Abstract

We give a detailed description of a novel method for time-resolved experiments on single non-luminescent nanoparticles. The method is based on the combination of pump-probe spectroscopy and a common-path interferometer. In our interferometer, probe and reference arms are separated in time and polarization by a birefringent crystal. The interferometer, fully described by an analytical model, allows us to separately detect the real and imaginary contributions to the signal. We demonstrate the possibilities of the setup by time-resolved detection of single gold nanoparticles as small as 10 nm in diameter, and of acoustic oscillations of particles larger than 40 nm in diameter.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Special issue on Single Molecules, Science 283(5408), 1593-1804 (1999).
  2. M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-field optical microscopy of single metal manoparticies," Accounts Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Detection of acoustic oscillations of single gold nanospheres by time-resolved interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. C. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, "Correlating second harmonic optical responses of single Ag nanoparticles with morphology," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12482-12483 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. O. L. Muskens, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, "Femtosecond response of a single metal nanoparticle," Nano Lett. 6, 552-556 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, "Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. Stoller, V. Jacobsen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Measurement of the complex dielectric constant of a single gold nanoparticle," Opt. Lett. 31, 2474-2476 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, "Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. V. Ignatovich and L. Novotny, "Real-time and background-free detection of nanoscale particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 013901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, "Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers," Science 297, 1160-1163 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, "Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 257402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459-5463 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Zernike, "Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects," Physica 9, Part I, 686-698, Part II, 974-986 (1942).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Hwang, M. M. Fejer, and W. E. Moerner, "Scanning interferometric microscopy for the detection of ultrasmall phase shifts in condensed matter," Phys. Rev. A 73, 021802 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. J. LaGasse, D. Liu-Wong, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. A. Haus, "Ultrafast switching with a single-fiber interferometer," Opt. Lett. 14, 311-313 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. S. Patel, K. L. Hall, and K. A. Rauschenbach, "Interferometric all-optical switches for ultrafast signal processing," Appl. Opt. 37, 2831-2842 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. H. Hurley and O. B. Wright, "Detection of ultrafast phenomena by use of a modified Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Lett. 24, 1305-1307 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. L. Pedrotti and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics (Prentice Hall, 1993).
  25. H.-A. Bachor, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 1998).
  26. R. J. McIntyre, "Multiplication Noise In Uniform Avalanche Diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED13, 164-168 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  27. U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, Berlin, 1995).
  28. M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. V. Hartland, "Measurements of the material properties of metal nanoparticles by time-resolved spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5263-5274 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, F. Chevy, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, "Coherent acoustic mode oscillation and damping in silver nanoparticles," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11484-11487 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. Lamb, "On the Vibrations of an Elastic Sphere," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 13, 189- 212 (1882).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, "Size dependent properties of Au particles: Coherent excitation and dephasing of acoustic vibrational modes," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 8613-8621 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (6)

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, "Femtosecond response of a single metal nanoparticle," Nano Lett. 6, 552-556 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Stoller, V. Jacobsen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Measurement of the complex dielectric constant of a single gold nanoparticle," Opt. Lett. 31, 2474-2476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. V. Ignatovich and L. Novotny, "Real-time and background-free detection of nanoscale particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 013901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hwang, M. M. Fejer, and W. E. Moerner, "Scanning interferometric microscopy for the detection of ultrasmall phase shifts in condensed matter," Phys. Rev. A 73, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, "Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Detection of acoustic oscillations of single gold nanospheres by time-resolved interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, "Correlating second harmonic optical responses of single Ag nanoparticles with morphology," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12482-12483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-field optical microscopy of single metal manoparticies," Accounts Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, "Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, "Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. V. Hartland, "Measurements of the material properties of metal nanoparticles by time-resolved spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5263-5274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, "Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers," Science 297, 1160-1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, F. Chevy, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, "Coherent acoustic mode oscillation and damping in silver nanoparticles," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11484-11487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hurley and O. B. Wright, "Detection of ultrafast phenomena by use of a modified Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Lett. 24, 1305-1307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, "Size dependent properties of Au particles: Coherent excitation and dephasing of acoustic vibrational modes," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 8613-8621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Special issue on Single Molecules, Science 283(5408), 1593-1804 (1999).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459-5463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1966 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, "Multiplication Noise In Uniform Avalanche Diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED13, 164-168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1882 (1)

