Abstract

Periodic structures consisting of Ge nanoparticles were formed in buried channel waveguides. Such periodic structures were created in GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films by the combination of exposure to interference patterns of ultraviolet laser light and thermally induced phase changes of the glasses. The periodic structures in the channels served as the Bragg gratings with high diffraction efficiencies in the optical communication wavelength. Transmission spectra measurements show the depths and positions of the diffraction peaks as 37.77 dB at 1536.2 nm and 38.72 dB at 1537.6 nm, respectively, for TE-like and TM-like modes. The diffraction efficiencies remain unchanged even after further annealing at temperatures as high as 500°C.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

H. Nishiyama, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Sano, E. Ohmura, and I. Miyamoto, "Thermo- and photo-sensitive GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 559-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Nishiyama, and M. Takahashi, "Photosensitive and athermal glasses for optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 464-471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

1997

N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, and D. B. Patterson, "Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in transmission: theoretical model and design criteria for nearly ideal pulse recompression," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1303-1313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser, and D. B. Patterson, "Analysis of fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in reflective and transmissive geometries," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1323-1328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Svalgaard, and S. L. Gilbert, "Stability of short, single-mode erbium-doped fiber lasers," Appl. Opt. 36, 4999-5005 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, P. St. J. Russell, G. Meltz, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Cambell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45-47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Cambell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45-47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Cambell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45-47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Åslund, M.

Baker, S. R.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, V.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bemeschi, S.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blott, B. H.

Brenci, M.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

Cambell, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Cambell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45-47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Chiasera, A.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conti, G. N.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, and D. B. Patterson, "Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in transmission: theoretical model and design criteria for nearly ideal pulse recompression," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1303-1313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Emmerson, G. D.

Ferrari, M.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukumi, K.

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Fukumi, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Periodic precipitation of crystalline Ge nanoparticles in Ge-B-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3734-3736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gawith, C. B. E.

Gilbert, S. L.

Goodchild, D.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

Guilhot, D. A.

Hill, K. O.

K. O. Hill, P. St. J. Russell, G. Meltz, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, C. W. J.

Ichii, K.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Cambell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45-47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Direct laser writing of thermally stabilized channel waveguides with Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 12, 4589-4595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Fukumi, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Periodic precipitation of crystalline Ge nanoparticles in Ge-B-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3734-3736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Nishiyama, and M. Takahashi, "Photosensitive and athermal glasses for optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 464-471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishiyama, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Sano, E. Ohmura, and I. Miyamoto, "Thermo- and photo-sensitive GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 559-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Litchinitser, N. M.

N. M. Litchinitser, and D. B. Patterson, "Analysis of fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in reflective and transmissive geometries," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1323-1328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, and D. B. Patterson, "Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in transmission: theoretical model and design criteria for nearly ideal pulse recompression," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1303-1313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, S.

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Fukumi, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Periodic precipitation of crystalline Ge nanoparticles in Ge-B-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3734-3736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Direct laser writing of thermally stabilized channel waveguides with Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 12, 4589-4595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meltz, G.

K. O. Hill, P. St. J. Russell, G. Meltz, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mills, J. D.

Miyamoto, I.

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Direct laser writing of thermally stabilized channel waveguides with Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 12, 4589-4595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Fukumi, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Periodic precipitation of crystalline Ge nanoparticles in Ge-B-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3734-3736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishiyama, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Sano, E. Ohmura, and I. Miyamoto, "Thermo- and photo-sensitive GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 559-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Fukumi, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Periodic precipitation of crystalline Ge nanoparticles in Ge-B-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3734-3736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Direct laser writing of thermally stabilized channel waveguides with Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 12, 4589-4595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Nishiyama, and M. Takahashi, "Photosensitive and athermal glasses for optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 464-471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishiyama, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Sano, E. Ohmura, and I. Miyamoto, "Thermo- and photo-sensitive GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 559-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, H.

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Direct laser writing of thermally stabilized channel waveguides with Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 12, 4589-4595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Fukumi, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Periodic precipitation of crystalline Ge nanoparticles in Ge-B-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3734-3736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Nishiyama, and M. Takahashi, "Photosensitive and athermal glasses for optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 464-471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Nishiyama, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Sano, E. Ohmura, and I. Miyamoto, "Thermo- and photo-sensitive GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 559-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ohmura, E.

