Abstract

This paper reviews over 30 years of work on photonic analog-to-digital converters. The review is limited to systems in which the input is a radio-frequency (RF) signal in the electronic domain and the output is a digital version of that signal also in the electronic domain, and thus the review excludes photonic systems directed towards digitizing images or optical communication signals. The state of the art in electronic ADCs, basic properties of ADCs and properties of analog optical links, which are found in many photonic ADCs, are reviewed as background information for understanding photonic ADCs. Then four classes of photonic ADCs are reviewed: 1) photonic assisted ADC in which a photonic device is added to an electronic ADC to improve performance, 2) photonic sampling and electronic quantizing ADC, 3) electronic sampling and photonic quantizing ADC, and 4) photonic sampling and quantizing ADC. It is noted, however, that all 4 classes of “photonic ADC” require some electronic sampling and quantization. After reviewing all known photonic ADCs in the four classes, the review concludes with a discussion of the potential for photonic ADCs in the future.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

W. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yao, and M. Yan, “All-optical analog-to-digital conversion using a single phase modulator in a multi-channel polarization-differential interferometer,” submitted to OFC (2007).

2006 (6)

I. A. Goncharenko, A. K. Esman, V. K. Kuleshov, and V. A. Pilipovich, “Optical broadband analog-digital conversion on the base of microring resonator,” Opt. Commun. 257, 54–61 (2006).
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J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Demonstration and analysis of a 40-Gigasample/s interferometric analog-to-digital converter,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1247–1256(2006).
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J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Analysis of the resolution-bandwidth-noise trade-off in wavelength-based photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4310–4318 (2006).
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K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, S. Namiki, and K. Kitayama, “Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: nonlinear fiber-optic sagnac-loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2618–2628 (2006).
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F. X. Kartner, R. Amataya, G. Barbastathis, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutta, M. Par, M. Perrotta, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, S. Spector, and J. U. Yoon, “Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion,” 3rd OEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 203–205 (2006).

J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Signal reconstruction by phase retrieval and optical back-propagation in phase-diverse photonic time-stretch systems,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol. (2006).

2005 (10)

T. Sarros, S. R. Al-Sarawi, P. Celinski, and K. A. Corbett, “Optical threshold logic analog-to-digital converters using self electro-optic effect devices,” Proc. SPIE 5649, 227–236 (2005).
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Y. Han and B. Jalali , “Continuous-time time-stretched analog-to-digital converter array implemented using virtual time gating,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syst.-I 52, 1502–1507 (2005).
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J. Stigwall and S. Galt, “Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme,” IEEE Photonic. Technol. Lett. 17, 468–470 (2005).
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B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, and K. J. Grant, “Performance of a photonic oversampled sigma-delta quantizer,” Proc. SPIE 5814, 248–261 (2005).
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P. Jiang, Y. Chai, I. White, R. Penty, J. Heaton, A. Kuver, S. Clements, C. G. Leburn, A. McWilliam, A. A. Lagatsky, C T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “80 GSPS Photonic analogue to digital conversion system using broadband continuous wave source,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2005, Digest 874–876 (2005).

K. Ikeda, J. M. Abdul, S. Namiki, and K. Kitayama, “Optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast A/D conversion using nonlinear fiber-optic switches based on Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 13, 4296–4302 (2005).
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S. Oda and A. Maruta, “A novel quantization scheme by slicing supercontinuum spectrum for all-optical analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 17, 465–467 (2005).
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K. Kitayama, K. Ikeda, H. Tobioka, T. Inoue, and S. Namiki, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, 209–210 (2005).

K. Ioakeimidi, R. F. Leheny, S. Gradinaru, P. R. Bolton, R. Aldana, K. Ma, J. E. Clendenin, J. S. Harris, Jr., and R. F. W. Pease, “Photoelectronic analog-to-digital conversion: sampling and quantizing at 100 Gs/s,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 53, 336–342 (2005).
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H. Zmuda, S. Hanna, R. J. Bussjager, M. L. Fanto, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, J. E. Malowicki, and P. L. Repak, “Optically assisted high-speed, high resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 5814, 51–61 (2005)
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2004 (14)

H. Zmuda and S. Hanna, “High-speed, high resolution optically assisted analog-to-digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 5435, 153–163 (2004).
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K. Ma, R. Urata, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Low-temperature growth of GaAs on Si used for ultrafast photoconductive switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 800–804 (2004).
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Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, “Real-time A/D conversion at 480 GSample/s using the phase diversity photonic time-stretch system,” Proc. Microwave Photonics 2004, 186–189 (2004).

W. Ng, L. Luh, D. L. Persechini, D. Le, Y. M. So, M. Mokhtari, C. Fields, D. Yap, and J. E. Jensen, “Ultrahigh-speed photonic analog-to-digital conversion technologies,” Proc. SPIE 5435, 171–177 (2004).L. Luh, W. Ng, J. F. Jensen, D. Le, D. Persechini, S. Thomas, C. Fields, and J. Lin, “A 10.24 GSPS photonic sampled bandpass ΔΣ modulator direct-sampling at 12GHz,” IEEE 2005 Custom Integrated Circuits Conf.387–390 (2005).
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W. Ng and Y. M. So, “Characterizations of absolute phase noise in fibe-laser modelocked by sapphire-loaded cavity resonator oscillator at 10 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 40, 672–674 (2004).
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W. Ng, Y. M. So, R. Stephens, and D. Persechini, “Characterization of the jitter in a mode-locked Er-fiber laser and its application in photonic sampling for analog-to-digital conversion at 10 Gsample/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1953–1961, (2004).
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G. C. Valley, J. P. Hurrell, and G. A. Sefler, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters: fundamental and practical limits,” Proc. SPIE 5618, 96–106 (2004).
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E. W. Jacobs, J.B. Sobti, V.F. Vella, R. Nguyen, D.J. Albares, R.B. Olsen, C.T. Chang, C.K. Sun, M.J. Choe, S. Beccue, R. Yu, and J.P.A. van der Wagt , “Optically clocked track-and-hold for high-speed high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” Technical Digest, 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, 190–192 (2004).

