Abstract

We present a new method that provides precise detection of micro-object position with respect to a spatially periodic illumination field. Altering the mutual position of the object and the illumination field causes that a pattern of scattered light detected perpendicularly by a CCD camera changes. We present a procedure how to employ this pattern changes to track micrometer-size object in the standing wave and how to apply this method to optical tracking of Brownian particle even in periodic illumination field in motion.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
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  5. K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).
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  7. J.-C. Meiners and S. R. Quake, "Direct measurement of hydrodynamic cress correlations between tow particles in an external potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2211 (1999).
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  8. M. Polin, D. G. Grier, and S. R. Quake, "Anomalous Vibrational Dispersion in Holographically Trapped Colloidal Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 088,101 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. S.-H. Lee and D. G. Grier, "One-dimensional thermal ratchets," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S3685-S3695 (2005).
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  13. J. Lippincott-Schwartz and G. H. Patterson, "Development and Use of Fluorescent Protein Markers in Living Cells," Science 300, 87-91 (2003).
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  14. M. Dahan, "From analog to digital: exploring cell dynamics with single quantum dots," Histochem. Cell Biol. 125, 451-456 (2006).
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  15. M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378 - 2388 (2001).
  16. R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, "Precise Nanometer Localization Analysis for Individual Fluorescent Probes," Biophys. J. 82, 2775-2783 (2002).
  17. M. Speidel, A. Jonas, and E.-L. Florin, "Three-dimensional tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles with subnanometer precision by use of off-focus imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 69-71 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  29. A. R. Clapp and R. B. Dickinson, "Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Forces between a Colloidal Particle and a Flat Surface Using a Single-Beam Gradient Optical Trap and Evanescent Wave Light Scattering," Langmuir 17, 2182-2191 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  32. T. Cizmar, V. Garces-Chavez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemanek, "Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174,101-1-174,101-3 (2005).
  33. M. Siler, T. Cizmar, M. Sery, and P. Zemanek, "Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery," Appl. Phys. B 84, 157-165 (2006).
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2006 (4)

M. Polin, D. G. Grier, and S. R. Quake, "Anomalous Vibrational Dispersion in Holographically Trapped Colloidal Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 088,101 (2006).

M. Dahan, "From analog to digital: exploring cell dynamics with single quantum dots," Histochem. Cell Biol. 125, 451-456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave," Phys. Rev. B 74, 035,105 (2006).

M. Siler, T. Cizmar, M. Sery, and P. Zemanek, "Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery," Appl. Phys. B 84, 157-165 (2006).

2005 (5)

R. J. Oetama and J. Y. Walz, "A new approach for analyzing particle motion near an interface using total internal reflection microscopy," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 284, 323-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.-T. Wei and A. Chiou, "Three-dimensional tracking of Brownian motion of a particle trapped in optical tweezers with a pair of orthogonal tracking beams and the determination of the associated optical force constants," Opt. Express 13, 5798-5806 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Lee and D. G. Grier, "One-dimensional thermal ratchets," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S3685-S3695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, "Labelling of cells with quantum dots," Nanotechnology 16, R9-R25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wu, J. W. Roberts, and M. Buckley, "Three-dimensional fluorescent particle tracking at micron-scale using a single camera," Exp. Fluids 38, 461-465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).

2003 (5)

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, "Ten years of tension: single-molecule dna mechanics," Nature 421, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Lang and S. M. Block, "Resource letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers," Am. J. Phys. 71, 201-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lippincott-Schwartz and G. H. Patterson, "Development and Use of Fluorescent Protein Markers in Living Cells," Science 300, 87-91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Speidel, A. Jonas, and E.-L. Florin, "Three-dimensional tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles with subnanometer precision by use of off-focus imaging," Opt. Lett. 28, 69-71 (2003).