H. Lamb, "On the Vibrations of an Elastic Sphere," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 13, 189- 212 (1882).
[CrossRef]

Arbouet, A.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnaud, L.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, U.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berciaud, S.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, "Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berg, G.

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, K. J.

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billaud, P.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blab, G. A.

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, "Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bost, P.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, D.

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, "Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers," Science 297, 1160-1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broyer, M.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chevy, F.

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, F. Chevy, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, "Coherent acoustic mode oscillation and damping in silver nanoparticles," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11484-11487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choquet, D.

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christofilos, D.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cognet, L.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, "Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cottancin, E.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Del Fatti, N.

O. L. Muskens, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, "Femtosecond response of a single metal nanoparticle," Nano Lett. 6, 552-556 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, F. Chevy, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, "Coherent acoustic mode oscillation and damping in silver nanoparticles," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11484-11487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

J. Hwang, M. M. Fejer, and W. E. Moerner, "Scanning interferometric microscopy for the detection of ultrasmall phase shifts in condensed matter," Phys. Rev. A 73, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, F. Chevy, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, "Coherent acoustic mode oscillation and damping in silver nanoparticles," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11484-11487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gaudry, M.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gresillon, S.

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gusev, V. E.

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, K. L.

Hartland, G. V.

G. V. Hartland, "Measurements of the material properties of metal nanoparticles by time-resolved spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5263-5274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, "Size dependent properties of Au particles: Coherent excitation and dephasing of acoustic vibrational modes," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 8613-8621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Henglein, A.

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, "Size dependent properties of Au particles: Coherent excitation and dephasing of acoustic vibrational modes," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 8613-8621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hodak, J. H.

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, "Size dependent properties of Au particles: Coherent excitation and dephasing of acoustic vibrational modes," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 8613-8621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huntzinger, J. R.

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hurley, D. H.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Hurley and O. B. Wright, "Detection of ultrafast phenomena by use of a modified Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Lett. 24, 1305-1307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. M. Fejer, and W. E. Moerner, "Scanning interferometric microscopy for the detection of ultrasmall phase shifts in condensed matter," Phys. Rev. A 73, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ignatovich, F. V.

F. V. Ignatovich and L. Novotny, "Real-time and background-free detection of nanoscale particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 013901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, V.

Jin, R. C.

R. C. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, "Correlating second harmonic optical responses of single Ag nanoparticles with morphology," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12482-12483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jureller, J. E.

R. C. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, "Correlating second harmonic optical responses of single Ag nanoparticles with morphology," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12482-12483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalkbrenner, T.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, "Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. Y.

R. C. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, "Correlating second harmonic optical responses of single Ag nanoparticles with morphology," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12482-12483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kop, R. H. J.

R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459-5463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

LaGasse, M. J.

Lamb, H.

H. Lamb, "On the Vibrations of an Elastic Sphere," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 13, 189- 212 (1882).
[CrossRef]

Lasne, D.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmer, U.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lerme, J.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lindfors, K.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, "Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippitz, M.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-field optical microscopy of single metal manoparticies," Accounts Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Detection of acoustic oscillations of single gold nanospheres by time-resolved interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, "Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu-Wong, D.

Loukakos, P. A.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lounis, B.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, "Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, "Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers," Science 297, 1160-1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maali, A.

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, "Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers," Science 297, 1160-1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marz, J.

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, O.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntyre, R. J.

