Abstract

Under seeing limited conditions very high resolution spectroscopy becomes very difficult for extremely large telescopes (ELTs). Using adaptive optics (AO) the stellar image size decreases proportional with the telescope diameter. This makes the spectrograph optics and hence its resolution independent of the telescope diameter. However AO for use with ELTs at visible wavelengths require deformable mirrors with many elements. Those are not likely to be available for quite some time. We propose to use the pupil slicing technique to create a number of sub-pupils each of which having its own deformable mirror. The images from all sub-pupils are combined incoherently with a diameter corresponding to the diffraction limit of the sub-pupil. The technique is referred to as “Pupil Slicing Adaptive Optics” or PSAO.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. Andersen, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. Gontcharov, “The Swedish 50 m ELT,” in Beyond conventional adaptive optics : a conference devoted to the development of adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubineds., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings 58, 7 (2001).
  3. T. Andersen, A. Ardeberg, and M. Owner-Petersen, eds., Euro50 Design Study of a 50m Adaptive Optics Telescope, (2003).
  4. W.G. Fastie, J. Opt. Soc. America51, 1472 (1961).
  5. F.H. Chaffee and D.W. Latham, “An image stacker for high-resolution spectroscopy on the multiple mirror telescope,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 94, 386 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  6. J.M. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy - Principles, performance, and applications,” Annual Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. J.R.P. Angel, R.L. Hilliard, and R.J. Weymann, “The MMT and the Future of Ground-Based Astronomy”, SAO Special Report, T.C. Weekes ed.,  385, 87 (1979).
  9. F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).
  10. T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf
  11. J.M. Beckers, “Increasing the Size of the Isoplanatic Patch with Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics,” in Proceedings of a ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, M.H. Ulrich, ed., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings No. 30, 693–700 (1988).
  12. J.M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Active Telescope Systems, Francois J. Roddier, ed., Proc. SPIE 1114, 215–221 (1989).
  13. A. Enmark, T. Andersen, M. Browne, and M. Owner-Petersen, “Status of the integrated model of the Euro50,” in Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management for Astronomy II, Martin J. Cullum and George Z. Angeli eds.,. Proc. SPIE 6271, in press (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics - The tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astroph. 261, 677–684 (1992).
  15. G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J.M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS focal reducers at the ESO VLT,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, Arne L Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  16. R.O Reynolds and M. Lloyd-Hart, “First science observations with the ACES echelle spectrograph,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy;Alan F. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 172–180 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. J.M. Beckers and L.E. Goad, “Image reconstruction using adaptive optics,” in Instrumentation for Ground-Based Optical AstronomyLB. Robinson, ed.(Springer-Verlag, 1987), pp. 315–336.
  18. M. Puech and F. Sayéde, “FALCON: extending adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, Alan F.M. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 303–311 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  19. J.M. Beckers, “Overcoming perspective elongation effects in laser guide star adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6592–6594 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. J.M. Beckers, M. Owner-Petersen, and T. Andersen, ”A rapid refocusing system for the Euro50 telescope aimed at removing the perspective elongation of sodium beacons,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications. Robert K. Tyson and Michael Lloyd-Hart, eds., Proc. SPIE 5169, 123–136 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Enmark, T. Andersen, M. Browne, and M. Owner-Petersen, “Status of the integrated model of the Euro50,” in Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management for Astronomy II, Martin J. Cullum and George Z. Angeli eds.,. Proc. SPIE 6271, in press (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

R.O Reynolds and M. Lloyd-Hart, “First science observations with the ACES echelle spectrograph,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy;Alan F. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 172–180 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Puech and F. Sayéde, “FALCON: extending adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, Alan F.M. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 303–311 (2004)
[Crossref]

M. Puech and F. Sayéde, “FALCON: extending adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, Alan F.M. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 303–311 (2004)
[Crossref]

J.M. Beckers, M. Owner-Petersen, and T. Andersen, ”A rapid refocusing system for the Euro50 telescope aimed at removing the perspective elongation of sodium beacons,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications. Robert K. Tyson and Michael Lloyd-Hart, eds., Proc. SPIE 5169, 123–136 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J.M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS focal reducers at the ESO VLT,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, Arne L Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

1993 (1)

J.M. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy - Principles, performance, and applications,” Annual Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

J.M. Beckers, “Overcoming perspective elongation effects in laser guide star adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6592–6594 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics - The tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astroph. 261, 677–684 (1992).