S. Oda, A. Maruta, and K. Kitayama, “All-optical quantization scheme based on fiber nonlinearity,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 16, 587–589 (2004).
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M. P. Fok, K. L. Lee, and C. Shu, “4 × 2.5 GHz repetitive photonic sampler for high-speed analog-to-digital signal conversion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 876–878 (2004).
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M. Currie, “Hybrid photonic analog-to-digital conversion using superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity 14, 2047–2052 (2004).
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T. Sarros, K. A. Corbett, S. F. Al-Sarawi, K. J. Grant, B. A. Clare, K. J. Grant, and W. Marwood, “Differential optoelectronic subtractor using self electro-optic effect devices for use in sigma-delta modulation,” Proc. SPIE 5274, 252–263 (2004).
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B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, A. Massie, J. Munch, and W. Marwood, “Photonic A/Ds employing S-SEED Comparators,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 42–53 (2004).
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X. Meng, “Designing high dynamic range microwave photonic links for radio applications,” Fiber and Integrated Optics 23, 1–56 (2004).
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2003 (13)

R. C. Williamson, R. D. Younger, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, and J. C. Twichell, “Precision calibration of an optically sampled analog-to-digital converter,” Digest of IEEE LEOS Summer Topical Meeting on Photonic Time/Frequency Measurement and Control, 22–23 (2003).

B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, and J. Munch, “Investigation of critical slowing down in a bistable S-SEED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2883–2890 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. L. Li and P. K. L. Yu, “Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2010–2030 (2003).
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S. Galt, A. Magnusson, and S. Hard, “Dynamic demonstration of diffractive optic analog-to-digital converter scheme,” Appl. Opt. 42, 264–270 (2003).
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C. Xu and X. Liu, “Photonic analog-to-digital converter using soliton self-frequency shift and interleaving spectral filters,” Opt. Lett. 28, 986–988 (2003).
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R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. A. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Ultrafast optoelectronic sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 724–726 (2003).
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R. Urata, L. Y. Nathawad, R. Takahashi, Ma K., Miller D. A. B., B. A. Wooley, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Photonic A/D conversion using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM switches integrated with Si-CMOS,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3104–3114 (2003).
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L. Y. Nathawad, R. Urata, B. A. Wooley, and D. A. B. Miller, “A 40-GHz-bandwidth, 4-bit, time-interleaved A/D converter using photoconductive sampling,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 2021–2030 (2003).
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R. F. Pease, K. Ioakeimidi, R. Aldana, and R. Leheny, “Photoelectronic analog-to-digital conversion using miniature electron optics: Basic design considerations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 2826–2829 (2003).
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Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Time-bandwidth product of the photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 51, 1886–2003, (2003).
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Y. Han and B. Jalali, “Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: fundamental concepts and practical considerations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3085–3103, (2003).
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Y. Han, B. Jalali, J. Han, B. Seo, and H. Fetterman, “Demonstration and analysis of single sideband photonic time-stretch system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1276–1280 (2003).

Y. Han, B. Rezaei, V. P. Roychowdhury, and B. Jalali, “Adaptive online calibration in time-stretched ADC arrays,” Proc. Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conf., 1212–1216 (2003).

2002 (10)

A.S. Bhushan, P. V. Kelkar, B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, and M. Islam, “130-GSa/s photonic Analog-to-digital converter with time stretch preprocessor, IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 14, 684–686, (2002).
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C. M. DePriest, M., T. Yilmaz, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “High-quality photonic sampling streams from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 380–389 (2002).
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M. J. Hayduk, R. J. Bussjager, S. T. Johns, C. M. Gerhardstein, and G. Wicks, “Contrast ratio enhancement in a saturable absorber based photonic analog to digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4732, 46–52 (2002).
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T. Konishi, K. Tanimura, K. Asano, Y. Oshita, and Y. Ichioka, “All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2817–2823 (2002).
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P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, and J. C. Twichell, “Impact of photodetector nonlinearities on photonic analog-to-digital converters,” CLEO 2002 Digest, 11–12 (2002).

H. Zmuda, M. J. Hayduk, R. J. Bussjager, and E. N. Toughlian, “Wavelength-based analog-to-digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 4547, 134–145 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. L. Shoop and P. K. Das, “Mismatch-tolerant distributed photonic analog-to-digital conversion using spatial oversampling and noise shaping,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1674–1687 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Sarros, S. F. Al-Sarawi, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, B. A. Clare, and W. Marwood, “Oversampled optoelectronic analog-digital converters using sigma-delta modulation,” Proc. SPIE 4935, 178–187 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, B. A. Claire, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, and J. Munch, “Differential oversampling data converters in SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 33, 141–151 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. E. Grein, L. A. Jiang, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, C. McNeilage, and J. H. Searls, “Experimental observation of quantum-limited timing jitter in an active, harmonically modelocked fiber laser,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO 2002. Technical Digest. Summaries of Papers Presented, pp. 561–562, (2002).

2001 (17)

S. Jaganathan, S. Krishnan, D. Mensa, T. Mathew, Y. Betser, Y. Wei, D. Scott, M. Urteaga, and M. Rodwell, “An 18-GHz continuous time E-A analog-digital converter implemented in InP-transferred substrate HBT technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1343–1350 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. L. Shoop and P. K. Das, “Wideband photonic A/D conversion using 2-D spatial oversampling and spectral noise shaping,” Proc. SPIE 4490, 32–51 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, W. Marwood, and P. Atanackovic, “An integrated optoelectronics oversampling analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4236, 351–360 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Zmuda, “Analog-to-digital conversion using high-speed photonic processing,” Proc. SPIE 4490, 84–95 (2001).
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H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, G. Li, and P. LiKamWa, “A photonic wideband analog-to-digital converter,” IEEE Proceedings 2001 Aerospace Conference 3, 1461–1472 (2001).

J. C. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, “High-linearity 208-MS/s photonic analog-to-digital converter using 1-to-4 optical time-division demultiplexers,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 714–716, July 2001.
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R. C. Williamson, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. L. Wasserman, G. E. Betts, and J. C. Twichell, “Effects of crosstalk in demultiplexers for photonic analog-to-digital converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 230–236 (2001).
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W. Ng, R. Stephens, D. Persechini, and K. V. Reddy, “Ultra-low jitter modelocking of Er-fiber laser at 10 GHz and its application in photonic sampling for analog-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett. 37, 113–115 (2001).
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H. Sakata, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion by use of nonlinear Fabry-Perot resonators,” Appl. Opt. 40, 240–248 (2001).
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C. Pala, L. Thylen, M. Mokhtari, and U. Westergren, “A high-speed electro-optical analog-to-digital converter principle,” The 2001 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2001  1, 432–435 (2001).

