Abstract

We demonstrate a 50-channel high-resolution arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with a 0.2 nm channel spacing on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The chip size is 8 mm × 8 mm. High channel density and spectral resolution are achieved using high aspect ratio 0.6 μm × 1.5 μm waveguide apertures to inject the light into the input combiner and to intercept different spectral channels at the output combiner focal region. The measured crosstalk is <-10 dB, the 3 dB channel bandwidth is 0.15 nm, and the insertion loss is -17 dB near the central wavelength of λ = 1.545 μm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

2005 (5)

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. T. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress enginering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "Planar integrated optical waveguide spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 29-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," SPIE Proc. 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,". SPIE Proc. 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (6)

D. Sander and J. Müller, "Self-focusing phase transmission grating for an integrated optical microspectrometer," Sens. Actuators A 88, 1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kong, J. H. Correira, G, de Graaf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Integrated silicon microspectrometer," IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 4, 34-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Kruzelecky and A. K. Ghosh, "High-performance miniature integrated infrared spectrometers for industrial and biochemical sensing," Proc. SPIE 4205, 25- 34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Infrared micro-spectrometer based on diffraction grating," Sens. Actuators A 92, 88-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction," Opt. Lett. 26, 1888-1890 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," SPIE Proc. 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Correia, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "High-selectivity single-chip spectrometer in silicon for operation at visible part of the spectrum," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 553-559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

P.D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi-demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 812-815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. Krippner, J. Mohr, C. Müller, and C. van der Sel, "Microspectrometer for the infrared range," Proc. SPIE 2783, 277-282 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM devices: principles, design, and application," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elect. 2,236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 81,1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, "Tandem multi/demultiplexer covering the S-, C-, and L-bands using arrayed waveguide grating with Gaussian passband as primary filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 648-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, S.

Asano, H.

Baba, T.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673 - L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bartek, M.

J. H. Correia, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "High-selectivity single-chip spectrometer in silicon for operation at visible part of the spectrum," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 553-559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

Bezinger, A.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

Bogdanov, A.

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bradshaw, J. T.

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "Planar integrated optical waveguide spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 29-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bunte, E.

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, and E. Bunte, "Standing-wave spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calvo, M. L.

Cerrina, F.

Cheben, P.

O. Martínez, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. A. Rodrigo, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, "Arrayed waveguide grating based on group index modification," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1551-1557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. T. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress enginering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," SPIE Proc. 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,". SPIE Proc. 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," SPIE Proc. 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K. K.

K. K. Choi, G. Dang, J. W. Little, K. M. Leung, and T. Tamir, "Quantum grid infrared spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4439-4441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

P.D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi-demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 812-815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Correia, J. H.

J. H. Correia, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "High-selectivity single-chip spectrometer in silicon for operation at visible part of the spectrum," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 553-559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Correira, J. H.

S. H. Kong, J. H. Correira, G, de Graaf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Integrated silicon microspectrometer," IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 4, 34-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D.

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,". SPIE Proc. 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dang, G.

K. K. Choi, G. Dang, J. W. Little, K. M. Leung, and T. Tamir, "Quantum grid infrared spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4439-4441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Delage, A.

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

O. Martínez, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. A. Rodrigo, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, "Arrayed waveguide grating based on group index modification," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1551-1557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,". SPIE Proc. 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," SPIE Proc. 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," SPIE Proc. 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Erickson, L.

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," SPIE Proc. 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, J. W.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fukazawa, T.

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673 - L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A. K.

R. V. Kruzelecky and A. K. Ghosh, "High-performance miniature integrated infrared spectrometers for industrial and biochemical sensing," Proc. SPIE 4205, 25- 34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.A.

Herzig, H. P.

Jaenen, P.

Jalali, B.

P.D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi-demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 812-815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

O. Martínez, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. A. Rodrigo, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, "Arrayed waveguide grating based on group index modification," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1551-1557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. T. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress enginering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," SPIE Proc. 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,". SPIE Proc. 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," SPIE Proc. 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

Kimerling, L. C.

Knipp, D.

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, and E. Bunte, "Standing-wave spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. H.

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Infrared micro-spectrometer based on diffraction grating," Sens. Actuators A 92, 88-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kong, J. H. Correira, G, de Graaf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Integrated silicon microspectrometer," IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 4, 34-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krippner, P.

P. Krippner, J. Mohr, C. Müller, and C. van der Sel, "Microspectrometer for the infrared range," Proc. SPIE 2783, 277-282 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kruzelecky, R. V.

