Abstract

Injection mode-locking combined with stretched Q-switching of a ring resonator are proposed and demonstrated as a promising approach for advanced, guide star lasers. The concept uses two Nd:YAG lasers, producing a macro-micro pulse-burst output, optimized for efficient sum-frequency generation. We demonstrate wavelength, bandwidth and timing control required to maximize the atmospheric Na fluorescence.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. W. Milonni, “Resource letter: AOA-1: Adaptive optics for astronomy,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 476 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  2. N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).
  3. N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).
  4. R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).
  5. Requirements from Gemini RFP no. N231397, Dec. 2003.
  6. C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove, and A. Mooradian, “Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2588 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).
  10. D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin, and J. L. Alvarez, “Laser guide star related activities at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 974–980 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, “Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 300–309 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  12. Response to Gemini RFP no. N231397, Jan 2004.
  13. T. P. Rutten, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “Development of a Sodium Laser Guide Star for Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems,” presented at the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy, Rotorua, New Zealand, 5–9 Dec. 2005.
  14. A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum, and D. J. James, “A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, “ND:YAG regenerative amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  16. Australian Patent PCT/AU2006/ 001852, Dec. 2006.
  17. T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 65 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, and J. M. Telle, “20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers, and M. A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the Optimally Coupled Q-Switched Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
    [Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin, and J. L. Alvarez, “Laser guide star related activities at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 974–980 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

P. W. Milonni, “Resource letter: AOA-1: Adaptive optics for astronomy,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 476 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, “Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 300–309 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

T. H. Jeys, A. A. Brailove, and A. Mooradian, “Sum frequency generation of sodium resonance radiation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2588 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the Optimally Coupled Q-Switched Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

T. J. Kane and R. L. Byer, “Monolithic, unidirectional single-mode Nd:YAG ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 10, 65 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).

1981 (1)

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers, and M. A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, “ND:YAG regenerative amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum, and D. J. James, “A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[Crossref]

Ageorges, N.

N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

Alcock, A. J.

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum, and D. J. James, “A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, J. L.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin, and J. L. Alvarez, “Laser guide star related activities at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 974–980 (2004).
[Crossref]

Araujo, C.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin, and J. L. Alvarez, “Laser guide star related activities at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 974–980 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arsenault, R.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Avicola, K.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Beach, R.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Bienfang, J. C.

Bissinger, H. D.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bonaccini, D.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Brailove, A. A.

Brase, J. M.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Calia, D. Bonaccini

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin, and J. L. Alvarez, “Laser guide star related activities at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 974–980 (2004).
[Crossref]

Clare, R. M.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Corkum, P. B.

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum, and D. J. James, “A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[Crossref]

d’Orgeville, C.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dainty, C.

N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

Dawson, J.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the Optimally Coupled Q-Switched Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dekany, R.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Denman, C. A.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, and J. M. Telle, “20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drobshoff, A.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Drummond, J. D.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

Duff, J.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Foy, R.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).

Friedman, H. W.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fugate, R. Q.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

Gavel, D. T.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Gilles, L.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Grime, B. W.

Groff, K.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guidolin, I.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin, and J. L. Alvarez, “Laser guide star related activities at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 974–980 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hackenberg, W.

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin, and J. L. Alvarez, “Laser guide star related activities at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 974–980 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Hankla, A.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers, and M. A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[Crossref]

Herriot, G.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Hillman, P. D.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, and J. M. Telle, “20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horton, J. A.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hubin, N.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

James, D. J.

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum, and D. J. James, “A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[Crossref]

Jeys, T. H.

Kane, T. J.

Kasper, M.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Kibblewhite, E. J.

E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, “Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 300–309 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kiefer, R.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).

Liao, Z.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Lopez, C.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Louarn, M. Le

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Lowdermilk, W. H.

J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, “ND:YAG regenerative amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
[Crossref]

Marchetti, E.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Max, C. E.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

McKinnie, I.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni, “Resource letter: AOA-1: Adaptive optics for astronomy,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 476 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mooradian, A.

Moore, G. T.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, and J. M. Telle, “20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morris, J. R.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Munch, J.

T. P. Rutten, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “Development of a Sodium Laser Guide Star for Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems,” presented at the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy, Rotorua, New Zealand, 5–9 Dec. 2005.

Murray, J. E.

J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, “ND:YAG regenerative amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
[Crossref]

Oberti, S.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Olivier, S. S.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Payne, S.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Pennington, D. M.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Presta, R. W.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Preston, J. E.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

Rapp, D. A.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Rogers, N.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rutten, T. P.

T. P. Rutten, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “Development of a Sodium Laser Guide Star for Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems,” presented at the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy, Rotorua, New Zealand, 5–9 Dec. 2005.

Sadighi, D.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Salmon, J. T.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sawyers, C. G.

