M. Kiechle, B. Plattner, T. Fischer, and S. Paepke, "Breast ductoscopy with a 0.55-mm mini-endoscope for direct visualization of intraductal lesions," J Minim Invasive Gynecol 12, 359-364 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Assoc. of Gynecol. Laparosc. (1)

O. D. Almeida, "Current state of office laparoscopic surgery," J. Am. Assoc. of Gynecol. Laparosc. 7, 545-546 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Interven. Cardio. (1)

F. Ishibashi, K. Aziz, G. S. Abela, and S. Waxman, "Update on Coronary Angioscopy: Review of a 20-year experience and potential application for detection of vulnerable plaque," J. Interven. Cardio. 19, 17-25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Reprod. Med. (1)

J. R. Feste, "Use of optical catheters for diagnostic office laparoscopy," J. Reprod. Med. 41, 307-312 (1996).
[PubMed]

Lancet (1)

B. I. Hirschowitz, "Endoscopic examination of the stomach and duodenal cap with the fiberscope," Lancet 1, 1074-1078 (1961).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New Eng. J. Med. (1)

M. V. Senat, J. Deprest, M. Boulvain, A. Paupe, N. Winer, and Y. Ville, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amnioreduction for severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," New Eng. J. Med. 351, 136-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Froehly, S. N. Martin, T. Lasser, C. Depeursinge, and F. Lang, "Multiplexed 3D imaging using wavelength encoded spectral interferometry: a proof of principle," Opt. Commun. 222, 127-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. M. Brown, P. G. Reinhall, S. Karasawa, and E. J. Seibel, "Optomechanical design and fabrication of resonant microscanners for a scanning fiber endoscope," Opt. Eng. 45, 043001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, "Micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope," Opt. Lett. 21, 764-766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional imaging using spectral encoding heterodyne interferometry," Opt. Lett. 30, 1794-1796 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, R. Leitgeb, and A. F. Fercher, "Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. Shishkov, and B. E. Bouma, "Spectrally encoded miniature endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 412-414 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, S. A. Boppart, B. E. Bouma, M. E. Brezinski, N. J. Weissman, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Scanning single-mode fiber optic catheter-endoscope for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 21, 543-545 (1996).
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D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, N. Iftimia, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional spectrally encoded imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 2321-2323 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, S. H. Yun, and G. J. Tearney, "Double-clad fiber for endoscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2408 - 2410 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral- and frequency-encoded fluorescence imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 2760-2762 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pancreas (1)

N. Fujita, Y. Noda, G. Kobayashi, K. Kimura, and K. Ito, "Endoscopic approach to early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer," Pancreas 28, 279-281 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sem. Perinat. (1)

E. A. Reece, "First trimester prenatal diagnosis: Embryoscopy and fetoscopy," Sem. Perinat. 23, 424-433 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

O. Nahlieli and A. M. Baruchin, "Sialoendoscopy: three years' experience as a diagnostic and treatment modality," J Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 55, 912-918; discussion 919-920 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Schizas, E. Tsiridis, and J. Saksena, "Microendoscopic discectomy compared with standard microsurgical discectomy for treatment of uncontained or large contained disc herniations," Neurosurgery 57, 357-360; discussion 357 - 360 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the spectrally-encoded imaging system. RSOD- rapidly scanning optical delay line; G1, G2 - diffraction gratings.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Data capturing and processing schematic. ZPD - zero path difference. FT - Fourier transform. CC - cross correlation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A photograph of the distal optics of the SEE probe.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Background subtracted raw fringe data obtained from the face of a plastic doll (inset).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). An expanded region of Fig. 4. (b). The intensity cross-sections along the solid and the dashed lines in (a), with its corresponding Fourier transformation and cross-correlation traces. FT - Fourier transform; CC - cross-correlation; fx’ - spatial frequencies along x’.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). An expanded region of Fig. 4. (b). The intensity cross-sections along the solid and the dashed lines in (a), with its corresponding Fourier transformation and cross-correlation traces. FT - Fourier transform; CC - cross-correlation; fx’ - spatial frequencies along x’.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a). Calculated 2D reflectance image of the doll’s face. (b). Height map demonstrating depth ambiguity around the base of the nose. (c). Sign map for unwrapping the depth image, obtained by calculating the maxima of the cross-correlation traces. (d). Unwrapped depth map. Imaging speed was 30 volumes per second.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). Two-dimensional image of a small paper flower. (b). Height map of the flower in (a). (c). 3D representation of the paper flower where height is superimposed on the reflectance image using a false color look-up table. (d). Two-dimensional image of a skin fold on volunteer’s hand. (e) Height map of the skin fold in (d).. (f). 3D representation of the skin fold where height is superimposed on the reflectance image using a false color look-up table. All images are presented at the same scale. Imaging speed was 30 volumes per second.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a). Two-dimensional image of the hind paws and tail of a mouse embryo. (b). Height map of (a). (c). 3D representation of the mouse hind paws where height is superimposed on the reflectance image using a false color look-up table. Black represents absence of two- and three-dimensional information owing to low reflectance. Imaging speed was 30 volumes per second.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

3D imaging of excised human ossicles using the SEE probe. The inferior view was imaged to highlight the incudostapedial joint (articulation of incus and stapes). The SEE image is displayed using a false color look-up table representing height. The inset depicts a photograph of the ossicles. Scale bars represent 1 mm.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N x = Δ λ G D λ cos θ ,
p i j = sign { angle [ FT ( I i , j ( x ) ) ] angle [ FT ( I i , j + 1 ( x ) ) ] } , x [ λ i 0 δ λ 2 , λ i 0 + δ λ 2 ] ,
C i j ( x ) = λ i 0 δ λ 2 λ i 0 + δ λ 2 I i , j ( ξ ) I i , j + 1 ( ξ + x ) .
I i , j + 1 ( x ) = I i , j ( x Δ θ ) .
C i j ( x ) = λ i 0 δ λ 2 λ i 0 + δ λ 2 I i , j ( ξ ) I i , j ( ξ + x Δ θ ) d ξ = A i j ( x Δ θ ) ,
Δ θ i j = index [ max ( C i j ( x ) ) ] ,
SNR 2 D = ( η R P s τ h v N x n noise ) 2 .
SNR TD = 2 η P r N x R P s N x 2 h v B P r = 2 η R P s τ h v N x 2 N z ,
SNR SD = 2 η P r N x R P s N x 2 h v B ( P r N x ) = 2 η R P s τ h v N x ,

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