R. V. Kruzelecky and A. K. Ghosh, "High-performance miniature integrated infrared spectrometers for industrial and biochemical sensing," Proc. SPIE 4205, 25- 34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. T. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress enginering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. K.

Leung, K. M.

K. K. Choi, G. Dang, J. W. Little, K. M. Leung, and T. Tamir, "Quantum grid infrared spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4439-4441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

Little, J. W.

K. K. Choi, G. Dang, J. W. Little, K. M. Leung, and T. Tamir, "Quantum grid infrared spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4439-4441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manzardo, O.

Martínez, O.

Matsuda, N.

Mendes, S. B.

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "Planar integrated optical waveguide spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 29-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michaely, R.

Michel, J.

Mohr, J.

P. Krippner, J. Mohr, C. Müller, and C. van der Sel, "Microspectrometer for the infrared range," Proc. SPIE 2783, 277-282 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Motegi, A.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müller, C.

P. Krippner, J. Mohr, C. Müller, and C. van der Sel, "Microspectrometer for the infrared range," Proc. SPIE 2783, 277-282 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Müller, J.

D. Sander and J. Müller, "Self-focusing phase transmission grating for an integrated optical microspectrometer," Sens. Actuators A 88, 1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Noell, W.

Ohno, F.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673 - L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, "Tandem multi/demultiplexer covering the S-, C-, and L-bands using arrayed waveguide grating with Gaussian passband as primary filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 648-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Overstolz, T.

Pearson, M. R. T.

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Picard, M. J.

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. T. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress enginering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Picard, M.-J.

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popovic, M.

Post, E.

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Z. M.

Rodrigo, J. A.

Rooij, N. D.

Saavedra, S. S.

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "Planar integrated optical waveguide spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 29-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sander, D.

D. Sander and J. Müller, "Self-focusing phase transmission grating for an integrated optical microspectrometer," Sens. Actuators A 88, 1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schadelin, F.

Shibata, T.

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, "Tandem multi/demultiplexer covering the S-, C-, and L-bands using arrayed waveguide grating with Gaussian passband as primary filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 648-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Smit, M. K.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM devices: principles, design, and application," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elect. 2,236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 81,1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, and E. Bunte, "Standing-wave spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Takada, K.

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, "Tandem multi/demultiplexer covering the S-, C-, and L-bands using arrayed waveguide grating with Gaussian passband as primary filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 648-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takatsu, A.

Tamir, T.

K. K. Choi, G. Dang, J. W. Little, K. M. Leung, and T. Tamir, "Quantum grid infrared spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4439-4441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tarr, N. G. T.

Trinh, P.D.

P.D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi-demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 812-815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Dam, C.

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM devices: principles, design, and application," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elect. 2,236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van der Sel, C.

P. Krippner, J. Mohr, C. Müller, and C. van der Sel, "Microspectrometer for the infrared range," Proc. SPIE 2783, 277-282 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Wada, K.

Wijngaards, D. D. L.

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Infrared micro-spectrometer based on diffraction grating," Sens. Actuators A 92, 88-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wolffenbuttel, R. F.

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Infrared micro-spectrometer based on diffraction grating," Sens. Actuators A 92, 88-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Correia, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "High-selectivity single-chip spectrometer in silicon for operation at visible part of the spectrum," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 553-559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

Xu, D.-X.

O. Martínez, M. L. Calvo, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. A. Rodrigo, D.-X. Xu, and A. Delâge, "Arrayed waveguide grating based on group index modification," J. Lightwave Technol. 24,1551-1557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. G. T. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress enginering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M.-J. Picard, and W. N. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29, 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," SPIE Proc. 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,". SPIE Proc. 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," SPIE Proc. 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ye, W. N.

Ye, W.N.

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

P.D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi-demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 812-815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes, and S. S. Saavedra, "Planar integrated optical waveguide spectroscopy," Anal. Chem. 77, 29-36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. K. Choi, G. Dang, J. W. Little, K. M. Leung, and T. Tamir, "Quantum grid infrared spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4439-4441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Stiebig, D. Knipp, and E. Bunte, "Standing-wave spectrometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70×60 µm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801-802 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine (1)

S. H. Kong, J. H. Correira, G, de Graaf, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Integrated silicon microspectrometer," IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 4, 34-38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elect. (1)

M. K. Smit and C. Van Dam, "PHASAR-based WDM devices: principles, design, and application," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Elect. 2,236-250 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Takada, M. Abe, T. Shibata, and K. Okamoto, "Tandem multi/demultiplexer covering the S-, C-, and L-bands using arrayed waveguide grating with Gaussian passband as primary filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 648-650 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P.D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi-demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 812-815 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