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers, and M. A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[Crossref]

Shi, F.

E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, “Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 300–309 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stoesz, J.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Taylor, L.

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Telle, J. M.

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

J. C. Bienfang, C. A. Denman, B. W. Grime, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, and J. M. Telle, “20 W of continuous-wave sodium D2 resonance radiation from sum-frequency generation with injection-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2219 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tracy, A.

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

Veitch, P. J.

T. P. Rutten, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “Development of a Sodium Laser Guide Star for Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems,” presented at the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy, Rotorua, New Zealand, 5–9 Dec. 2005.

Veran, J. P.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Vérinaud, C.

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

Waltjen, K. E.

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yuratich, M. A.

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers, and M. A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

P. W. Milonni, “Resource letter: AOA-1: Adaptive optics for astronomy,” Am. J. Phys. 67, 476 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. J. Alcock, P. B. Corkum, and D. J. James, “A simple mode-locking technique for large-aperture TEA CO2 lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 148 (1977).
[Crossref]

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

R. Foy and A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, 29 (1985).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Theory of the Optimally Coupled Q-Switched Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 214 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. E. Murray and W. H. Lowdermilk, “ND:YAG regenerative amplifier,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3548 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

C. E. Max, K. Avicola, J. M. Brase, H. W. Friedman, H. D. Bissinger, J. Duff, D. T. Gavel, J. A. Horton, R. Kiefer, J. R. Morris, S. S. Olivier, R. W. Presta, D. A. Rapp, J. T. Salmon, and K. E. Waltjen, “Design, layout, and early results of a feasibility experiment for sodium-layer laser-guide-star adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 11, 813 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. C. Hanna, C. G. Sawyers, and M. A. Yuratich, “Telescopic resonators for large-volume TEM00-mode operation,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 493 (1981).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (4)

C. A. Denman, P. D. Hillman, G. T. Moore, J. M. Telle, J. E. Preston, J. D. Drummond, and R. Q. Fugate, “Realization of a 50-watt facility-class sodium guidestar pump laser,” Proc. SPIE 5707, 46–49 (2005)
[Crossref]

A. Tracy, A. Hankla, C. Lopez, D. Sadighi, N. Rogers, K. Groff, I. McKinnie, and C. d’Orgeville, “High-Power Solid-State Sodium Beacon Laser Guidestar for the Gemini North Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 998–1009 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, C. Araujo, I. Guidolin, and J. L. Alvarez, “Laser guide star related activities at ESO,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 974–980 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. J. Kibblewhite and F. Shi, “Design and field test of an 8 watt sum-frequency laser for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 300–309 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

Response to Gemini RFP no. N231397, Jan 2004.

T. P. Rutten, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “Development of a Sodium Laser Guide Star for Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems,” presented at the Australasian Conference on Optics, Lasers and Spectroscopy, Rotorua, New Zealand, 5–9 Dec. 2005.

Requirements from Gemini RFP no. N231397, Dec. 2003.

N. Ageorges and C. Dainty, Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics for Astronomy (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000).

N. Hubin, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Arsenault, R. M. Clare, R. Dekany, L. Gilles, M. Kasper, G. Herriot, M. Le Louarn, E. Marchetti, S. Oberti, J. Stoesz, J. P. Veran, and C. Vérinaud, “Adaptive optics for Extremely Large Telescopes,” in Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 232, 60–85 (2005).

D. M. Pennington, R. Beach, J. Dawson, A. Drobshoff, Z. Liao, S. Payne, D. Bonaccini, W. Hackenberg, and L. Taylor, “Compact fiber laser approach to generating 589 nm laser guide stars,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, 730 (2003).

Australian Patent PCT/AU2006/ 001852, Dec. 2006.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Overall design concept. Two cw NPRO lasers provide the absolute wavelength control and tuning, and synchronized pulse slicers provide timing and bandwidth control of injection mode-locked slave lasers for subsequent SFG at the Na wavelength.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical pulses of variable duration produced by our double Pockels cell switch.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Slave laser configuration, showing pulse injection into a traveling ring oscillator via a polarizing beam splitter (TFP), and the arrangement of polarizing elements (HWP) and Q-switch required to stretch the macro-pulse formed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A single macro-micro pulse output, consisting of a train of injection mode-locked micro-pulses. The time scale is 50 ns per half cm, or 0.9μs across the whole picture.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Spectrum of the slave output corresponding to a seed pulse width of 760 ps. The FWHM bandwidth is 1.3 GHz. (b) Plot of measurements of slave laser bandwidth versus the width of the seed pulse. The curve is a fit to the data with a time-bandwidth product of 0.91 as shown.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Example of a stretched macro-pulse, 10 mJ per pulse, 50 Hz. The un-stretched macro-pulse in this case is similar to Fig. 4, but with FWHM width of 300ns.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Laser Performance Requirements

Metrics