T. P. E. Broekaert, W. Ng, J. F. Jensen, D. Yap, D. L. Persechini, S. Bourgholtzer, C. H. Fields, Y. K. Brown-Boegeman, B. Shi, and R. H. Walden, “InP-HBT optoelectronic integrated circuits for photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Solid-State Electron. 36, 1335–1342 (2001).
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T. R. Clark, M. Currie, and P. J. Matthews, “Digitally linearized wide-band photonic link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 172–179 (2001).
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C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “External-cavity semiconductor diode ring laser for application in hybrid optoelectronic analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4386, 37–41 (2001a).
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P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853, (2001).
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J. M. Fuster, D. Novak, A. Nirmalathas, and J. Marti, “Single-sideband modulation in photonic time-stretch analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett. 37, 67–68 (2001).
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R. Urata, R. Takahashi, V. A. Sabnis, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Ultrafast differential sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM for photonic A/D conversion,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 717–719 (2001).
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C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “10-GHz ultralow-noise optical sampling stream from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1109–1111 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (10)

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “12 Gsample/s wavelength division sampling analog-to-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 36, 316–318 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. C. Twichell and R. Helkey, “Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 12, 1237–1239 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Ralston, A. Metzger, Y. Kang, P. Asbeck, and P. Yu, “Highly linear photoreceiver design for application to ultrahigh bandwidth photonic A/D converters,” Proc. SPIE 4112, 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

A.S. Bhushan, P. Kelkar, and B. Jalali, “30 Gsample/s time-stretch analogue-to-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1526–1527, Aug. 2000.
[Crossref]

M. Currie, T. R. Clark, and P. J. Matthews, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion by distributed phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1689–1691 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. J. Hayduk, R. J. Bussjager, and M. A. Getbehead, “Photonic analog to digital conversion techniques using semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Proc. SPIE 4042, 54–60 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. N. Toughlian and H. Zmuda, “A photonic wideband analog to digital converter,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics 2000, Digest 248–250 (2000).

M. Johansson, B. Lofving, S. Hard, L. Thylen, M. Mokhtari, U. Westergren, and C. Pala, “Study of an ultrafast analog-to-digital conversion scheme based on diffractive optics,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2881–2887 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. E. Pace, S. A. Bewley, and J. P. Powers, “Fiber-lattice accumulator design considerations for optical EA analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1517–1526 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, N. Burgess, W. Marwood, P. Atanackovic, and D. Abbott, “Very high speed differential optoelectronic algorithmic ADC using n-i(MQW)-n SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 31, 593–604 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (10)

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, P. J. Matthews, and I. N. Duling, III, “Phase noise measurements of ultrastable 10 GHz harmonically modelocked fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 720–721 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Marwood, P. Atanackovic, J. Munch, N. Burgess, and S. Al-Sarawi, “A MMIC compatible photonic A/D converter,” Third International Conference on Advanced A/D and D/A Conversion Techniques and their Applications, (Conf. Publ. No.  466), 27–28 July 1999, 17–20 (1999).

R. Helkey, “Narrow-band optical A/D converter with suppressed second-order distortion,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 599–601 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of time interweaved photonic four-channel WDM sampler for hybrid analogue-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 60–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. R. Clark, P. J. Matthews, and M. Currie, “Real-time photonic analog-digital converter based on discrete wavelength-time mapping,” Digest Microwave Photonics, 231–234 (1999).

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 11, 1168–1170 (1999).
[Crossref]

A.S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Non-dispersive wavelength-division sampling,” Opt. Lett. 24, 738–740 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Johnstone, M. F. Lewis, J. D. Hares, and P. A. Kellett, “High-speed opto-electronic transient waveform digitiser,” 3rd International Conf. on Advanced A/D and D/A Conversion Techniques and their Applications, Confs. publ. No.  466, 21–24 (1999).

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 17, 539–550 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (9)

C. K. Sun, D. T. Chang, G. A. Massey, T. Y. Lee, R. Yu, and D. J. Albares, “High energy and low jitter picosecond optical pulser for sample and hold,” Proc. SPIE 3463, 212–218 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, S. Wang, and H. F. Fetterman, “150 Gsample/s wavelength division sampler with time-stretched output,” Electron. Lett. 34, 474–475 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electronics Lett. 34, 1081–1083 (1998). See also B. Jalali and F. Coppinger, “Data conversion using time manipulation,” U.S. Patent No.  6,288,659 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Johnstone, M. F. Lewis, and J. D. Hares “Optical replication technique for wideband transient waveform digitisation,” Proc. SPIE 3285, 209–216 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Yariv and R. G. M. P. Koumans, “Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion,” Electron. Lett. 34, 2012–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. U. Kang, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “Highly parallel pulsed optoelectronic analog-digital converter,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 10, 1626–1628 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. P. Willis, D. Griffiths, and P. B. Atanackovic, “The use of unipolar loop signals in the error diffusion modulator,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syst. II 45, 1597–1599 (1998).
[Crossref]

F. Coppinger, A.S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Time magnification of electrical signals using chirped optical pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 399–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali, F. Coppinger, and A.S. Bhushan, “Photonic time-stretch offers solution to ultrafast analog-to-digital conversion,” Optics in 1998, Optics and Photonics News, 31–32, December (1998).

1997 (3)

M. Y. Frankel, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “High-performance photonic analogue-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 33, 2096–2097, (1997).
[Crossref]

P. P. Ho, Q. Z. Wang, J. Chen, Q. D. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, “Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3425–3429 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, Wiley, New York, 336–343, (1997).

1996 (1)

L. M. Loh and J. L. LoCicero, “Subnanosecond sampling all-optical analog-to-digital converter using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices,” Opt. Eng. 35, 457–466 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

P. E. Pace and D. D. Styer, “High-resolution encoding process for an integrated optical analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2638–2645 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. E. Betts, “Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 42, 2642–2649 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

B. L. Shoop and J. W. Goodman, “A first-order error diffusion modulator for optical oversampled A/D conversion,” Opt. Commun. 97, 167–172 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. K. Sun, C. T. Chang, and W. H. McKnight, “A high-speed, high precision optically controlled sample and hold circuit for analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 2051, 758–767 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

T. Shibata and M. Yoneyama, “A novel sample and hold system using an optical modulator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 588–591 (1992).
[Crossref]

B. L. Shoop and J. W. Goodman, “Optical oversampled analog-to-digital conversion,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5654–5660 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-M. Jeong and M. E. Marhic, “All-optical analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion implemented by a nonlinear fiber interferometer,” Opt. Commun. 91, 115–122 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (4)

Y. Li and Y. Zhang, “Optical analog-to-digital conversion using acousto-optic theta modulation and table lookup,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4368–4371 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Bell, M. C. Hamilton, D. A. Leep, H. F. Taylor, and Y.-H. Lee, “A/D Conversion of microwave signals using a hybrid optical/electronic technique,” Proc. SPIE 1476, 326–329 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bell, M. C. Hamilton, and D. A. Leep, “Optical sampling and demultiplexing applied to A/D conversion,” Proc. SPIE 1562, 276–280 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. K. Sun, C.-C. Wu, C. T. Chang, and W. H. McKnight, “A bridge type optoelectronic sample and hold circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 341–346 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

R. G. Walker, I. Bennion, and A. C. Carter, “Novel GaAs/AlGaAs guided-wave analog/digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1443–1444 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bell, M. C. Hamilton, D. A. Leep, T. D. Moran, H. F. Taylor, and Y.-H. Lee, “Extension of electronic A/D converters to multi-gigahertz sampling rates using optical sampling and demultiplexing techniques,” 23rd Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Systems and Computers, ed. R. R. Chen, 1, 289–293 (1989).

