Abstract

A new plasma spectroscopy analysis technique based on the generation of synthetic spectra by means of optimization processes is presented in this paper. The technique has been developed for its application in arc-welding quality assurance. The new approach has been checked through several experimental tests, yielding results in reasonably good agreement with the ones offered by the traditional spectroscopic analysis technique.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, and W. Johnstone, "Optical fibre sensors for environmental monitoring of trace gases," Proc. SPIE 4829,963-964 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. B. Grant, R. H. Kagann, and W. A. McClenny, "Optical remote measurement of toxic gases," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42,18-30 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  3. R. L. Green, M. D. Mowery, J. A. Good, J. P. Higgins, S. M. Arrivo, K. McColough, A. Mateos, and R. A. Reed, "Comparison of near-infrared and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of magnesium stearate in pharmaceutical powders and solid dosage forms," Appl. Spectrosc. 59,340-347 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, and F. Moro, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional analysis of multielemental thin films," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61,810-816 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Andre Weinstock, J. Janni, L. Hagen, and S. Wright "Prediction of oil and oleic acid concentrations in individual corn (Zea mays L.) kernels using near-infrared reflectance hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 9-16 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. C. Lawrence, W. R. Windham, B. Park, D. P. Smith, and G. H. Poole, "Comparison between visible/NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses," Proc. SPIE 5271, 35-42 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. B. García-Allende, O. M. Conde, A. M. Cubillas, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "New raw material discrimination system based on a spatial optical spectroscopy technique," Sens. Actuators A (to be published).
  8. C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Grand, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signal for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45, 1735-1738 (2005).
  10. B. Venkatraman, B. Raj, and M. Menaka, "Online infrared detection of inclusions and lack of penetration during welding," Mater. Eval. 63, 933-937 (2005).
  11. G. J. Zhang, S. B. Chen, and L. Wu, "Intelligent control of pulsed GTAW with filler metal," Weld. J. (Miami, FL, USA) 84, 9-16 (2005).
  12. P. Sforza and D. de Blasiis, "On-line optical monitoring system for arc welding," NDT & E. Int. 35, 37-43 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Ancona, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugara, and M. Ferrara, "Optical sensor for real-time monitoring of CO2 laser welding process," Appl. Opt. 40, 6019-6025 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, O. M. Conde, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Real-time arc welding defect detection technique by means of plasma spectrum optical analysis," NDT & E. Int. 39, 356-360 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997), Chap. 5.
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Plasma Diagnostics (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968), Chap. 4.
  18. A. Marotta, "Determination of axial thermal plasma temperatures without Abel inversion," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 27, 268-272 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2623-2629 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. B. McLean, C. E. J. Mitchell, and D. M. Swanston, "Implementation of an efficient analytical approximation to the Voigt function for photoemission lineshape analysis," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 62, 125-132 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Zeh, H. Schweizer, A. Meixner, A. Purde, and A. W. Koch, "Enhancement of detection accuracy of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 5502, 540-543 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) atomic spectra database, http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/AtData/main_asd.
  23. W. L. Price, "Global optimization by controlled random search," Comput. J. 20, 367-370 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. M. Ali, A. Törn, and S. Viitanen, "A numerical comparison of some modified controlled random search algorithms," J Global Optim. 11, 377-385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  25. L. O. Vilarinho and A. Scotti, "Proposal for a modified Fowler-Milne method to determine the temperature profile in TIG welding at low currents," J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 26, 34-39 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. I. B. Gornushkin, A. Ya. Kazakov, N. Omenetto, B. W. Smith and J. D. Winefordner, "Experimental verification of a radiative model of laser-induced plasma expanding into vacuum," Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 215-230 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Cobo, "Contribución al desarrollo de sistemas sensores para monitorizado y medida de vibraciones basados en tallos de fibra óptica," (PhD Thesis, Universidad de Cantabria, 1998), Chap. 7.

2006 (4)

S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, and F. Moro, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional analysis of multielemental thin films," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61,810-816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, O. M. Conde, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Real-time arc welding defect detection technique by means of plasma spectrum optical analysis," NDT & E. Int. 39, 356-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2623-2629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Andre Weinstock, J. Janni, L. Hagen, and S. Wright "Prediction of oil and oleic acid concentrations in individual corn (Zea mays L.) kernels using near-infrared reflectance hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 9-16 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

R. L. Green, M. D. Mowery, J. A. Good, J. P. Higgins, S. M. Arrivo, K. McColough, A. Mateos, and R. A. Reed, "Comparison of near-infrared and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of magnesium stearate in pharmaceutical powders and solid dosage forms," Appl. Spectrosc. 59,340-347 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Gornushkin, A. Ya. Kazakov, N. Omenetto, B. W. Smith and J. D. Winefordner, "Experimental verification of a radiative model of laser-induced plasma expanding into vacuum," Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 215-230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Grand, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signal for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45, 1735-1738 (2005).