R. J. McIntyre, "Multiplication Noise In Uniform Avalanche Diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED13, 164-168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mennig, M.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

J. Hwang, M. M. Fejer, and W. E. Moerner, "Scanning interferometric microscopy for the detection of ultrasmall phase shifts in condensed matter," Phys. Rev. A 73, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muroya, T.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muskens, O. L.

O. L. Muskens, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, "Femtosecond response of a single metal nanoparticle," Nano Lett. 6, 552-556 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

F. V. Ignatovich and L. Novotny, "Real-time and background-free detection of nanoscale particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 013901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orrit, M.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-field optical microscopy of single metal manoparticies," Accounts Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Detection of acoustic oscillations of single gold nanospheres by time-resolved interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, "Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, "Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers," Science 297, 1160-1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N. S.

Pellarin, M.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perner, M.

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Porstendorfer, J.

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenbach, K. A.

Sandoghdar, V.

P. Stoller, V. Jacobsen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Measurement of the complex dielectric constant of a single gold nanoparticle," Opt. Lett. 31, 2474-2476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, "Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, N. F.

R. C. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, "Correlating second harmonic optical responses of single Ag nanoparticles with morphology," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12482-12483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, M.

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459-5463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stoller, P.

P. Stoller, V. Jacobsen, and V. Sandoghdar, "Measurement of the complex dielectric constant of a single gold nanoparticle," Opt. Lett. 31, 2474-2476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, "Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugawara, Y.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tachizaki, T.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takigahira, M.

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamarat, P.

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, "Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers," Science 297, 1160-1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamura, S.

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tardin, C.

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tchebotareva, A. L.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallee, F.

O. L. Muskens, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, "Femtosecond response of a single metal nanoparticle," Nano Lett. 6, 552-556 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, F. Chevy, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, "Coherent acoustic mode oscillation and damping in silver nanoparticles," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11484-11487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, M. A.

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-field optical microscopy of single metal manoparticies," Accounts Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Detection of acoustic oscillations of single gold nanospheres by time-resolved interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, "Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voisin, C.

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, F. Chevy, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, "Coherent acoustic mode oscillation and damping in silver nanoparticles," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11484-11487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wright, O. B.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Hurley and O. B. Wright, "Detection of ultrafast phenomena by use of a modified Sagnac interferometer," Opt. Lett. 24, 1305-1307 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Accounts Chem. Res. (1)

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Far-field optical microscopy of single metal manoparticies," Accounts Chem. Res. 38, 594-601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

R. J. McIntyre, "Multiplication Noise In Uniform Avalanche Diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED13, 164-168 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. C. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, "Correlating second harmonic optical responses of single Ag nanoparticles with morphology," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12482-12483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

N. Del Fatti, C. Voisin, F. Chevy, F. Vallee, and C. Flytzanis, "Coherent acoustic mode oscillation and damping in silver nanoparticles," J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11484-11487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Hodak, A. Henglein, and G. V. Hartland, "Size dependent properties of Au particles: Coherent excitation and dephasing of acoustic vibrational modes," J. Chem. Phys. 111, 8613-8621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Observation of intrinsic size effects in the optical response of individual gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 515-518 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, N. Del Fatti, and F. Vallee, "Femtosecond response of a single metal nanoparticle," Nano Lett. 6, 552-556 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lippitz, M. A. van Dijk, and M. Orrit, "Third-harmonic generation from single gold nanoparticles," Nano Lett. 5, 799-802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2)

G. V. Hartland, "Measurements of the material properties of metal nanoparticles by time-resolved spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5263-5274 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dijk, A. L. Tchebotareva, M. Orrit, M. Lippitz, S. Berciaud, D. Lasne, L. Cognet, and B. Lounis, "Absorption and scattering microscopy of single metal nanoparticles," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 3486 - 3495 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Hwang, M. M. Fejer, and W. E. Moerner, "Scanning interferometric microscopy for the detection of ultrasmall phase shifts in condensed matter," Phys. Rev. A 73, 021802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Voisin, D. Christofilos, P. A. Loukakos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. Lerme, M. Gaudry, E. Cottancin, M. Pellarin, and M. Broyer, "Ultrafast electron-electron scattering and energy exchanges in noble-metal nanoparticles," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