B. H. Kolner and M. Nazarathy, “Temporal imaging with a time lens,” Opt. Lett. 14, 630–632 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Nove hybrid optically bistable switch: the quantum well self electro-optic effect device,” Appl Phys. Lett. 45, 13–15 (1984).
[Crossref]

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, and R. C. Williamson, “Wideband electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (3)

C. L. Chang and C. S. Tsai, “Electro-optic analog-to-digital converter using channel waveguide Fabry-Perot modulator array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 22–24 (1983).
[Crossref]

C. H. Cox III, V. Diadiuk, I. Yao, F. J. Leonberger, and R. C. Williamson, “InP optoelectronic switches and their high-speed signal-processing applications,” Proc. SPIE 439, 164–168 (1983).

F. J. Leonberger and V. Diadiuk, “High-speed InP-based photodetectors,” 1983 International Electron Devices Meeting  29, 460–463 (1983).

1982 (4)

R. A. Becker and F. J. Leonberger, “2-bit 1 Gsample/s electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1411–1413 (1982).
[Crossref]

F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, and R. A. Becker, “4-bit 828-megasample/s electro-optic guided-wave analog-to-digital converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 565–568 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. G. Dokhikyan, E. M. Zolotov, S. S. Karinskii, V. F. Maksimov, V. T. Popkov, A. M. Prokhorov, I. N. Sisakyan, and E. A. Shcherbakov, “Prototype of an integrated-optics four-digit analog-digital converter,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 9, 1272-1273 (1982) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 12, 806–807 (1982)].
[Crossref]

G. D. H. King and R. Cebulski, “Analogue-to-digital conversion using integrated electro-optic interferometers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 1099–1100 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (4)

H. F. Taylor, “An optical analog-to-digital converter-design and analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 210–216 (1979).
[Crossref]

F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, and D. L. Spears, “Design and development of a high-speed electrooptic A/D converter,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syst. 26, 1125–1131 (1979).
[Crossref]

K. Takizawa and M. Okada, “Analog-to-digital converter: a new type using an electrooptic light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3148–3151 (1979).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Leonberger and P. Moulton, “High-speed InP optoelectronic switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 712–714 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

A. J. Low and J. E. Carroll, “10ps optoelectronic sampling system,” Solid-State and Electron Devices 2, 185–190 (1978).
[Crossref]

H. F. Taylor, H. F., M. J. Taylor, and P. W. Bauer, “Electro-optic analog-to-digital conversion using channel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 559–561 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

R. A. Lawton and J. R. Andrews, “Optically strobed sampling oscilloscope,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 25, 56–60 (1976).

1975 (2)

H. F. Taylor, “An electro-optic analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. IEEE 63, 1524–1525 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101–103 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

S. Wright, I. M. Mason, and M. G. F. Wilson, “High-speed electro-optic analogue-digital conversion,” Electron. Lett. 10, 508–509 (1974).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

A. E. Siegman and D. J. Kuizenga, “Proposed method for measuring picosecond pulsewidths and pulse shapes in cw mode-locked lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 212–215 (1970).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

S. F. Al-Sarawi, N. Burgess, W. Marwood, P. Atanackovic, and D. Abbott, “Very high speed differential optoelectronic algorithmic ADC using n-i(MQW)-n SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 31, 593–604 (2000).
[Crossref]

Abdul, J. M.

Abeles, J.

C. M. DePriest, M., T. Yilmaz, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “High-quality photonic sampling streams from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 380–389 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “External-cavity semiconductor diode ring laser for application in hybrid optoelectronic analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4386, 37–41 (2001a).
[Crossref]

Abeles, J. H.

C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “10-GHz ultralow-noise optical sampling stream from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1109–1111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, Wiley, New York, 336–343, (1997).

Albares, D. J.

C. K. Sun, D. T. Chang, G. A. Massey, T. Y. Lee, R. Yu, and D. J. Albares, “High energy and low jitter picosecond optical pulser for sample and hold,” Proc. SPIE 3463, 212–218 (1998).
[Crossref]

Albares, D.J.

E. W. Jacobs, J.B. Sobti, V.F. Vella, R. Nguyen, D.J. Albares, R.B. Olsen, C.T. Chang, C.K. Sun, M.J. Choe, S. Beccue, R. Yu, and J.P.A. van der Wagt , “Optically clocked track-and-hold for high-speed high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” Technical Digest, 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, 190–192 (2004).

Aldana, R.

K. Ioakeimidi, R. F. Leheny, S. Gradinaru, P. R. Bolton, R. Aldana, K. Ma, J. E. Clendenin, J. S. Harris, Jr., and R. F. W. Pease, “Photoelectronic analog-to-digital conversion: sampling and quantizing at 100 Gs/s,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 53, 336–342 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. F. Pease, K. Ioakeimidi, R. Aldana, and R. Leheny, “Photoelectronic analog-to-digital conversion using miniature electron optics: Basic design considerations,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 2826–2829 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

Al-Sarawi, S.

W. Marwood, P. Atanackovic, J. Munch, N. Burgess, and S. Al-Sarawi, “A MMIC compatible photonic A/D converter,” Third International Conference on Advanced A/D and D/A Conversion Techniques and their Applications, (Conf. Publ. No.  466), 27–28 July 1999, 17–20 (1999).

Al-Sarawi, S. F.

T. Sarros, K. A. Corbett, S. F. Al-Sarawi, K. J. Grant, B. A. Clare, K. J. Grant, and W. Marwood, “Differential optoelectronic subtractor using self electro-optic effect devices for use in sigma-delta modulation,” Proc. SPIE 5274, 252–263 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Sarros, S. F. Al-Sarawi, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, B. A. Clare, and W. Marwood, “Oversampled optoelectronic analog-digital converters using sigma-delta modulation,” Proc. SPIE 4935, 178–187 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, B. A. Claire, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, and J. Munch, “Differential oversampling data converters in SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 33, 141–151 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, W. Marwood, and P. Atanackovic, “An integrated optoelectronics oversampling analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4236, 351–360 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, N. Burgess, W. Marwood, P. Atanackovic, and D. Abbott, “Very high speed differential optoelectronic algorithmic ADC using n-i(MQW)-n SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 31, 593–604 (2000).
[Crossref]

Al-Sarawi, S. R.

