Abstract

In this paper, propagation of ultrashort pulses through a long 3.5 meter water channel was studied. Of particular interest was the attenuation of the beam at various lengths along the variable path length and to find an explanation of why the attenuation deviates from typical Beer Lambert law around 3 meters for ultrashort laser pulse transmission. Laser pulses of 10 fs at 75 MHz, 100 fs at 80 MHz and 300 fs at 1 KHz were employed to investigate the effects of pulse duration, spectrum and repetition rate on the attenuation after propagating through water up to 3 meters. Stretched pulse attenuation measurements produced from 10 fs at a frequency of 75 MHz were compared with the 10 fs attenuation measurements. Results indicate that the broad spectrum of the ultrashort pulse is the dominant reason for the observed decrease in attenuation after 3 meters of travel in a long water channel. The repetition rate is found not to play a significant role at least for the long pulse scenario in this reported attenuation studies.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

2004

2001

1999

M. A. Porras, "Propagation of single-cycle pulsed light beams in dispersive media," Phys. Rev. A 60, 5069-5073 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Xiao and K. E. Oughstun, "Failure of the group-velocity description for ultrawideband pulse propagation in a causal dispersive, absorptive dielectric," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1773-1785 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

F. M. Sogandares and E. S. Fry, "Absorption spectrum (340-640 nm) of pure water. I. Photothermal Measurements," Appl. Opt. 36, 8699-8709 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. SzipO, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 0.1-TW5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 22, 15562-15564 (1997).

1996

1995

1993

L. Kou, D. Labrie and P. Chylek, "Refractive indices of water and ice in the 0.65-2.5 µm spectral range," Appl. Opt. 32, 3531-3540 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Balictsis, "Uniform asymptotic description of ultrashort Gaussian-pulse propagation in a causal, dispersive dielectric," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3645-3669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1988

1984

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G. A. Williams, "Comment on observation of the formation of the 0 Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 2058 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. C. Sherman and K. E. Oughstun, "Description of pulse dynamics in Lorentz media in terms of the energy velocity and attenuation of time-harmonic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1451-1454 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. R.

Avenel, O.

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G. A. Williams, "Comment on observation of the formation of the 0 Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 2058 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Balictsis, C. M.

K. E. Oughstun and C. M. Balictsis, "Gaussian pulse propagation in a dispersive, absorbing dielectric," Phys. Rev. Lett 77, 2210-2213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Balictsis, "Uniform asymptotic description of ultrashort Gaussian-pulse propagation in a causal, dispersive dielectric," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3645-3669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Chien, C. Y.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Comtois, D.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curley, P. F.

Desparois, A.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, D. W.

Du, D.

Fox, A. E.

A. E. Fox and U. Osterberg, "Observation of non-exponential absorption of ultra-fast pulses in water," Opt. Express 14,3689-3693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A.

Fry, E. S.

Gibson, U.

Grillon, G.

Jiang, Z.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, T. W.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

Kieffer, J.-C.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Kou, L.

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

Lamouroux, B.

Lange, H. R.

Li, J. C.

Liu, X.

Matsumoto, H.

Minoshima, K.

Mlejnek, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicsz, A.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Nisoli, M.

M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. SzipO, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 0.1-TW5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 22, 15562-15564 (1997).

Osterberg, U.

A. E. Fox and U. Osterberg, "Observation of non-exponential absorption of ultra-fast pulses in water," Opt. Express 14,3689-3693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Gibson and U. Osterberg, "Optical precursors and Beer’s law violations; non-exponential propagation losses in water," Opt. Express 13, 2105-2110 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oughstun, K. E.

Pépin, H.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porras, M. A.

M. A. Porras, "Propagation of single-cycle pulsed light beams in dispersive media," Phys. Rev. A 60, 5069-5073 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Porras, "Ultrashort pulsed Gaussian light beams," Phys. Rev. E 58, 1086-1093 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B. S.

Ripoche, J. F.

Salin, F.

Sherman, G. C.

G. C. Sherman and K. E. Oughstun, "Description of pulse dynamics in Lorentz media in terms of the energy velocity and attenuation of time-harmonic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1451-1454 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Silvestri, S. D.

