Abstract

Injection mode-locking combined with stretched Q-switching of a ring resonator are proposed and demonstrated as a promising approach for advanced, guide star lasers. The concept uses two Nd:YAG lasers, producing a macro-micro pulse-burst output, optimized for efficient sum-frequency generation. We demonstrate wavelength, bandwidth and timing control required to maximize the atmospheric Na fluorescence.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran and C. Vérinaud, "Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes," in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60-85 (2005).
  4. R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).
  5. Requirements from Gemini RFP no. N231397, Dec. 2003.
  6. C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove and A. Mooradian, "Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation," Appl. Opt. 28, 2588 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  10. D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin and J. L. Alvarez, "Laser guide star related activities at ESO," Proc. SPIE 5490, 974-980 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, "Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 3353, 300-309 (1998).
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  14. A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum and D. J. James, "A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, "ND:YAG regenerative amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore and J. M. Telle, "20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers and M. A. Yuratich, "Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation," Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the Optimally Coupled Q-Switched Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin and J. L. Alvarez, "Laser guide star related activities at ESO," Proc. SPIE 5490, 974-980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

P. W. Milonni, "Resource letter: AOA-1: Adaptive optics for astronomy," Am. J. Phys. 67, 476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, "Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 3353, 300-309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove and A. Mooradian, "Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation," Appl. Opt. 28, 2588 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the Optimally Coupled Q-Switched Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, "Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser," Opt. Lett. 10, 65 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).

1981 (1)

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers and M. A. Yuratich, "Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation," Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, "ND:YAG regenerative amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum and D. J. James, "A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alcock, A. J.

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum and D. J. James, "A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, J. L.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin and J. L. Alvarez, "Laser guide star related activities at ESO," Proc. SPIE 5490, 974-980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, C.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin and J. L. Alvarez, "Laser guide star related activities at ESO," Proc. SPIE 5490, 974-980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Avicola, K.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bienfang, J. C.

Bissinger, H. D.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bonaccini Calia, D.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin and J. L. Alvarez, "Laser guide star related activities at ESO," Proc. SPIE 5490, 974-980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brailove, A. A.

Brase, J. M.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Corkum, P. B.

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum and D. J. James, "A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, "Theory of the Optimally Coupled Q-Switched Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Denman, C. A.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore and J. M. Telle, "20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

d'Orgeville, C.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Drummond, J. D.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Duff, J.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Foy, R.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).

Friedman, H. W.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grime, B. W.

Groff, K.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guidolin, I.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin and J. L. Alvarez, "Laser guide star related activities at ESO," Proc. SPIE 5490, 974-980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hackenberg, W.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin and J. L. Alvarez, "Laser guide star related activities at ESO," Proc. SPIE 5490, 974-980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hankla, A.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers and M. A. Yuratich, "Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation," Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, P. D.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore and J. M. Telle, "20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horton, J. A.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

James, D. J.

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum and D. J. James, "A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jeys, T. H.

Kane, T. J.

Kibblewhite, E. J.

E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, "Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 3353, 300-309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, R.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).

Lopez, C.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, "ND:YAG regenerative amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Max, C. E.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McKinnie, I.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni, "Resource letter: AOA-1: Adaptive optics for astronomy," Am. J. Phys. 67, 476 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

Moore, G. T.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore and J. M. Telle, "20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, J. R.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. E.

J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, "ND:YAG regenerative amplifier," J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S. S.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Presta, R. W.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. E.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Rapp, D. A.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, N.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sadighi, D.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sawyers, C. G.

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers and M. A. Yuratich, "Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation," Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, "Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics," Proc. SPIE 3353, 300-309 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Telle, J. M.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore and J. M. Telle, "20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tracy, A.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waltjen, K. E.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, "Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe," Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon and K. E. Waltjen, "Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers and M. A. Yuratich, "Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation," Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (4)

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond and R. Q. Fugate, "Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser," Proc. SPIE 5707,46-49 (2005)
[CrossRef]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie and C. d'Orgeville, "High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory," Proc. SPIE 5490, 998-1009 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin and J. L. Alvarez, "Laser guide star related activities at ESO," Proc. SPIE 5490, 974-980 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

Other (7)

Response to Gemini RFP no. N231397, Jan 2004.

T. P. Rutten, P. J. Veitch and J. Munch, "Development of a Sodium Laser Guide Star for Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems," presented at the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy, Rotorua, New Zealand, 5-9 Dec. 2005.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg and L. Taylor, "Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars," in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Australian Patent PCT/AU2006/ 001852, Dec. 2006.

Requirements from Gemini RFP no. N231397, Dec. 2003.

N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran and C. Vérinaud, "Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes," in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60-85 (2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Overall design concept. Two cw NPRO lasers provide the absolute wavelength control and tuning, and synchronized pulse slicers provide timing and bandwidth control of injection mode-locked slave lasers for subsequent SFG at the Na wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical pulses of variable duration produced by our double Pockels cell switch.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Slave laser configuration, showing pulse injection into a traveling ring oscillator via a polarizing beam splitter (TFP), and the arrangement of polarizing elements (HWP) and Q-switch required to stretch the macro-pulse formed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A single macro-micro pulse output, consisting of a train of injection mode-locked micro-pulses. The time scale is 50 ns per half cm, or 0.9μs across the whole picture.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Spectrum of the slave output corresponding to a seed pulse width of 760 ps. The FWHM bandwidth is 1.3 GHz. (b) Plot of measurements of slave laser bandwidth versus the width of the seed pulse. The curve is a fit to the data with a time-bandwidth product of 0.91 as shown.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Example of a stretched macro-pulse, 10 mJ per pulse, 50 Hz. The un-stretched macro-pulse in this case is similar to Fig. 4, but with FWHM width of 300ns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Laser Performance Requirements

Metrics