2002 (4)

P. Reimann, "Brownian Motors: noisy transport far from equilibrium," Physics Reports 361, 57-265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Rohrbach and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Three-dimensional position detection of optically trapped dielectric particles," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5474-5488 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, "Precise Nanometer Localization Analysis for Individual Fluorescent Probes," Biophys. J. 82, 2775-2783 (2002).

P. T. Korda, G. C. Spalding, and D. G. Grier, "Evolution of a colloidal critical state in an optical pinning potential landscape," Phys. Rev. B 66, 024,504 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378 - 2388 (2001).

A. R. Clapp and R. B. Dickinson, "Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Forces between a Colloidal Particle and a Flat Surface Using a Single-Beam Gradient Optical Trap and Evanescent Wave Light Scattering," Langmuir 17, 2182-2191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

D. Prieve, "Measurement of colloidal forces with TIRM," Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 82, 93-125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Clapp, A. G. Ruta, and R. B. Dickinson, "Three-dimensional optical trapping and evanescent wave light scattering for direct measurement of long range forces between a colloidal particle and a surface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2627-2636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S. J. van Vliet, B. G. de Grooth, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "3D Single-Particle Tracking and Optical Trap Measurements on Adhesion Proteins," Cytometry 36, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Meiners and S. R. Quake, "Direct measurement of hydrodynamic cress correlations between tow particles in an external potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

I. M. Peters, B. G. de Grooth, J. M. Schins, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "Three-dimensional single-particle tracking with nanometer resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2762-2766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Allersma, F. Gittes, M. J. deCastro, R. J. Stewart, and C. F. Schmidt, "Two-Dimensional Tracking of ncd Motility by Back Focal Plane Interferometry," Biophys. J. 74, 1074-1085 (1998).

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, "Interference model for back-focal plane displacement detection in optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 23, 7-9 (1998).

1996 (1)

J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298-310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. P. Faucheux, L. S. Bourdieu, P. D. Kaplan, and A. J. Libchaber, "Optical thermal ratchet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1504-1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Simon and A. Libchaber, "Escape and Synchronization of a Brownian particle," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3375- 3378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Allersma, M. W.

M. W. Allersma, F. Gittes, M. J. deCastro, R. J. Stewart, and C. F. Schmidt, "Two-Dimensional Tracking of ncd Motility by Back Focal Plane Interferometry," Biophys. J. 74, 1074-1085 (1998).

Block, S. M.

M. J. Lang and S. M. Block, "Resource letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers," Am. J. Phys. 71, 201-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bourdieu, L. S.

L. P. Faucheux, L. S. Bourdieu, P. D. Kaplan, and A. J. Libchaber, "Optical thermal ratchet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1504-1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, Z.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, "Ten years of tension: single-molecule dna mechanics," Nature 421, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, M.

M. Wu, J. W. Roberts, and M. Buckley, "Three-dimensional fluorescent particle tracking at micron-scale using a single camera," Exp. Fluids 38, 461-465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bustamante, C.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, "Ten years of tension: single-molecule dna mechanics," Nature 421, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheezum, M. K.

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378 - 2388 (2001).

Chiou, A.

Cizmar, T.

M. Siler, T. Cizmar, M. Sery, and P. Zemanek, "Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery," Appl. Phys. B 84, 157-165 (2006).

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave," Phys. Rev. B 74, 035,105 (2006).

T. Cizmar, V. Garces-Chavez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemanek, "Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174,101-1-174,101-3 (2005).

Clapp, A. R.

A. R. Clapp and R. B. Dickinson, "Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Forces between a Colloidal Particle and a Flat Surface Using a Single-Beam Gradient Optical Trap and Evanescent Wave Light Scattering," Langmuir 17, 2182-2191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Clapp, A. G. Ruta, and R. B. Dickinson, "Three-dimensional optical trapping and evanescent wave light scattering for direct measurement of long range forces between a colloidal particle and a surface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2627-2636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Crocker, J. C.

J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298-310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahan, M.