Y. Sugawara, O. B. Wright, O. Matsuda, M. Takigahira, Y. Tanaka, S. Tamura, and V. E. Gusev, "Watching ripples on crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 185504 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Perner, S. Gresillon, J. Marz, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, J. Porstendorfer, K. J. Berg, and G. Berg, "Observation of hot-electron pressure in the vibration dynamics of metalnanoparticles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 792-795 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Perner, P. Bost, U. Lemmer, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, U. Becker, M. Mennig, M. Schmitt, and H. Schmidt, "Optically induced damping of the surface plasmon resonance in gold colloids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2192-2195 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Berciaud, L. Cognet, G. A. Blab, and B. Lounis, "Photothermal heterodyne imaging of individual nonfluorescent nanoclusters and nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 257402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. van Dijk, M. Lippitz, and M. Orrit, "Detection of acoustic oscillations of single gold nanospheres by time-resolved interferometry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 267406 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arbouet, D. Christofilos, N. Del Fatti, F. Vallee, J. R. Huntzinger, L. Arnaud, P. Billaud, and M. Broyer, "Direct measurement of the single-metal-cluster optical absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, "Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. V. Ignatovich and L. Novotny, "Real-time and background-free detection of nanoscale particles," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 013901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (1)

L. Cognet, C. Tardin, D. Boyer, D. Choquet, P. Tamarat, and B. Lounis, "Single metallic nanoparticle imaging for protein detection in cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 100, 11350-11355 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society (1)

H. Lamb, "On the Vibrations of an Elastic Sphere," Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 13, 189- 212 (1882).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. H. Hurley, and O. B. Wright, "Scanning ultrafast Sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. H. J. Kop and R. Sprik, "Phase-sensitive interferometry with ultrashort optical pulses," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 5459-5463 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

Special issue on Single Molecules, Science 283(5408), 1593-1804 (1999).

D. Boyer, P. Tamarat, A. Maali, B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, "Photothermal imaging of nanometer-sized metal particles among scatterers," Science 297, 1160-1163 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

F. Zernike, "Phase contrast, a new method for the microscopic observation of transparent objects," Physica 9, Part I, 686-698, Part II, 974-986 (1942).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Pedrotti and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics (Prentice Hall, 1993).