T. Sarros, S. R. Al-Sarawi, P. Celinski, and K. A. Corbett, “Optical threshold logic analog-to-digital converters using self electro-optic effect devices,” Proc. SPIE 5649, 227–236 (2005).
[Crossref]

Amataya, R.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amataya, G. Barbastathis, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutta, M. Par, M. Perrotta, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, S. Spector, and J. U. Yoon, “Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion,” 3rd OEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 203–205 (2006).

Andrews, J. R.

R. A. Lawton and J. R. Andrews, “Optically strobed sampling oscilloscope,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 25, 56–60 (1976).

Asano, K.

Asbeck, P.

D. Ralston, A. Metzger, Y. Kang, P. Asbeck, and P. Yu, “Highly linear photoreceiver design for application to ultrahigh bandwidth photonic A/D converters,” Proc. SPIE 4112, 132–140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Atanackovic, P.

S. F. Al-Sarawi, W. Marwood, and P. Atanackovic, “An integrated optoelectronics oversampling analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4236, 351–360 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, N. Burgess, W. Marwood, P. Atanackovic, and D. Abbott, “Very high speed differential optoelectronic algorithmic ADC using n-i(MQW)-n SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 31, 593–604 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Marwood, P. Atanackovic, J. Munch, N. Burgess, and S. Al-Sarawi, “A MMIC compatible photonic A/D converter,” Third International Conference on Advanced A/D and D/A Conversion Techniques and their Applications, (Conf. Publ. No.  466), 27–28 July 1999, 17–20 (1999).

Atanackovic, P. B.

B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, and J. Munch, “Investigation of critical slowing down in a bistable S-SEED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2883–2890 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, B. A. Claire, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, and J. Munch, “Differential oversampling data converters in SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 33, 141–151 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. P. Willis, D. Griffiths, and P. B. Atanackovic, “The use of unipolar loop signals in the error diffusion modulator,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syst. II 45, 1597–1599 (1998).
[Crossref]

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 101–103 (1975).
[Crossref]

Babbitt, W. R.

W. R. Babbitt, M. A. Neifeld, and K. D. Merkel, “Broadband analog to digital conversion with spatial-spectral holography,” submitted to Journal of Luminescence (2006).

Barbastathis, G.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amataya, G. Barbastathis, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutta, M. Par, M. Perrotta, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, S. Spector, and J. U. Yoon, “Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion,” 3rd OEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 203–205 (2006).

Bauer, P. W.

H. F. Taylor, H. F., M. J. Taylor, and P. W. Bauer, “Electro-optic analog-to-digital conversion using channel waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 559–561 (1978).
[Crossref]

Beccue, S.

E. W. Jacobs, J.B. Sobti, V.F. Vella, R. Nguyen, D.J. Albares, R.B. Olsen, C.T. Chang, C.K. Sun, M.J. Choe, S. Beccue, R. Yu, and J.P.A. van der Wagt , “Optically clocked track-and-hold for high-speed high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” Technical Digest, 2004 IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics, 190–192 (2004).

Becker, R. A.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, and R. C. Williamson, “Wideband electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[Crossref]

F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, and R. A. Becker, “4-bit 828-megasample/s electro-optic guided-wave analog-to-digital converter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 565–568 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. A. Becker and F. J. Leonberger, “2-bit 1 Gsample/s electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 1411–1413 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bell, J. A.

J. A. Bell, M. C. Hamilton, D. A. Leep, H. F. Taylor, and Y.-H. Lee, “A/D Conversion of microwave signals using a hybrid optical/electronic technique,” Proc. SPIE 1476, 326–329 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bell, M. C. Hamilton, and D. A. Leep, “Optical sampling and demultiplexing applied to A/D conversion,” Proc. SPIE 1562, 276–280 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. A. Bell, M. C. Hamilton, D. A. Leep, T. D. Moran, H. F. Taylor, and Y.-H. Lee, “Extension of electronic A/D converters to multi-gigahertz sampling rates using optical sampling and demultiplexing techniques,” 23rd Asilomar Conf. on Signals, Systems and Computers, ed. R. R. Chen, 1, 289–293 (1989).

Bennion, I.

R. G. Walker, I. Bennion, and A. C. Carter, “Novel GaAs/AlGaAs guided-wave analog/digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 1443–1444 (1989).
[Crossref]

Betser, Y.

S. Jaganathan, S. Krishnan, D. Mensa, T. Mathew, Y. Betser, Y. Wei, D. Scott, M. Urteaga, and M. Rodwell, “An 18-GHz continuous time E-A analog-digital converter implemented in InP-transferred substrate HBT technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 1343–1350 (2001).
[Crossref]

Betts, G. E.

J. C. Twichell, J. L. Wasserman, P. W. Juodawlkis, G. E. Betts, and R. C. Williamson, “High-linearity 208-MS/s photonic analog-to-digital converter using 1-to-4 optical time-division demultiplexers,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 13, 714–716, July 2001.
[Crossref]

R. C. Williamson, P. W. Juodawlkis, J. L. Wasserman, G. E. Betts, and J. C. Twichell, “Effects of crosstalk in demultiplexers for photonic analog-to-digital converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 230–236 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O’Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1840–1853, (2001).
[Crossref]

G. E. Betts, “Linearized modulator for suboctave-bandpass optical analog links,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 42, 2642–2649 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bewley, S. A.

P. E. Pace, S. A. Bewley, and J. P. Powers, “Fiber-lattice accumulator design considerations for optical EA analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Eng. 39, 1517–1526 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bhushan, A. S.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “12 Gsample/s wavelength division sampling analog-to-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 36, 316–318 (2000).
[Crossref]

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
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A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electronics Lett. 34, 1081–1083 (1998). See also B. Jalali and F. Coppinger, “Data conversion using time manipulation,” U.S. Patent No.  6,288,659 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, S. Wang, and H. F. Fetterman, “150 Gsample/s wavelength division sampler with time-stretched output,” Electron. Lett. 34, 474–475 (1998).
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Bhushan, A.S.