M. Dahan, "From analog to digital: exploring cell dynamics with single quantum dots," Histochem. Cell Biol. 125, 451-456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Grooth, B. G.

I. M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S. J. van Vliet, B. G. de Grooth, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "3D Single-Particle Tracking and Optical Trap Measurements on Adhesion Proteins," Cytometry 36, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Peters, B. G. de Grooth, J. M. Schins, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "Three-dimensional single-particle tracking with nanometer resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2762-2766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

deCastro, M. J.

M. W. Allersma, F. Gittes, M. J. deCastro, R. J. Stewart, and C. F. Schmidt, "Two-Dimensional Tracking of ncd Motility by Back Focal Plane Interferometry," Biophys. J. 74, 1074-1085 (1998).

Denk, W.

Dholakia, K.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave," Phys. Rev. B 74, 035,105 (2006).

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Cizmar, V. Garces-Chavez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemanek, "Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174,101-1-174,101-3 (2005).

Dickinson, R. B.

A. R. Clapp and R. B. Dickinson, "Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Forces between a Colloidal Particle and a Flat Surface Using a Single-Beam Gradient Optical Trap and Evanescent Wave Light Scattering," Langmuir 17, 2182-2191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Clapp, A. G. Ruta, and R. B. Dickinson, "Three-dimensional optical trapping and evanescent wave light scattering for direct measurement of long range forces between a colloidal particle and a surface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2627-2636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faucheux, L. P.

L. P. Faucheux, L. S. Bourdieu, P. D. Kaplan, and A. J. Libchaber, "Optical thermal ratchet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1504-1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Figdor, C. G.

I. M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S. J. van Vliet, B. G. de Grooth, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "3D Single-Particle Tracking and Optical Trap Measurements on Adhesion Proteins," Cytometry 36, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Peters, B. G. de Grooth, J. M. Schins, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "Three-dimensional single-particle tracking with nanometer resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2762-2766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garces-Chavez, V.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave," Phys. Rev. B 74, 035,105 (2006).

T. Cizmar, V. Garces-Chavez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemanek, "Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174,101-1-174,101-3 (2005).

Gittes, F.

M. W. Allersma, F. Gittes, M. J. deCastro, R. J. Stewart, and C. F. Schmidt, "Two-Dimensional Tracking of ncd Motility by Back Focal Plane Interferometry," Biophys. J. 74, 1074-1085 (1998).

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, "Interference model for back-focal plane displacement detection in optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 23, 7-9 (1998).

Greve, J.

I. M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S. J. van Vliet, B. G. de Grooth, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "3D Single-Particle Tracking and Optical Trap Measurements on Adhesion Proteins," Cytometry 36, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Peters, B. G. de Grooth, J. M. Schins, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "Three-dimensional single-particle tracking with nanometer resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2762-2766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grier, D. G.

M. Polin, D. G. Grier, and S. R. Quake, "Anomalous Vibrational Dispersion in Holographically Trapped Colloidal Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 088,101 (2006).

S.-H. Lee and D. G. Grier, "One-dimensional thermal ratchets," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S3685-S3695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).

P. T. Korda, G. C. Spalding, and D. G. Grier, "Evolution of a colloidal critical state in an optical pinning potential landscape," Phys. Rev. B 66, 024,504 (2002).

J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298-310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guilford, W. H.

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378 - 2388 (2001).

Kaplan, P. D.

L. P. Faucheux, L. S. Bourdieu, P. D. Kaplan, and A. J. Libchaber, "Optical thermal ratchet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1504-1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasza, K.

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).

Korda, P. T.

P. T. Korda, G. C. Spalding, and D. G. Grier, "Evolution of a colloidal critical state in an optical pinning potential landscape," Phys. Rev. B 66, 024,504 (2002).

Ladavac, K.

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).

Lang, M. J.

M. J. Lang and S. M. Block, "Resource letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers," Am. J. Phys. 71, 201-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larson, D. R.