H. Nishiyama, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Sano, E. Ohmura, and I. Miyamoto, "Thermo- and photo-sensitive GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 559-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, D. B.

N. M. Litchinitser, and D. B. Patterson, "Analysis of fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in reflective and transmissive geometries," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1323-1328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, and D. B. Patterson, "Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in transmission: theoretical model and design criteria for nearly ideal pulse recompression," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1303-1313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rourke, H. N.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

K. O. Hill, P. St. J. Russell, G. Meltz, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Direct laser writing of thermally stabilized channel waveguides with Bragg gratings," Opt. Express 12, 4589-4595 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Fukumi, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Periodic precipitation of crystalline Ge nanoparticles in Ge-B-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3734-3736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sano, T.

H. Nishiyama, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Sano, E. Ohmura, and I. Miyamoto, "Thermo- and photo-sensitive GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 559-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sebastiani, S.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

Smith, P. G. R.

Svalgaard, M.

Takahashi, M.

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Nishiyama, and M. Takahashi, "Photosensitive and athermal glasses for optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 464-471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tokuda, Y.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tosello, C.

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, T.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

K. O. Hill, P. St. J. Russell, G. Meltz, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watts, S. P.

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Cambell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45-47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. B.

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Nishiyama, I. Miyamoto, S. Matsumoto, M. Saito, K. Fukumi, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Periodic precipitation of crystalline Ge nanoparticles in Ge-B-SiO2 thin glass films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3734-3736 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Conti, S. Bemeschi, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and G. C. Righini, C. Tosello, A. Chiasera, and M. Ferrari, "UV photoimprinting of channel waveguides on active SiO2-GeO2 sputtered thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Cambell, "Enhanced UV photosensitivity in boron codoped germanosilicate fibers," Electron. Lett. 29, 45-47 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Takahashi, K. Ichii, Y. Tokuda, T. Uchino, and T. Yoko, "Photochemical reaction of divalent-germanium center in germanosilicate glasses under intense near-ultraviolet laser excitation: Origin of 5.7 eV band and site selective excitation of divalent-germanium center," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 3442-3446 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

K. O. Hill, P. St. J. Russell, G. Meltz, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, and D. B. Patterson, "Fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in transmission: theoretical model and design criteria for nearly ideal pulse recompression," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1303-1313 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Litchinitser, and D. B. Patterson, "Analysis of fiber Bragg gratings for dispersion compensation in reflective and transmissive geometries," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1323-1328 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, "Densification involved in the UV-based photoseisitivity of silica glasses and optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1329-1342 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, "Thermal decay of fiber Bragg gratings written in boron and germanium codoped silica fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470-1477 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Nishiyama, and M. Takahashi, "Photosensitive and athermal glasses for optical waveguides," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326-327, 464-471 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Nishiyama, K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, T. Sano, E. Ohmura, and I. Miyamoto, "Thermo- and photo-sensitive GeO2-B2O3-SiO2 thin glass films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 559-563 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. Canning, "Photosensitization and photostabilization of laser-induced index changes in optical fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 6, 275-289 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of the fabrication processes of channel waveguides with TGs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scanning electron microscope images of the channel structure (a) before and (b) after HF etching for 2 min, and images (c) from above and (d) of the enlarged one. Periodic relief patterns appeared on the channel surfaces after HF etching. Nanoparticles were observed in the convex region of the channels. The SiO2 upper layers were removed before HF etching for observation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photoluminescence spectra of (a) the films before and after irradiation and the films after annealing at 500°C and (b) the films after annealing 500°C and 600°C, which were taken under the excitation of 248-nm light.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra of the channel waveguides with TGs for TE-like and TM-like modes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Changes in (a) the diffraction efficiencies and (b) diffraction wavelengths for TE- like and TM-like modes after further annealing up to 600°C. The annealing time was 1 h at each temperature. Note that no decay is apparent in the diffraction efficiencies after annealing up to 500°C.

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