A.S. Bhushan, P. V. Kelkar, B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, and M. Islam, “130-GSa/s photonic Analog-to-digital converter with time stretch preprocessor, IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 14, 684–686, (2002).
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A.S. Bhushan, P. Kelkar, and B. Jalali, “30 Gsample/s time-stretch analogue-to-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1526–1527, Aug. 2000.
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A.S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Non-dispersive wavelength-division sampling,” Opt. Lett. 24, 738–740 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Coppinger, A.S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Time magnification of electrical signals using chirped optical pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 399–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali, F. Coppinger, and A.S. Bhushan, “Photonic time-stretch offers solution to ultrafast analog-to-digital conversion,” Optics in 1998, Optics and Photonics News, 31–32, December (1998).

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K. Ioakeimidi, R. F. Leheny, S. Gradinaru, P. R. Bolton, R. Aldana, K. Ma, J. E. Clendenin, J. S. Harris, Jr., and R. F. W. Pease, “Photoelectronic analog-to-digital conversion: sampling and quantizing at 100 Gs/s,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 53, 336–342 (2005).
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T. P. E. Broekaert, W. Ng, J. F. Jensen, D. Yap, D. L. Persechini, S. Bourgholtzer, C. H. Fields, Y. K. Brown-Boegeman, B. Shi, and R. H. Walden, “InP-HBT optoelectronic integrated circuits for photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Solid-State Electron. 36, 1335–1342 (2001).
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J. Chou, O. Boyaz, and B. Jalali, “Femtosecond real-time single-shot digitzer,” presented at the March 2006 Meeting of the American Physical Society (2006).

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Y. Han, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, “Real-time A/D conversion at 480 GSample/s using the phase diversity photonic time-stretch system,” Proc. Microwave Photonics 2004, 186–189 (2004).

A.S. Bhushan, P. V. Kelkar, B. Jalali, O. Boyraz, and M. Islam, “130-GSa/s photonic Analog-to-digital converter with time stretch preprocessor, IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 14, 684–686, (2002).
[Crossref]

Braun, A.

C. M. DePriest, M., T. Yilmaz, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “High-quality photonic sampling streams from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 380–389 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “External-cavity semiconductor diode ring laser for application in hybrid optoelectronic analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4386, 37–41 (2001a).
[Crossref]

C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “10-GHz ultralow-noise optical sampling stream from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1109–1111 (2001).
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T. P. E. Broekaert, W. Ng, J. F. Jensen, D. Yap, D. L. Persechini, S. Bourgholtzer, C. H. Fields, Y. K. Brown-Boegeman, B. Shi, and R. H. Walden, “InP-HBT optoelectronic integrated circuits for photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Solid-State Electron. 36, 1335–1342 (2001).
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P. Jiang, Y. Chai, I. White, R. Penty, J. Heaton, A. Kuver, S. Clements, C. G. Leburn, A. McWilliam, A. A. Lagatsky, C T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “80 GSPS Photonic analogue to digital conversion system using broadband continuous wave source,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2005, Digest 874–876 (2005).

Brown-Boegeman, Y. K.

T. P. E. Broekaert, W. Ng, J. F. Jensen, D. Yap, D. L. Persechini, S. Bourgholtzer, C. H. Fields, Y. K. Brown-Boegeman, B. Shi, and R. H. Walden, “InP-HBT optoelectronic integrated circuits for photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Solid-State Electron. 36, 1335–1342 (2001).
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D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Nove hybrid optically bistable switch: the quantum well self electro-optic effect device,” Appl Phys. Lett. 45, 13–15 (1984).
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H. Zmuda, S. Hanna, R. J. Bussjager, M. L. Fanto, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, J. E. Malowicki, and P. L. Repak, “Optically assisted high-speed, high resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 5814, 51–61 (2005)
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H. Zmuda, M. J. Hayduk, R. J. Bussjager, and E. N. Toughlian, “Wavelength-based analog-to-digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 4547, 134–145 (2002).
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M. J. Hayduk, R. J. Bussjager, S. T. Johns, C. M. Gerhardstein, and G. Wicks, “Contrast ratio enhancement in a saturable absorber based photonic analog to digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4732, 46–52 (2002).
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M. J. Hayduk, R. J. Bussjager, and M. A. Getbehead, “Photonic analog to digital conversion techniques using semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Proc. SPIE 4042, 54–60 (2000).
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M. J. Hayduk, R. J. Bussjager, M. A. Getbehead, and J. A. Louthain, “Recent advancements in photonic converters,” Proc. SPIE 4112, 28–37.

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F. X. Kartner, R. Amataya, G. Barbastathis, H. Byun, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutta, M. Par, M. Perrotta, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, M. Geis, M. Grein, T. Lyszczarz, S. Spector, and J. U. Yoon, “Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion,” 3rd OEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 203–205 (2006).

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T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, P. J. Matthews, and I. N. Duling, III, “Phase noise measurements of ultrastable 10 GHz harmonically modelocked fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 720–721 (1999).
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T. Sarros, S. R. Al-Sarawi, P. Celinski, and K. A. Corbett, “Optical threshold logic analog-to-digital converters using self electro-optic effect devices,” Proc. SPIE 5649, 227–236 (2005).
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P. Jiang, Y. Chai, I. White, R. Penty, J. Heaton, A. Kuver, S. Clements, C. G. Leburn, A. McWilliam, A. A. Lagatsky, C T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “80 GSPS Photonic analogue to digital conversion system using broadband continuous wave source,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2005, Digest 874–876 (2005).

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C. K. Sun, C.-C. Wu, C. T. Chang, and W. H. McKnight, “A bridge type optoelectronic sample and hold circuit,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 341–346 (1991).
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C. K. Sun, D. T. Chang, G. A. Massey, T. Y. Lee, R. Yu, and D. J. Albares, “High energy and low jitter picosecond optical pulser for sample and hold,” Proc. SPIE 3463, 212–218 (1998).
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S. F. Al-Sarawi, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, B. A. Claire, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, and J. Munch, “Differential oversampling data converters in SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 33, 141–151 (2002).
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B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, and K. J. Grant, “Performance of a photonic oversampled sigma-delta quantizer,” Proc. SPIE 5814, 248–261 (2005).
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B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, A. Massie, J. Munch, and W. Marwood, “Photonic A/Ds employing S-SEED Comparators,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 42–53 (2004).
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T. Sarros, K. A. Corbett, S. F. Al-Sarawi, K. J. Grant, B. A. Clare, K. J. Grant, and W. Marwood, “Differential optoelectronic subtractor using self electro-optic effect devices for use in sigma-delta modulation,” Proc. SPIE 5274, 252–263 (2004).
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B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, and J. Munch, “Investigation of critical slowing down in a bistable S-SEED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2883–2890 (2003).
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T. Sarros, S. F. Al-Sarawi, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, B. A. Clare, and W. Marwood, “Oversampled optoelectronic analog-digital converters using sigma-delta modulation,” Proc. SPIE 4935, 178–187 (2002).
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Clark, T. R.