H.-A. Bachor, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (Wiley-VCH, 1998).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters, vol. 25 of Springer Series in Materials Science (Springer, Berlin, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic drawing of the pump-probe common-path interferometer. A pump pulse and a pair of reference and probe pulses are focused on the sample in a microscope. The reference-probe pulses arise from a single pulse, split in time (10 ps delay) and polarization by a properly oriented birefringent calcite crystal. The delay between the pump pulse and the reference-probe pair can be scanned with a delay line. After the microscope, probe and reference are recombined by a second crystal and their interference monitors pump-induced changes in the optical properties of the sample. A quarter-wave plate (λ/4) and a polarizer (pol) are independently rotated to set the working point of the interferometer. The other details are described in the text.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(A) Contour plot of the intensity at the detector as a function of the angle of the quarter-wave plate and the polarizer, showing bright and dark fringes. On the thick lines, the interferometer is sensitive to either amplitude changes only (solid) or phase changes only (dashed). (B) Magnification around a dark fringe, additionally showing two working points of the interferometer where to detect pure amplitude or phase signals.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(A) The contrast ratio of the interferometer amounts to 150 as measured by scanning the polarizer angle (dots). The model (line) assumes infinite contrast, i.e. an absolute zero at the dark fringe. (B) The position of the 10%-fringe (dots) is well described by our model (intensity contour lines in steps of 0.1). (C, D) Signal from a single 60-nm gold nanoparti-cle, measured along the amplitude working line (C) and along the phase working line (D). The lines are the signals as calculated by the model assuming Δζ = (-9.3 + 10.2i) 10-5. The insets depict the corresponding positions of the polarizer (θ) and the quarter-wave plate (φ) relative to the dark fringe (df). The measurement in panel (B) was carried out in the picosecond configuration.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Noise amplitude as a function of the optical power at the detector. The solid line is a fit to Eq. (13), with σampl = 0.6 pW/√Hz, nlaser = 0, and F = 3 ≈ 1.72. The dashed line describes the expected photon noise scaling as the square-root of the probe power. The difference is due to the excess noise of the avalanche process in the analog detector. This experiment was carried out in the picosecond configuration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(A) Confocal scan of a 10 μm × 10 μm area of a sample containing 10-nm gold nanoparticles. Each diffraction limited spot is caused by a single nanoparticle. The background contains only the noise discussed in section 4.2. Probe wavelength and pump-probe delay were optimized for maximum contrast (532 nm, 0 ps, respectively). This experiment was carried out in the picosecond configuration. The sampling time was 200 ms per pixel. (B) Example of a delay scan of a single 60-nm gold nanoparticle showing a short spike due to the hot electron gas and periodic oscillations of the particle size. The inset compare the ’femtosecond’ (solid) and the ’picosecond’ (dashed) configuration of the laser system in their resolving power of the fast electronic process. The traces in the inset are normalized to the first peak. The detection bandwidth was 7.8 Hz.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(A,B) Delay scans of two gold nanoparticles with a nominal diameter of 60 nm, measured at the amplitude (solid) and phase (dotted) sensitive working point. For particle (A), the peaks have the same sign, but the sign of the vibrations is opposite demonstrating the different spectral origin. For the particle in panel (B), the dispersive contribution to the peaks is much stronger, while the vibrations completely vanish in this phase-sensitive configuration. (C) Plotting Im(Δζ) against Re(Δζ) reveals the full response of both particles in the complex plane. The arrows indicate the time evolution. In all plots, the detected intensity was 2% of the bright-fringe intensity. The traces show the average of five measurements, each with a detection bandwidth of 7.8 Hz.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P = ( 1 + ζ H ( t 10 ps ) 0 0 1 + ζ V ´ ( t ) ) .
P = ( 1 + ζ ( t 10 ps ) 0 0 1 + ζ V ´ ( t ) ) ( 1 0 0 1 + Δζ ( t ) ) ,
D ( ρ , τ ) = 1 1 + ( 1 ρ ) 2 ( 1 0 0 ( 1 ρ ) e ) .
Q ( φ ) = 1 2 ( 1 + i cos ( 2 φ ) i sin ( 2 φ ) i sin ( 2 θ ) 1 i cos ( 2 φ ) ) ,
L ( θ ) = 1 2 ( 1 + cos ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) sin ( 2 θ ) 1 cos ( 2 θ ) ) .
E det ( θ , φ , ρ , τ , Δ ζ ) = L ( θ ) Q ( φ ) D ( ρ , τ ) P ( Δ ζ ) E in ,
I det ( θ , φ , ρ , τ , Δ ζ ) = E det ( θ , φ , ρ , τ , Δ ζ ) 2 .
S ( θ , φ , ρ , τ , Δ ζ ) = I det ( θ , φ , ρ , τ , Δ ζ ) I det ( θ , φ , ρ , 0 ) .
I det = E det 2 = ( θ ̂ φ ̂ Im ( Δ ζ ) 2 ) 2 + ( φ ̂ + Re ( Δ ζ ) 2 ) 2
I 0 = ( θ ̂ φ ̂ ) 2 + φ ̂ 2 .
S = I det I 0 = φ ̂ Re ( Δ ζ ) ( θ ̂ φ ̂ ) Im ( Δ ζ ) .
σ ph = 2 B P hv ,
σ tot = σ ampl 2 + σ shot 2 + σ laser 2 = σ ampl 2 + F 2 B Phv + ( n laser P ) 2 .

Metrics