B. Venkatraman, B. Raj, and M. Menaka, "Online infrared detection of inclusions and lack of penetration during welding," Mater. Eval. 63, 933-937 (2005).

G. J. Zhang, S. B. Chen, and L. Wu, "Intelligent control of pulsed GTAW with filler metal," Weld. J. (Miami, FL, USA) 84, 9-16 (2005).

2004 (4)

K. C. Lawrence, W. R. Windham, B. Park, D. P. Smith, and G. H. Poole, "Comparison between visible/NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses," Proc. SPIE 5271, 35-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Zeh, H. Schweizer, A. Meixner, A. Purde, and A. W. Koch, "Enhancement of detection accuracy of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 5502, 540-543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Vilarinho and A. Scotti, "Proposal for a modified Fowler-Milne method to determine the temperature profile in TIG welding at low currents," J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 26, 34-39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, and W. Johnstone, "Optical fibre sensors for environmental monitoring of trace gases," Proc. SPIE 4829,963-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Sforza and D. de Blasiis, "On-line optical monitoring system for arc welding," NDT & E. Int. 35, 37-43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Ali, A. Törn, and S. Viitanen, "A numerical comparison of some modified controlled random search algorithms," J Global Optim. 11, 377-385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. B. McLean, C. E. J. Mitchell, and D. M. Swanston, "Implementation of an efficient analytical approximation to the Voigt function for photoemission lineshape analysis," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 62, 125-132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Marotta, "Determination of axial thermal plasma temperatures without Abel inversion," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 27, 268-272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. B. Grant, R. H. Kagann, and W. A. McClenny, "Optical remote measurement of toxic gases," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42,18-30 (1992).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

W. L. Price, "Global optimization by controlled random search," Comput. J. 20, 367-370 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Acquaviva, S.

S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, and F. Moro, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional analysis of multielemental thin films," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61,810-816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. M.

M. M. Ali, A. Törn, and S. Viitanen, "A numerical comparison of some modified controlled random search algorithms," J Global Optim. 11, 377-385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ancona, A.

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugara, and M. Ferrara, "Optical sensor for real-time monitoring of CO2 laser welding process," Appl. Opt. 40, 6019-6025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andre Weinstock, B.

Arrivo, S. M.

Atherton, K.

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, and W. Johnstone, "Optical fibre sensors for environmental monitoring of trace gases," Proc. SPIE 4829,963-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Catalano, I. M.

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. B.

G. J. Zhang, S. B. Chen, and L. Wu, "Intelligent control of pulsed GTAW with filler metal," Weld. J. (Miami, FL, USA) 84, 9-16 (2005).

Cobo, A.

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, O. M. Conde, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Real-time arc welding defect detection technique by means of plasma spectrum optical analysis," NDT & E. Int. 39, 356-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2623-2629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Conde, O. M.

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, O. M. Conde, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Real-time arc welding defect detection technique by means of plasma spectrum optical analysis," NDT & E. Int. 39, 356-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. García-Allende, O. M. Conde, A. M. Cubillas, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "New raw material discrimination system based on a spatial optical spectroscopy technique," Sens. Actuators A (to be published).

Cubillas, A. M.

P. B. García-Allende, O. M. Conde, A. M. Cubillas, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "New raw material discrimination system based on a spatial optical spectroscopy technique," Sens. Actuators A (to be published).

Culshaw, B.

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, and W. Johnstone, "Optical fibre sensors for environmental monitoring of trace gases," Proc. SPIE 4829,963-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Anna, E.

S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, and F. Moro, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional analysis of multielemental thin films," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61,810-816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Blasiis, D.

P. Sforza and D. de Blasiis, "On-line optical monitoring system for arc welding," NDT & E. Int. 35, 37-43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De Giorgi, M. L.

S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, and F. Moro, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional analysis of multielemental thin films," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61,810-816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferrara, M.

García-Allende, P. B.

P. B. García-Allende, O. M. Conde, A. M. Cubillas, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "New raw material discrimination system based on a spatial optical spectroscopy technique," Sens. Actuators A (to be published).

Good, J. A.

Gornushkin, I. B.