1989 (1)

J.M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Active Telescope Systems, Francois J. Roddier, ed., Proc. SPIE 1114, 215–221 (1989).

1982 (1)

F.H. Chaffee and D.W. Latham, “An image stacker for high-resolution spectroscopy on the multiple mirror telescope,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 94, 386 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

J.R.P. Angel, R.L. Hilliard, and R.J. Weymann, “The MMT and the Future of Ground-Based Astronomy”, SAO Special Report, T.C. Weekes ed.,  385, 87 (1979).

Andersen, T.

A. Enmark, T. Andersen, M. Browne, and M. Owner-Petersen, “Status of the integrated model of the Euro50,” in Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management for Astronomy II, Martin J. Cullum and George Z. Angeli eds.,. Proc. SPIE 6271, in press (2006).
[Crossref]

J.M. Beckers, M. Owner-Petersen, and T. Andersen, ”A rapid refocusing system for the Euro50 telescope aimed at removing the perspective elongation of sodium beacons,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications. Robert K. Tyson and Michael Lloyd-Hart, eds., Proc. SPIE 5169, 123–136 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Andersen, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. Gontcharov, “The Swedish 50 m ELT,” in Beyond conventional adaptive optics : a conference devoted to the development of adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubineds., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings 58, 7 (2001).

Angel, J.R.P.

J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

J.R.P. Angel, R.L. Hilliard, and R.J. Weymann, “The MMT and the Future of Ground-Based Astronomy”, SAO Special Report, T.C. Weekes ed.,  385, 87 (1979).

Angel, R.

C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
[Crossref]

Atad, E.

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

Avila, G.

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J.M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS focal reducers at the ESO VLT,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, Arne L Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barlow, M.J.

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Beckers, J.M.

J.M. Beckers, M. Owner-Petersen, and T. Andersen, ”A rapid refocusing system for the Euro50 telescope aimed at removing the perspective elongation of sodium beacons,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications. Robert K. Tyson and Michael Lloyd-Hart, eds., Proc. SPIE 5169, 123–136 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J.M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS focal reducers at the ESO VLT,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, Arne L Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
[Crossref]

J.M. Beckers, “Adaptive optics for astronomy - Principles, performance, and applications,” Annual Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 31, 13–62 (1993).
[Crossref]

J.M. Beckers, “Overcoming perspective elongation effects in laser guide star adaptive optics,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6592–6594 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Active Telescope Systems, Francois J. Roddier, ed., Proc. SPIE 1114, 215–221 (1989).

J.M. Beckers, “Increasing the Size of the Isoplanatic Patch with Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics,” in Proceedings of a ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, M.H. Ulrich, ed., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings No. 30, 693–700 (1988).

J.M. Beckers and L.E. Goad, “Image reconstruction using adaptive optics,” in Instrumentation for Ground-Based Optical AstronomyLB. Robinson, ed.(Springer-Verlag, 1987), pp. 315–336.

Black, J.H.

J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brooks, D.

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Browne, M.

A. Enmark, T. Andersen, M. Browne, and M. Owner-Petersen, “Status of the integrated model of the Euro50,” in Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management for Astronomy II, Martin J. Cullum and George Z. Angeli eds.,. Proc. SPIE 6271, in press (2006).
[Crossref]

Chaffee, F.H.

F.H. Chaffee and D.W. Latham, “An image stacker for high-resolution spectroscopy on the multiple mirror telescope,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 94, 386 (1982).
[Crossref]

Crawford, I.A.

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Cunningham, C.R.

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

Dainty, CD.

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

Dekker, H.

C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
[Crossref]

Devaney, N.

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

Diego, F.

C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Dryburgh, J.M.

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Enmark, A.

A. Enmark, T. Andersen, M. Browne, and M. Owner-Petersen, “Status of the integrated model of the Euro50,” in Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management for Astronomy II, Martin J. Cullum and George Z. Angeli eds.,. Proc. SPIE 6271, in press (2006).
[Crossref]

Fastie, W.G.

W.G. Fastie, J. Opt. Soc. America51, 1472 (1961).

Fish, A.C.

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Fugate, R.G.

J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ge, J.

J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gendron, E.

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics - The tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astroph. 261, 677–684 (1992).

Goad, L.E.