T. R. Clark, M. Currie, and P. J. Matthews, “Digitally linearized wide-band photonic link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 172–179 (2001).
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M. Currie, T. R. Clark, and P. J. Matthews, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion by distributed phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1689–1691 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, P. J. Matthews, and I. N. Duling, III, “Phase noise measurements of ultrastable 10 GHz harmonically modelocked fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 720–721 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. R. Clark, P. J. Matthews, and M. Currie, “Real-time photonic analog-digital converter based on discrete wavelength-time mapping,” Digest Microwave Photonics, 231–234 (1999).

T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 11, 1168–1170 (1999).
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Clements, S.

P. Jiang, Y. Chai, I. White, R. Penty, J. Heaton, A. Kuver, S. Clements, C. G. Leburn, A. McWilliam, A. A. Lagatsky, C T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “80 GSPS Photonic analogue to digital conversion system using broadband continuous wave source,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2005, Digest 874–876 (2005).

Clendenin, J. E.

K. Ioakeimidi, R. F. Leheny, S. Gradinaru, P. R. Bolton, R. Aldana, K. Ma, J. E. Clendenin, J. S. Harris, Jr., and R. F. W. Pease, “Photoelectronic analog-to-digital conversion: sampling and quantizing at 100 Gs/s,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 53, 336–342 (2005).
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Coppinger, F.

F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “12 Gsample/s wavelength division sampling analog-to-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 36, 316–318 (2000).
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F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Photonic time stretch and its application to analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 47, 1309–1314 (1999).
[Crossref]

A.S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Non-dispersive wavelength-division sampling,” Opt. Lett. 24, 738–740 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Coppinger, A.S. Bhushan, and B. Jalali, “Time magnification of electrical signals using chirped optical pulses,” Electron. Lett. 34, 399–400 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Jalali, F. Coppinger, and A.S. Bhushan, “Photonic time-stretch offers solution to ultrafast analog-to-digital conversion,” Optics in 1998, Optics and Photonics News, 31–32, December (1998).

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, S. Wang, and H. F. Fetterman, “150 Gsample/s wavelength division sampler with time-stretched output,” Electron. Lett. 34, 474–475 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, “Time-stretched analogue-to-digital conversion,” Electronics Lett. 34, 1081–1083 (1998). See also B. Jalali and F. Coppinger, “Data conversion using time manipulation,” U.S. Patent No.  6,288,659 (2001).
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Corbett, K. A.

B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, and K. J. Grant, “Performance of a photonic oversampled sigma-delta quantizer,” Proc. SPIE 5814, 248–261 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Sarros, S. R. Al-Sarawi, P. Celinski, and K. A. Corbett, “Optical threshold logic analog-to-digital converters using self electro-optic effect devices,” Proc. SPIE 5649, 227–236 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Sarros, K. A. Corbett, S. F. Al-Sarawi, K. J. Grant, B. A. Clare, K. J. Grant, and W. Marwood, “Differential optoelectronic subtractor using self electro-optic effect devices for use in sigma-delta modulation,” Proc. SPIE 5274, 252–263 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, A. Massie, J. Munch, and W. Marwood, “Photonic A/Ds employing S-SEED Comparators,” Proc. SPIE 5277, 42–53 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. A. Clare, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, and J. Munch, “Investigation of critical slowing down in a bistable S-SEED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2883–2890 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Sarros, S. F. Al-Sarawi, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, B. A. Clare, and W. Marwood, “Oversampled optoelectronic analog-digital converters using sigma-delta modulation,” Proc. SPIE 4935, 178–187 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. F. Al-Sarawi, P. B. Atanackovic, W. Marwood, B. A. Claire, K. A. Corbett, K. J. Grant, and J. Munch, “Differential oversampling data converters in SEED technology,” Microelectronics J. 33, 141–151 (2002).
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C. H. Cox, III, Analog Optical Links, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK (2004).
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Cox III, C. H.

C. H. Cox III, V. Diadiuk, I. Yao, F. J. Leonberger, and R. C. Williamson, “InP optoelectronic switches and their high-speed signal-processing applications,” Proc. SPIE 439, 164–168 (1983).

Currie, M.

M. Currie, “Hybrid photonic analog-to-digital conversion using superconducting electronics,” IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity 14, 2047–2052 (2004).
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T. R. Clark, M. Currie, and P. J. Matthews, “Digitally linearized wide-band photonic link,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 172–179 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Currie, T. R. Clark, and P. J. Matthews, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion by distributed phase modulation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1689–1691 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. R. Clark, P. J. Matthews, and M. Currie, “Real-time photonic analog-digital converter based on discrete wavelength-time mapping,” Digest Microwave Photonics, 231–234 (1999).

D. A. B., Miller

Damen, T. C.

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, and C. A. Burrus, “Nove hybrid optically bistable switch: the quantum well self electro-optic effect device,” Appl Phys. Lett. 45, 13–15 (1984).
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Das, P. K.

B. L. Shoop and P. K. Das, “Mismatch-tolerant distributed photonic analog-to-digital conversion using spatial oversampling and noise shaping,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1674–1687 (2002).
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B. L. Shoop and P. K. Das, “Wideband photonic A/D conversion using 2-D spatial oversampling and spectral noise shaping,” Proc. SPIE 4490, 32–51 (2001).
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Delfyett, Jr., P. J.

C. M. DePriest, M., T. Yilmaz, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “High-quality photonic sampling streams from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 380–389 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “External-cavity semiconductor diode ring laser for application in hybrid optoelectronic analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4386, 37–41 (2001a).
[Crossref]

C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “10-GHz ultralow-noise optical sampling stream from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1109–1111 (2001).
[Crossref]

DePriest, C. M.

C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “10-GHz ultralow-noise optical sampling stream from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1109–1111 (2001).
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C. M. DePriest, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “External-cavity semiconductor diode ring laser for application in hybrid optoelectronic analog-to-digital converter,” Proc. SPIE 4386, 37–41 (2001a).
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DePriest, M., C. M.

C. M. DePriest, M., T. Yilmaz, A. Braun, J. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, Jr., “High-quality photonic sampling streams from a semiconductor diode ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 380–389 (2002).
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Diadiuk, V.

C. H. Cox III, V. Diadiuk, I. Yao, F. J. Leonberger, and R. C. Williamson, “InP optoelectronic switches and their high-speed signal-processing applications,” Proc. SPIE 439, 164–168 (1983).