I. B. Gornushkin, A. Ya. Kazakov, N. Omenetto, B. W. Smith and J. D. Winefordner, "Experimental verification of a radiative model of laser-induced plasma expanding into vacuum," Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 215-230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grand, L.

L. Grand, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signal for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45, 1735-1738 (2005).

Grant, W. B.

W. B. Grant, R. H. Kagann, and W. A. McClenny, "Optical remote measurement of toxic gases," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42,18-30 (1992).
[PubMed]

Green, R. L.

Grum, J.

L. Grand, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signal for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45, 1735-1738 (2005).

Hagen, L.

Higgins, J. P.

Janni, J.

Jaúregui, C.

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2623-2629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, O. M. Conde, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Real-time arc welding defect detection technique by means of plasma spectrum optical analysis," NDT & E. Int. 39, 356-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. García-Allende, O. M. Conde, A. M. Cubillas, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "New raw material discrimination system based on a spatial optical spectroscopy technique," Sens. Actuators A (to be published).

Johnstone, W.

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, and W. Johnstone, "Optical fibre sensors for environmental monitoring of trace gases," Proc. SPIE 4829,963-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kagann, R. H.

W. B. Grant, R. H. Kagann, and W. A. McClenny, "Optical remote measurement of toxic gases," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42,18-30 (1992).
[PubMed]

Kazakov, A. Ya.

I. B. Gornushkin, A. Ya. Kazakov, N. Omenetto, B. W. Smith and J. D. Winefordner, "Experimental verification of a radiative model of laser-induced plasma expanding into vacuum," Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 215-230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, A. W.

T. Zeh, H. Schweizer, A. Meixner, A. Purde, and A. W. Koch, "Enhancement of detection accuracy of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 5502, 540-543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, K. C.

K. C. Lawrence, W. R. Windham, B. Park, D. P. Smith, and G. H. Poole, "Comparison between visible/NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses," Proc. SPIE 5271, 35-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

López-Higuera, J. M.

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2623-2629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, O. M. Conde, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Real-time arc welding defect detection technique by means of plasma spectrum optical analysis," NDT & E. Int. 39, 356-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. B. García-Allende, O. M. Conde, A. M. Cubillas, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "New raw material discrimination system based on a spatial optical spectroscopy technique," Sens. Actuators A (to be published).

Lugara, P. M.

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Ancona, V. Spagnolo, P. M. Lugara, and M. Ferrara, "Optical sensor for real-time monitoring of CO2 laser welding process," Appl. Opt. 40, 6019-6025 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marotta, A.

A. Marotta, "Determination of axial thermal plasma temperatures without Abel inversion," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 27, 268-272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mateos, A.

McClenny, W. A.

W. B. Grant, R. H. Kagann, and W. A. McClenny, "Optical remote measurement of toxic gases," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42,18-30 (1992).
[PubMed]

McColough, K.

McLean, A. B.

A. B. McLean, C. E. J. Mitchell, and D. M. Swanston, "Implementation of an efficient analytical approximation to the Voigt function for photoemission lineshape analysis," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 62, 125-132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meixner, A.

T. Zeh, H. Schweizer, A. Meixner, A. Purde, and A. W. Koch, "Enhancement of detection accuracy of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 5502, 540-543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Menaka, M.

B. Venkatraman, B. Raj, and M. Menaka, "Online infrared detection of inclusions and lack of penetration during welding," Mater. Eval. 63, 933-937 (2005).

Mirapeix, J.

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, O. M. Conde, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Real-time arc welding defect detection technique by means of plasma spectrum optical analysis," NDT & E. Int. 39, 356-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2623-2629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, C. E. J.

A. B. McLean, C. E. J. Mitchell, and D. M. Swanston, "Implementation of an efficient analytical approximation to the Voigt function for photoemission lineshape analysis," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 62, 125-132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moro, F.

S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, and F. Moro, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional analysis of multielemental thin films," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61,810-816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mowery, M. D.

Omenetto, N.

I. B. Gornushkin, A. Ya. Kazakov, N. Omenetto, B. W. Smith and J. D. Winefordner, "Experimental verification of a radiative model of laser-induced plasma expanding into vacuum," Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 215-230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ottonelli, F.

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

K. C. Lawrence, W. R. Windham, B. Park, D. P. Smith, and G. H. Poole, "Comparison between visible/NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses," Proc. SPIE 5271, 35-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polajnar, I.

L. Grand, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signal for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45, 1735-1738 (2005).

Poole, G. H.

K. C. Lawrence, W. R. Windham, B. Park, D. P. Smith, and G. H. Poole, "Comparison between visible/NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses," Proc. SPIE 5271, 35-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Price, W. L.