M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. SzipO, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 0.1-TW5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 22, 15562-15564 (1997).

Sogandares, F. M.

Squier, J.

Svelto, O.

M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. SzipO, K. Ferencz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Generation of 0.1-TW5-fs optical pulses at a 1-kHz repetition rate," Opt. Lett. 22, 15562-15564 (1997).

Sweetser, J. N.

Tadepalli, N. R.

J. C. Li, H. F. Zhang, D. R. Alexander, D. W. Doerr, and N. R. Tadepalli, "Diffraction characteristics of 10 femtosecond laser pulses passing through an aperture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22,1304-1310 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Tadepalli, D. R. Alexander, D. W. Doerr, J. C. Li and H. F. Zhang, "Femtosecond pulse stretching in microscope objectives used for micro/nanomachining," J. Laser Appl. 17, 270-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varoquaux, E.

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G. A. Williams, "Comment on observation of the formation of the 0 Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 2058 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Williams, G. A.

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G. A. Williams, "Comment on observation of the formation of the 0 Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 2058 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wright, E. M.

Xiao, H.

Yamaoka, Y.

Zeng, L.

Zhang, H. F.

Ziolkowski, R. W.

Appl. Opt.

J. Laser Appl.

N. R. Tadepalli, D. R. Alexander, D. W. Doerr, J. C. Li and H. F. Zhang, "Femtosecond pulse stretching in microscope objectives used for micro/nanomachining," J. Laser Appl. 17, 270-272 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

U. Gibson and U. Osterberg, "Optical precursors and Beer’s law violations; non-exponential propagation losses in water," Opt. Express 13, 2105-2110 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Fox and U. Osterberg, "Observation of non-exponential absorption of ultra-fast pulses in water," Opt. Express 14,3689-3693 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasma

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, and H. Pépin, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasma 6, 1615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

M. A. Porras, "Propagation of single-cycle pulsed light beams in dispersive media," Phys. Rev. A 60, 5069-5073 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

C. M. Balictsis, "Uniform asymptotic description of ultrashort Gaussian-pulse propagation in a causal, dispersive dielectric," Phys. Rev. E 47, 3645-3669 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Porras, "Ultrashort pulsed Gaussian light beams," Phys. Rev. E 58, 1086-1093 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett

K. E. Oughstun and C. M. Balictsis, "Gaussian pulse propagation in a dispersive, absorbing dielectric," Phys. Rev. Lett 77, 2210-2213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

O. Avenel, E. Varoquaux, and G. A. Williams, "Comment on observation of the formation of the 0 Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 2058 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Sherman and K. E. Oughstun, "Description of pulse dynamics in Lorentz media in terms of the energy velocity and attenuation of time-harmonic waves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 16, 1451-1454 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Choi and U. Osterberg, "Observation of optical precursors in water," Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 193903-1-3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed. (Academic Press, 2001).

L. Brillouin, Wave propagation and group velocity (Academic, New York, 1960).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for studying the propagation of the laser pulse through water. (BS, beam splitter. PD, photodiode detector).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The spectra of output pulsed beam at different path lengths through water.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The enlarged spectra of output pulsed beam at longer path lengths through water.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Theoretical calculation of the spectra of output pulsed beam at different path lengths through water.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The attenuation of cw beam and 10 fs pulsed beam at 75 MHz propagating through water and theoretical calculations of attenuation for 10 fs pulsed beam(solid line), 680 nm(dot-dash-dot line) , and 800 nm(dotted line) monochromatic beams.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The spectra of 10 fs (a), stretched pulse (b) and cw case(c).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The attenuation of stretched pulsed beam, cw beam and 10 fs pulsed beam at 75 MHz propagating through water.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The attenuation 100 fs pulsed beam at 80 MHz, 300 fs pulsed beam at 1 KHz, cw beam and 10 fs pulsed beam at 75 MHz propagating through water.

Equations (2)

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I ( z ) = I 0 exp ( αz )
I ( z ) = 0 I 0 ( λ ) exp ( α ( λ ) z )

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