R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, "Precise Nanometer Localization Analysis for Individual Fluorescent Probes," Biophys. J. 82, 2775-2783 (2002).

Lee, S.-H.

S.-H. Lee and D. G. Grier, "One-dimensional thermal ratchets," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S3685-S3695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

A. Simon and A. Libchaber, "Escape and Synchronization of a Brownian particle," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3375- 3378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A. J.

L. P. Faucheux, L. S. Bourdieu, P. D. Kaplan, and A. J. Libchaber, "Optical thermal ratchet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1504-1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

J. Lippincott-Schwartz and G. H. Patterson, "Development and Use of Fluorescent Protein Markers in Living Cells," Science 300, 87-91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, A. D.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meiners, J.-C.

J.-C. Meiners and S. R. Quake, "Direct measurement of hydrodynamic cress correlations between tow particles in an external potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oetama, R. J.

R. J. Oetama and J. Y. Walz, "A new approach for analyzing particle motion near an interface using total internal reflection microscopy," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 284, 323-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parak, W. J.

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, "Labelling of cells with quantum dots," Nanotechnology 16, R9-R25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, G. H.

J. Lippincott-Schwartz and G. H. Patterson, "Development and Use of Fluorescent Protein Markers in Living Cells," Science 300, 87-91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, T.

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, "Labelling of cells with quantum dots," Nanotechnology 16, R9-R25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peters, I. M.

I. M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S. J. van Vliet, B. G. de Grooth, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "3D Single-Particle Tracking and Optical Trap Measurements on Adhesion Proteins," Cytometry 36, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Peters, B. G. de Grooth, J. M. Schins, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "Three-dimensional single-particle tracking with nanometer resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2762-2766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Plank, C.

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, "Labelling of cells with quantum dots," Nanotechnology 16, R9-R25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polin, M.

M. Polin, D. G. Grier, and S. R. Quake, "Anomalous Vibrational Dispersion in Holographically Trapped Colloidal Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 088,101 (2006).

Prieve, D.

D. Prieve, "Measurement of colloidal forces with TIRM," Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 82, 93-125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

M. Polin, D. G. Grier, and S. R. Quake, "Anomalous Vibrational Dispersion in Holographically Trapped Colloidal Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 088,101 (2006).

J.-C. Meiners and S. R. Quake, "Direct measurement of hydrodynamic cress correlations between tow particles in an external potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, P.

P. Reimann, "Brownian Motors: noisy transport far from equilibrium," Physics Reports 361, 57-265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rief, M.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J. W.

M. Wu, J. W. Roberts, and M. Buckley, "Three-dimensional fluorescent particle tracking at micron-scale using a single camera," Exp. Fluids 38, 461-465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rohrbach, A.

A. Rohrbach and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Three-dimensional position detection of optically trapped dielectric particles," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5474-5488 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ruta, A. G.

A. R. Clapp, A. G. Ruta, and R. B. Dickinson, "Three-dimensional optical trapping and evanescent wave light scattering for direct measurement of long range forces between a colloidal particle and a surface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2627-2636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schins, J. M.

I. M. Peters, B. G. de Grooth, J. M. Schins, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "Three-dimensional single-particle tracking with nanometer resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2762-2766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. F.

M. W. Allersma, F. Gittes, M. J. deCastro, R. J. Stewart, and C. F. Schmidt, "Two-Dimensional Tracking of ncd Motility by Back Focal Plane Interferometry," Biophys. J. 74, 1074-1085 (1998).

F. Gittes and C. F. Schmidt, "Interference model for back-focal plane displacement detection in optical tweezers," Opt. Lett. 23, 7-9 (1998).

Sery, M.

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave," Phys. Rev. B 74, 035,105 (2006).

M. Siler, T. Cizmar, M. Sery, and P. Zemanek, "Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery," Appl. Phys. B 84, 157-165 (2006).

Siler, M.