J.M. Beckers and L.E. Goad, “Image reconstruction using adaptive optics,” in Instrumentation for Ground-Based Optical AstronomyLB. Robinson, ed.(Springer-Verlag, 1987), pp. 315–336.

Goncharov, A.S.

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

Gontcharov, A.

T. Andersen, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. Gontcharov, “The Swedish 50 m ELT,” in Beyond conventional adaptive optics : a conference devoted to the development of adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubineds., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings 58, 7 (2001).

Hawarden, T.G.

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

Henry, D.M.

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

Hilliard, R.L.

J.R.P. Angel, R.L. Hilliard, and R.J. Weymann, “The MMT and the Future of Ground-Based Astronomy”, SAO Special Report, T.C. Weekes ed.,  385, 87 (1979).

Hinkle, K.

C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
[Crossref]

Howarth, I.D.

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Iye, Masanori

M. Puech and F. Sayéde, “FALCON: extending adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, Alan F.M. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 303–311 (2004)
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, B.

J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Latham, D.W.

F.H. Chaffee and D.W. Latham, “An image stacker for high-resolution spectroscopy on the multiple mirror telescope,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 94, 386 (1982).
[Crossref]

Lloyd-Hart, M.

R.O Reynolds and M. Lloyd-Hart, “First science observations with the ACES echelle spectrograph,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy;Alan F. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 172–180 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
[Crossref]

Moorwood, Alan F.M.

M. Puech and F. Sayéde, “FALCON: extending adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, Alan F.M. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 303–311 (2004)
[Crossref]

Norrie, C.J.

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

Owner-Petersen, M.

A. Enmark, T. Andersen, M. Browne, and M. Owner-Petersen, “Status of the integrated model of the Euro50,” in Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management for Astronomy II, Martin J. Cullum and George Z. Angeli eds.,. Proc. SPIE 6271, in press (2006).
[Crossref]

J.M. Beckers, M. Owner-Petersen, and T. Andersen, ”A rapid refocusing system for the Euro50 telescope aimed at removing the perspective elongation of sodium beacons,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications. Robert K. Tyson and Michael Lloyd-Hart, eds., Proc. SPIE 5169, 123–136 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Andersen, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. Gontcharov, “The Swedish 50 m ELT,” in Beyond conventional adaptive optics : a conference devoted to the development of adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubineds., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings 58, 7 (2001).

Pilachowski, C.

C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
[Crossref]

Puech, M.

M. Puech and F. Sayéde, “FALCON: extending adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, Alan F.M. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 303–311 (2004)
[Crossref]

Reynolds, R.O

R.O Reynolds and M. Lloyd-Hart, “First science observations with the ACES echelle spectrograph,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy;Alan F. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 172–180 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut and E. Gendron, “Laser guide star in adaptive optics - The tilt determination problem,” Astron. Astroph. 261, 677–684 (1992).

Rupprecht, G.

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J.M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS focal reducers at the ESO VLT,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, Arne L Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sayéde, F.

M. Puech and F. Sayéde, “FALCON: extending adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, Alan F.M. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 303–311 (2004)
[Crossref]

Spyromilio, J.

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Tull, R.

C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
[Crossref]

Vogt, S.

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Walker, D.D.

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F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

Weymann, R.J.

J.R.P. Angel, R.L. Hilliard, and R.J. Weymann, “The MMT and the Future of Ground-Based Astronomy”, SAO Special Report, T.C. Weekes ed.,  385, 87 (1979).

Woolf, N.

J. Ge, J.R.P. Angel, B. Jacobsen, N. Woolf, R.G. Fugate, J.H. Black, and M. Lloyd-Hart, “An Optical Ultrahigh-Resolution Cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph with Adaptive Optics,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 879–891 (2002).
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Proc. SPIE (6)

G. Avila, G. Rupprecht, and J.M. Beckers, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for the FORS focal reducers at the ESO VLT,” in Optical Telescopes of Today and Tomorrow, Arne L Ardeberg, ed., Proc. SPIE 2871, 1135–1143 (1997).
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R.O Reynolds and M. Lloyd-Hart, “First science observations with the ACES echelle spectrograph,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy;Alan F. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 172–180 (2004).
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J.M. Beckers, “Detailed compensation of atmospheric seeing using multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Active Telescope Systems, Francois J. Roddier, ed., Proc. SPIE 1114, 215–221 (1989).