F. J. Leonberger and V. Diadiuk, “High-speed InP-based photodetectors,” 1983 International Electron Devices Meeting  29, 460–463 (1983).

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Duling, I. N.

T. R. Clark, T. F. Carruthers, P. J. Matthews, and I. N. Duling, III, “Phase noise measurements of ultrastable 10 GHz harmonically modelocked fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 720–721 (1999).
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Esman, A. K.

I. A. Goncharenko, A. K. Esman, V. K. Kuleshov, and V. A. Pilipovich, “Optical broadband analog-digital conversion on the base of microring resonator,” Opt. Commun. 257, 54–61 (2006).
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J. U. Kang and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of time interweaved photonic four-channel WDM sampler for hybrid analogue-digital converter,” Electron. Lett. 35, 60–61 (1999).
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T. R. Clark, J. U. Kang, and R. D. Esman, “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 11, 1168–1170 (1999).
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J. U. Kang, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “Highly parallel pulsed optoelectronic analog-digital converter,” IEEE Photonic Technol. Lett. 10, 1626–1628 (1998).
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Fanto, M. L.

H. Zmuda, S. Hanna, R. J. Bussjager, M. L. Fanto, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, J. E. Malowicki, and P. L. Repak, “Optically assisted high-speed, high resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 5814, 51–61 (2005)
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Y. Han, B. Jalali, J. Han, B. Seo, and H. Fetterman, “Demonstration and analysis of single sideband photonic time-stretch system,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1276–1280 (2003).

Fetterman, H. F.

A. S. Bhushan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, S. Wang, and H. F. Fetterman, “150 Gsample/s wavelength division sampler with time-stretched output,” Electron. Lett. 34, 474–475 (1998).
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W. Ng, L. Luh, D. L. Persechini, D. Le, Y. M. So, M. Mokhtari, C. Fields, D. Yap, and J. E. Jensen, “Ultrahigh-speed photonic analog-to-digital conversion technologies,” Proc. SPIE 5435, 171–177 (2004).L. Luh, W. Ng, J. F. Jensen, D. Le, D. Persechini, S. Thomas, C. Fields, and J. Lin, “A 10.24 GSPS photonic sampled bandpass ΔΣ modulator direct-sampling at 12GHz,” IEEE 2005 Custom Integrated Circuits Conf.387–390 (2005).
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Fields, C. H.

T. P. E. Broekaert, W. Ng, J. F. Jensen, D. Yap, D. L. Persechini, S. Bourgholtzer, C. H. Fields, Y. K. Brown-Boegeman, B. Shi, and R. H. Walden, “InP-HBT optoelectronic integrated circuits for photonic analog-to-digital conversion,” IEEE J. Solid-State Electron. 36, 1335–1342 (2001).
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H. Zmuda, S. Hanna, R. J. Bussjager, M. L. Fanto, M. J. Hayduk, S. T. Johns, J. E. Malowicki, and P. L. Repak, “Optically assisted high-speed, high resolution analog-to-digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 5814, 51–61 (2005)
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Figures (18)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Voltage as a function of time (green), the sampled and quantized voltage (red) and the quantization error (blue).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Input voltage as a function of time (green) and the sampled and quantized voltage as a function of time (red). The upper row shows digitization of a noiseless signal with N = 3, 4, and 5. The lower row shows digitization of the same signal plus noise with N = 3, 4, and 5. In the upper row one can clearly see the additional benefit of higher numbers of bits N (for N = 5 look at t = 0-1, 5-7 and 9-10) and of course, the ENOB equals the number of bits N through the definition in eqs. (2) and (3). In the lower row, one sees a benefit in increasing the bits from 3 to 4, but no apparent improvement is obtained by increasing N from 4 to 5 because the ENOB is limited to about 4 by the noise on the signal and not by the quantization noise.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effective number of bits, ENOB, of electronic ADCs as a function of analog input frequency. The red points indicate existing ADCs. The dashed lines represent fundamental limits due to jitter for rms aperture jitter of 100 fs and 1 ps (blue) comparator ambiguity for transition frequencies f T = 100, and 500 GHz (green), thermal noise with equivalent load resisitance of 50 and 2000 ohms (brown) and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (red) as discussed by Walden [2, 6].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Generic analog optical link.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

ENOB as a function of link bandwidth for an analog optical link with power incident on the photodiode as a parameter.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Four major classes of photonic ADCs.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

General schematic of a photonics-assisted ADC in which a stable mode-locked laser is used as a clock.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic of the optically clocked diode bridge circuit used by Jacobs et al. [32] as the track and hold circuit of an electronic ADC (2004) (PD = photodiode).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Photonics-assisted interleaved ADC architecture. (b) Optically triggered differential sample-and-hold circuit (adapted from [36]).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Optically triggered e-beam ADC (adapted from [38, 39]).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Single shot version of the time-stretch ADC.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Continuous time version of the time-stretch ADC.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Photonic sampled and electronically quantized ADC.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Photonic sampled and demultiplexed ADC. The electronic ADCs operate at a rate reduced by the factor M from the sampling rate of the optical system.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Optically quantized photonic ADC based on tuning the wavelength of an optical source, reflecting that source from a diffraction grating and focusing the output through a diffractive optical element to an array of detectors. (Adapted from [134])

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Taylor’s multi-interferometric electro-optic ADC [3, 12, 15]. (a) block diagram showing 4 interferometers with lengths increasing by a factor of 2, photodiode receivers, electronic amplifiers and comparators. (b) Optical intensity as a function of voltage applied to the modulator with Gray code output produced by comparator below.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

All-optical photonic ADC using a mode-locked laser source for sampling and the voltage-controlled phase shift of a free-space interference pattern to obtain quantization (adapted from [111, 112, 133].

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Delta-sigma modulator. The input signal at the left is summed with the fed back bit from the previous sample, integrated, quantized and processed by a digitial filter.

Equations (9)

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SNR Q ( dB ) = 20 log 10 ( V fs , rms / Δ Q )
N = [ SNR Q ( dB ) 1.76 ] / 6.02 .
ENOB = [ SINAD ( dB ) 1.76 ] / 6.02 .
ENOB = log 2 [ 1 / ( 3 1 / 2 πf s σ j ) ] .
CNR = ( mRP ) 2 / 2 ( σ s 2 + σ th 2 + σ RIN 2 )
σ s 2 = 2 q ( R P + I d ) Δ f
σ th 2 = 4 k b TF n Δ f / R L
σ RIN 2 = ( RIN ) ( RP ) 2 Δ f
ENOB = [ CNR ( dB ) 1.76 ] / 6.02 .

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