W. L. Price, "Global optimization by controlled random search," Comput. J. 20, 367-370 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Purde, A.

T. Zeh, H. Schweizer, A. Meixner, A. Purde, and A. W. Koch, "Enhancement of detection accuracy of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 5502, 540-543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raj, B.

B. Venkatraman, B. Raj, and M. Menaka, "Online infrared detection of inclusions and lack of penetration during welding," Mater. Eval. 63, 933-937 (2005).

Reed, R. A.

Schweizer, H.

T. Zeh, H. Schweizer, A. Meixner, A. Purde, and A. W. Koch, "Enhancement of detection accuracy of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 5502, 540-543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Scotti, A.

L. O. Vilarinho and A. Scotti, "Proposal for a modified Fowler-Milne method to determine the temperature profile in TIG welding at low currents," J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 26, 34-39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sforza, P.

P. Sforza and D. de Blasiis, "On-line optical monitoring system for arc welding," NDT & E. Int. 35, 37-43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Slabe, J. M.

L. Grand, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signal for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45, 1735-1738 (2005).

Smith, B. W.

I. B. Gornushkin, A. Ya. Kazakov, N. Omenetto, B. W. Smith and J. D. Winefordner, "Experimental verification of a radiative model of laser-induced plasma expanding into vacuum," Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 215-230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. P.

K. C. Lawrence, W. R. Windham, B. Park, D. P. Smith, and G. H. Poole, "Comparison between visible/NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses," Proc. SPIE 5271, 35-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spagnolo, V.

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, and W. Johnstone, "Optical fibre sensors for environmental monitoring of trace gases," Proc. SPIE 4829,963-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swanston, D. M.

A. B. McLean, C. E. J. Mitchell, and D. M. Swanston, "Implementation of an efficient analytical approximation to the Voigt function for photoemission lineshape analysis," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 62, 125-132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Törn, A.

M. M. Ali, A. Törn, and S. Viitanen, "A numerical comparison of some modified controlled random search algorithms," J Global Optim. 11, 377-385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ushio, M.

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Venkatraman, B.

B. Venkatraman, B. Raj, and M. Menaka, "Online infrared detection of inclusions and lack of penetration during welding," Mater. Eval. 63, 933-937 (2005).

Viitanen, S.

M. M. Ali, A. Törn, and S. Viitanen, "A numerical comparison of some modified controlled random search algorithms," J Global Optim. 11, 377-385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vilarinho, L. O.

L. O. Vilarinho and A. Scotti, "Proposal for a modified Fowler-Milne method to determine the temperature profile in TIG welding at low currents," J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 26, 34-39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitenett, G.

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, and W. Johnstone, "Optical fibre sensors for environmental monitoring of trace gases," Proc. SPIE 4829,963-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Windham, W. R.

K. C. Lawrence, W. R. Windham, B. Park, D. P. Smith, and G. H. Poole, "Comparison between visible/NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses," Proc. SPIE 5271, 35-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

I. B. Gornushkin, A. Ya. Kazakov, N. Omenetto, B. W. Smith and J. D. Winefordner, "Experimental verification of a radiative model of laser-induced plasma expanding into vacuum," Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 215-230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

Wu, C. S.

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

G. J. Zhang, S. B. Chen, and L. Wu, "Intelligent control of pulsed GTAW with filler metal," Weld. J. (Miami, FL, USA) 84, 9-16 (2005).

Zeh, T.

T. Zeh, H. Schweizer, A. Meixner, A. Purde, and A. W. Koch, "Enhancement of detection accuracy of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 5502, 540-543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. J.

G. J. Zhang, S. B. Chen, and L. Wu, "Intelligent control of pulsed GTAW with filler metal," Weld. J. (Miami, FL, USA) 84, 9-16 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Comput. J. (1)

W. L. Price, "Global optimization by controlled random search," Comput. J. 20, 367-370 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. S. Wu, M. Ushio, and M. Tanaka, "Analysis of the TIG welding arc behaviour," Comput. Mater. Sci. 7, 308-314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. (1)

L. Grand, J. Grum, I. Polajnar, and J. M. Slabe, "Feasibility study of acoustic signal for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding," Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 45, 1735-1738 (2005).