M. Siler, T. Cizmar, M. Sery, and P. Zemanek, "Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery," Appl. Phys. B 84, 157-165 (2006).

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave," Phys. Rev. B 74, 035,105 (2006).

Simmons, R. M.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simon, A.

A. Simon and A. Libchaber, "Escape and Synchronization of a Brownian particle," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3375- 3378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. B.

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, "Ten years of tension: single-molecule dna mechanics," Nature 421, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spalding, G. C.

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Korda, G. C. Spalding, and D. G. Grier, "Evolution of a colloidal critical state in an optical pinning potential landscape," Phys. Rev. B 66, 024,504 (2002).

Speidel, M.

Spudich, J. A.

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

A. Rohrbach and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Three-dimensional position detection of optically trapped dielectric particles," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5474-5488 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, R. J.

M. W. Allersma, F. Gittes, M. J. deCastro, R. J. Stewart, and C. F. Schmidt, "Two-Dimensional Tracking of ncd Motility by Back Focal Plane Interferometry," Biophys. J. 74, 1074-1085 (1998).

Thompson, R. E.

R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, "Precise Nanometer Localization Analysis for Individual Fluorescent Probes," Biophys. J. 82, 2775-2783 (2002).

van Kooyk, Y.

I. M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S. J. van Vliet, B. G. de Grooth, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "3D Single-Particle Tracking and Optical Trap Measurements on Adhesion Proteins," Cytometry 36, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Vliet, S. J.

I. M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S. J. van Vliet, B. G. de Grooth, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "3D Single-Particle Tracking and Optical Trap Measurements on Adhesion Proteins," Cytometry 36, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walker, W. F.

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378 - 2388 (2001).

Walz, J. Y.

R. J. Oetama and J. Y. Walz, "A new approach for analyzing particle motion near an interface using total internal reflection microscopy," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 284, 323-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, "Precise Nanometer Localization Analysis for Individual Fluorescent Probes," Biophys. J. 82, 2775-2783 (2002).

W. Denk and W. W. Webb, "Optical measurment of picometer displacements of transparent microscopics objects," Appl. Opt. 29, 2382 (1990).

Wei, M.-T.

Wu, M.

M. Wu, J. W. Roberts, and M. Buckley, "Three-dimensional fluorescent particle tracking at micron-scale using a single camera," Exp. Fluids 38, 461-465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zemanek, P.

M. Siler, T. Cizmar, M. Sery, and P. Zemanek, "Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery," Appl. Phys. B 84, 157-165 (2006).

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave," Phys. Rev. B 74, 035,105 (2006).

T. Cizmar, V. Garces-Chavez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemanek, "Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174,101-1-174,101-3 (2005).

Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (1)

D. Prieve, "Measurement of colloidal forces with TIRM," Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 82, 93-125 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

M. J. Lang and S. M. Block, "Resource letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers," Am. J. Phys. 71, 201-215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Siler, T. Cizmar, M. Sery, and P. Zemanek, "Optical forces generated by evanescent standing waves and their usage for sub-micron particle delivery," Appl. Phys. B 84, 157-165 (2006).

Biophys. J. (3)

M. W. Allersma, F. Gittes, M. J. deCastro, R. J. Stewart, and C. F. Schmidt, "Two-Dimensional Tracking of ncd Motility by Back Focal Plane Interferometry," Biophys. J. 74, 1074-1085 (1998).

M. K. Cheezum, W. F. Walker, and W. H. Guilford, "Quantitative Comparison of Algorithms for Tracking Single Fluorescent Particles," Biophys. J. 81, 2378 - 2388 (2001).

R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, "Precise Nanometer Localization Analysis for Individual Fluorescent Probes," Biophys. J. 82, 2775-2783 (2002).