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M. Puech and F. Sayéde, “FALCON: extending adaptive optics corrections to cosmological fields,” in Ground-based Instrumentation for Astronomy, Alan F.M. Moorwood and Masanori Iye, eds., Proc. SPIE 5492, 303–311 (2004)
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J.M. Beckers, M. Owner-Petersen, and T. Andersen, ”A rapid refocusing system for the Euro50 telescope aimed at removing the perspective elongation of sodium beacons,” in Astronomical Adaptive Optics Systems and Applications. Robert K. Tyson and Michael Lloyd-Hart, eds., Proc. SPIE 5169, 123–136 (2004).
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Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. (1)

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[Crossref]

C. Pilachowski, H. Dekker, K. Hinkle, R. Tull, S. Vogt, D.D. Walker, F. Diego, and R. Angel, “High-Resolution Spectrographs for Large Telescopes,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 107, 983–989 (1995).
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T. Andersen, M. Owner-Petersen, and A. Gontcharov, “The Swedish 50 m ELT,” in Beyond conventional adaptive optics : a conference devoted to the development of adaptive optics for extremely large telescopes, E. Vernet, R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and N. Hubineds., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings 58, 7 (2001).

T. Andersen, A. Ardeberg, and M. Owner-Petersen, eds., Euro50 Design Study of a 50m Adaptive Optics Telescope, (2003).

W.G. Fastie, J. Opt. Soc. America51, 1472 (1961).

J.R.P. Angel, R.L. Hilliard, and R.J. Weymann, “The MMT and the Future of Ground-Based Astronomy”, SAO Special Report, T.C. Weekes ed.,  385, 87 (1979).

F. Diego, A.C. Fish, M.J. Barlow, I.A. Crawford, J. Spyromilio, J.M. Dryburgh, D. Brooks, I.D. Howarth, and D.D. Walker, “The Ultra-High-Resolution Facility at the Anglo-Australian Telescope,” Monthly Notices RAS  272, 323–332 (1995).

T.G. Hawarden, E. Atad, C.R. Cunningham, D.M. Henry, C.J. Norrie, CD. Dainty, N. Devaney, and A.S. Goncharov, “Atmospheric dispersion correction for ELT instruments,” Final Report on Atmospheric Dispersion Correction for the EC Framework Programme 6 (2006), http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/ELT/Manuscripts/Atad.pdf

J.M. Beckers, “Increasing the Size of the Isoplanatic Patch with Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics,” in Proceedings of a ESO Conference on Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, M.H. Ulrich, ed., ESO Conference and Workshop Proceedings No. 30, 693–700 (1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pupil slicing arrangement for the 6-mirror MMT A through F represents the 6 1.8-m mirrors. The column of 6 squares in the center represents the wedgelet array at the spectrograph slit. (Courtesy Chaffee and Latham).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Slicing the 618 element Euro50 primary mirror. The 18 (+ vignetted central) hexagons shown are the hexagonal sub-pupils segments each containing 32 to 33 primary mirror hexagonal elements. The large dashed hexagon represents the primary mirror outline.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of the proposed Euro50 pupil slicer. The collimator mirror images the pupil on a mirror consisting of an array of flat hexagonal segments (see Fig. 2 for the 18/19 segment array). The individual segments are slightly tilted to give the (seeing limited) stellar image pattern wanted on the spectrograph slit/wedgelet combination. In the Pupil Slicing Adaptive Optics configuration (section 5) the flat hexagonal segments are replaced by adaptive mirrors, which also allow for tip-tilt control of the wavefront error. In the PSAO mode the (diffraction limited) images are recombined incoherently on the spectrograph entrance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Control diagram for PSAO wavefront control system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of the Euro50 High Resolution Optical Echelle Spectrograph using an 18 element PSAO configuration. Preceding the spectrograph entrance fiber is a focal reducer and an atmospheric dispersion compensator consisting of a pair of 3-element Risley prisms. The spectrograph is a cross-dispersed Echelle spectrograph similar to the ESO HARPS. The MEMS-DM tilts in the PSAO unit are all adjusted to combine the 18 images on the fiber entrance. Not shown is the cross-disperser.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Modern High-Resolution Spectrographs a

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Table 2. Some science targets requiring ELTs with high resolution spectrographs

Equations (3)

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R = 2 tan β∙D gr ∙FR coll / SW
R = 2 tan β∙D gr / ( φ∙D )
R = 2 tan β∙D gr / λ ,

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