J Global Optim. (1)

M. M. Ali, A. Törn, and S. Viitanen, "A numerical comparison of some modified controlled random search algorithms," J Global Optim. 11, 377-385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. (1)

W. B. Grant, R. H. Kagann, and W. A. McClenny, "Optical remote measurement of toxic gases," J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc. 42,18-30 (1992).
[PubMed]

J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. (1)

L. O. Vilarinho and A. Scotti, "Proposal for a modified Fowler-Milne method to determine the temperature profile in TIG welding at low currents," J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 26, 34-39 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

A. B. McLean, C. E. J. Mitchell, and D. M. Swanston, "Implementation of an efficient analytical approximation to the Voigt function for photoemission lineshape analysis," J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 62, 125-132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Marotta, "Determination of axial thermal plasma temperatures without Abel inversion," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 27, 268-272 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Eval. (1)

B. Venkatraman, B. Raj, and M. Menaka, "Online infrared detection of inclusions and lack of penetration during welding," Mater. Eval. 63, 933-937 (2005).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

A. Ancona, P. M. Lugara, F. Ottonelli, and I. M. Catalano, "A sensing torch for the on-line monitoring of the gas tungsten arc welding process of steel pipes," Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 2412-2418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Fast algorithm for spectral processing with application to on-line welding quality assurance," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 2623-2629 (2006).
[CrossRef]

NDT & E. Int. (2)

J. Mirapeix, A. Cobo, O. M. Conde, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "Real-time arc welding defect detection technique by means of plasma spectrum optical analysis," NDT & E. Int. 39, 356-360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Sforza and D. de Blasiis, "On-line optical monitoring system for arc welding," NDT & E. Int. 35, 37-43 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

G. Stewart, G. Whitenett, K. Atherton, B. Culshaw, and W. Johnstone, "Optical fibre sensors for environmental monitoring of trace gases," Proc. SPIE 4829,963-964 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Zeh, H. Schweizer, A. Meixner, A. Purde, and A. W. Koch, "Enhancement of detection accuracy of fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 5502, 540-543 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Lawrence, W. R. Windham, B. Park, D. P. Smith, and G. H. Poole, "Comparison between visible/NIR spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging for detecting surface contaminants on poultry carcasses," Proc. SPIE 5271, 35-42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

P. B. García-Allende, O. M. Conde, A. M. Cubillas, C. Jaúregui, and J. M. López-Higuera, "New raw material discrimination system based on a spatial optical spectroscopy technique," Sens. Actuators A (to be published).

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

I. B. Gornushkin, A. Ya. Kazakov, N. Omenetto, B. W. Smith and J. D. Winefordner, "Experimental verification of a radiative model of laser-induced plasma expanding into vacuum," Spectrochim. Acta Part B 60, 215-230 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta, Part B (1)

S. Acquaviva, E. D’Anna, M. L. De Giorgi, and F. Moro, "Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for compositional analysis of multielemental thin films," Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 61,810-816 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weld. J. (Miami, FL, USA) (1)

G. J. Zhang, S. B. Chen, and L. Wu, "Intelligent control of pulsed GTAW with filler metal," Weld. J. (Miami, FL, USA) 84, 9-16 (2005).

Other (4)

H. R. Griem, Principles of Plasma Spectroscopy (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997), Chap. 5.
[CrossRef]

W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Plasma Diagnostics (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1968), Chap. 4.

A. Cobo, "Contribución al desarrollo de sistemas sensores para monitorizado y medida de vibraciones basados en tallos de fibra óptica," (PhD Thesis, Universidad de Cantabria, 1998), Chap. 7.

National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) atomic spectra database, http://physics.nist.gov/cgi-bin/AtData/main_asd.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Processing schemes of traditional and proposed spectroscopic analysis techniques

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

TIG welding quality assurance system scheme.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scheme of input optics configurations.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

TIG welding plasma spectrum.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Example of optimization process: real plasma spectrum (blue) after emission line identification and synthetic spectrum (red).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Detection of seam width variations by means of ion participation profiles.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of traditional and proposed techniques: identification of seam discontinuity.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of traditional and proposed techniques: identification of subtle seam defects.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Performance of CRS6 for different stopping conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2. Stability of the participation profiles

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T e = E m ( 2 ) E m ( 1 ) k ln [ I ( 1 ) A ( 2 ) g m ( 2 ) λ ( 1 ) I ( 2 ) A ( 1 ) g m ( 1 ) λ ( 2 ) ] ,
ln ( I mn λ mn A mn g m ) = ln ( hcN Z ) E m k T e .
N m = N Z g m exp ( E m κ T e ) .
I mn = N m A mn h γ mn ,
Δ T T = kT E m ( 1 ) E m ( 2 ) Δ ( I ( 1 ) I ( 2 ) ) I ( 1 ) I ( 2 ) .
f : S R n R
find x * | f * = f ( x * ) f ( x ) x S .
f * f ( x ̂ * ) ε ,

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