Cytometry (1)

I. M. Peters, Y. van Kooyk, S. J. van Vliet, B. G. de Grooth, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "3D Single-Particle Tracking and Optical Trap Measurements on Adhesion Proteins," Cytometry 36, 189-194 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

M. Wu, J. W. Roberts, and M. Buckley, "Three-dimensional fluorescent particle tracking at micron-scale using a single camera," Exp. Fluids 38, 461-465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Histochem. Cell Biol. (1)

M. Dahan, "From analog to digital: exploring cell dynamics with single quantum dots," Histochem. Cell Biol. 125, 451-456 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Rohrbach and E. H. K. Stelzer, "Three-dimensional position detection of optically trapped dielectric particles," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5474-5488 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (2)

R. J. Oetama and J. Y. Walz, "A new approach for analyzing particle motion near an interface using total internal reflection microscopy," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 284, 323-331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal studies," J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 298-310 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter (1)

S.-H. Lee and D. G. Grier, "One-dimensional thermal ratchets," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, S3685-S3695 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

A. R. Clapp and R. B. Dickinson, "Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Forces between a Colloidal Particle and a Flat Surface Using a Single-Beam Gradient Optical Trap and Evanescent Wave Light Scattering," Langmuir 17, 2182-2191 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

W. J. Parak, T. Pellegrino, and C. Plank, "Labelling of cells with quantum dots," Nanotechnology 16, R9-R25 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

C. Bustamante, Z. Bryant, and S. B. Smith, "Ten years of tension: single-molecule dna mechanics," Nature 421, 423-427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. MacDonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, "Microfluidic sorting in an optical lattice," Nature 426, 421-424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. Cizmar, M. Siler, M. Sery, P. Zemanek, V. Garces-Chavez, and K. Dholakia, "Optical sorting and detection of sub-micron objects in a motional standing wave," Phys. Rev. B 74, 035,105 (2006).

P. T. Korda, G. C. Spalding, and D. G. Grier, "Evolution of a colloidal critical state in an optical pinning potential landscape," Phys. Rev. B 66, 024,504 (2002).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

K. Ladavac, K. Kasza, and D. G. Grier, "Sorting mesoscopic objects with periodic potential landscapes: Optical fractionation," Phys. Rev. E 70, 010,901 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J.-C. Meiners and S. R. Quake, "Direct measurement of hydrodynamic cress correlations between tow particles in an external potential," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2211 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Polin, D. G. Grier, and S. R. Quake, "Anomalous Vibrational Dispersion in Holographically Trapped Colloidal Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 088,101 (2006).

A. Simon and A. Libchaber, "Escape and Synchronization of a Brownian particle," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3375- 3378 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Faucheux, L. S. Bourdieu, P. D. Kaplan, and A. J. Libchaber, "Optical thermal ratchet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1504-1507 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Physics Reports (1)

P. Reimann, "Brownian Motors: noisy transport far from equilibrium," Physics Reports 361, 57-265 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

I. M. Peters, B. G. de Grooth, J. M. Schins, C. G. Figdor, and J. Greve, "Three-dimensional single-particle tracking with nanometer resolution," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2762-2766 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Clapp, A. G. Ruta, and R. B. Dickinson, "Three-dimensional optical trapping and evanescent wave light scattering for direct measurement of long range forces between a colloidal particle and a surface," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2627-2636 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. Lippincott-Schwartz and G. H. Patterson, "Development and Use of Fluorescent Protein Markers in Living Cells," Science 300, 87-91 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Mehta, M. Rief, J. A. Spudich, D. A. Smith, and R. M. Simmons, "Single-molecule biomechanics with optical methods," Science 283, 1689-1695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. Cizmar, "Optical traps generated by non-traditional beams," Ph.D. thesis, Masaryk University in Brno (2006).

T. Cizmar, V. Garces-Chavez, K. Dholakia, and P. Zemanek, "Optical conveyor belt for delivery of submicron objects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 174,101-1-174,101-3 (2005).

R. C. Gonzalez and P. Wintz, Digital Image Processing (Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Reading, 1987).

Supplementary Material (1)

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