J. H. Correia, M. Bartek, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "High-selectivity single-chip spectrometer in silicon for operation at visible part of the spectrum," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 47, 553-559 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Fukazawa, F. Ohno and T. Baba, "Very compact arrayed-waveguide-grating demultiplexer using Si photonic wire waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L673 - L675 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. V. Kruzelecky and A. K. Ghosh, "High-performance miniature integrated infrared spectrometers for industrial and biochemical sensing," Proc. SPIE 4205, 25- 34 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Krippner, J. Mohr, C. Müller, and C. van der Sel, "Microspectrometer for the infrared range," Proc. SPIE 2783, 277-282 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proceedings of the IEEE Vol. 81,1687-1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (2)

D. Sander and J. Müller, "Self-focusing phase transmission grating for an integrated optical microspectrometer," Sens. Actuators A 88, 1-9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Kong, D. D. L. Wijngaards, and R. F. Wolffenbuttel, "Infrared micro-spectrometer based on diffraction grating," Sens. Actuators A 92, 88-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

SPIE Proc. (6)

M. R. T. Pearson, A. Bezinger, A. Delâge, J. W. Fraser, S. Janz, P. E. Jessop, and D.-X. Xu, "Arrayed waveguide grating demultiplexers in silicon-on-insulator," SPIE Proc. 3953,11-18 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Delâge, "Scaling down photonic waveguide devices on the SOI platform," SPIE Proc. 5117, 147-156 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, L. Erickson, S. Janz, and D.-X. Xu, "Polarization compensation in silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating devices," SPIE Proc. 4293, 15-22 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, and D. Dalacu, "Birefringence compensation in silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide demultiplexers using a buried oxide layer,". SPIE Proc. 4997, 181-189 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Bogdanov, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. J. Picard, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, "A 100-channel near-infrared SOI waveguide microspectromer: Design and fabrication challenges," SPIE Proc. 5644, 103-110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D.-X. Xu, W.N. Ye, A. Bogdanov, D. Dalacu, A. Delage, P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and M.-J. Picard, "Design or polarization insensitive components using geometrical and stress induced birefringence in SOI waveguides," SPIE Proc. 5730, 158-172 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

P. Cheben, "Wavelength dispersive planar waveguide devices: echelle gratings and arrayed waveguide gratings," in Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, M. L. Calvo and V. Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC Press, London, 2007), Chap. 5.

A. Delâge, S. Bidnyk, P. Cheben, K. Dossou, S. Janz, M. Packirisamy, and D.-X. Xu, "Recent developments in integrated spectrometers," in Proceedings of IEEE ICTON’04 Conference, 78-83 (2004).

J. H Schmid, B. Lamontagne, P. Cheben, A. Delage, A. Densmore, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, "Mode converters for coupling to high aspect ratio silicon-on-insulator channel waveguides," to be published in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2007).

G. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics - an Introduction (Wiley, Chichester, 2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds., Silicon Photonics (Springer, Berlin, 2004).

A. P. Knights and P. E. Jessop, "Silicon waveguides for integrated optics," in Optical Waveguides: from Theory to Applied Technologies, M. L. Calvo and V. Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC Press, London, 2007), Chap. 6.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). An optical microphotograph of a 100-channel SOI AWG spectrometer. (b). SEM images of narrow deep-etched rectangular waveguides joining a slab waveguide combiner at the Rowland circle (bottom), and two adjacent deeply etched 1.5 × 0.6 μm2 waveguide apertures (top). Some waveguides (bottom) were intentionally removed to evaluate crosstalk.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Schematic of an adiabatic ridge-to-slit waveguide mode transformer. (b). A SEM view of the fabricated mode transformer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured microspectrometer channel spectra. (A) three adjacent channel spectra for input and output waveguide apertures etched down to the buried oxide layer [Fig.1(b), top), and (B) and (C) a single channel spectrum for a device with only the shallow ridge etch. (B): spectrum for an isolated channel with no nearest neighbours. (C): spectrum for waveguides with same waveguide pitch (1 μm) at the Rowland circle as the microspectrometer with channel spectra in (A).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured spectra for the SOI AWG spectrometer. The 100 channels span two free spectral ranges of total bandwidth 20 nm. The dashed lines indicate the position of output channels that were intentionally omitted to evaluate the crosstalk.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D = ds = n g Δ L λ c n s Δ α
d = 0.73 λΔ n 0.55

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