Abstract

We present the double- and triple-ionization momentum distributions obtained from a 3-e planar classical calculation in a laser pulse with peak intensity of 0.8 PW/cm2. The calculated distributions agree surprisingly well with the experimental Ar2+ and Ar3+ distributions at the same laser intensity. We demonstrate four recollision pathways that contribute significantly to the production of the doubly and triply charged ions. In particular, the intense-field double ionization pathways are discussed beyond the two-active-electron picture.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, Y. Liang, S. Larochelle and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential ionization of Xe and Kr in an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse," J. Phys. B 30, 1721 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field," J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Phay J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, "In-Plane Theory of Nonsequential Triple Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly and S. L. Haan, "Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field doubleionization," Opt. Express 8, 431 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phay J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, "In-Plane Theory of Nonsequential Triple Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

1998

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field," J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, Y. Liang, S. Larochelle and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential ionization of Xe and Kr in an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse," J. Phys. B 30, 1721 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afaneh, F.

V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chien, C.-Y.

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, Y. Liang, S. Larochelle and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential ionization of Xe and Kr in an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse," J. Phys. B 30, 1721 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field," J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, Y. Liang, S. Larochelle and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential ionization of Xe and Kr in an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse," J. Phys. B 30, 1721 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

R. Panfili, J. H. Eberly and S. L. Haan, "Comparing classical and quantum simulations of strong-field doubleionization," Opt. Express 8, 431 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ergler, Th.

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, B.

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, D.

V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grobe, R.

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haan, S. L.

Knight, P. L.

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lappas, D. G.

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Larochelle, S.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field," J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, Y. Liang, S. Larochelle and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential ionization of Xe and Kr in an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse," J. Phys. B 30, 1721 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, Y. Liang, S. Larochelle and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential ionization of Xe and Kr in an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse," J. Phys. B 30, 1721 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panfili, R.

Phay,

Phay J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, "In-Plane Theory of Nonsequential Triple Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sanpera, A.

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talebpour, A.

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field," J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, Y. Liang, S. Larochelle and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential ionization of Xe and Kr in an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse," J. Phys. B 30, 1721 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. B.

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zrost, K.

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

A. Talebpour, C.-Y. Chien, Y. Liang, S. Larochelle and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential ionization of Xe and Kr in an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse," J. Phys. B 30, 1721 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour and S. L. Chin, "Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field," J. Phys. B 31, 1201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afaneh, C. D. Schr ter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer and J. Ullrich, "Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy," J. Phys. B 39, S371 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B.

D. G. Lappas, A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, K. Burnett, P. L. Knight, R. Grobe and J. H. Eberly, "Two-electron effects in ionization and harmonic generation from model He atom," J. Phys. B. 29, L619 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. N. Fittinghoff, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phay J. Ho and J. H. Eberly, "In-Plane Theory of Nonsequential Triple Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MOV (1629 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1968 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (2188 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (1778 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The sum longitudinal momentum distributions of the doubly ionized (DI) and triply ionized (TI) electrons. (b) The experimental Ar2+ and Ar3+ longitudinal momentum distributions [5]. Both (a) and (b) are from a 780nm laser pulse with I=0.8 PW/cm2.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top row shows the sum longitudinal momentum distributions of (a) all, (b) NZ and (c) Z triply ionized trajectories. Bottom row shows the sum transverse momentum distributions of (d) all, (e) NZ and (f) Z triply ionized trajectories.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Top row shows the sum longitudinal momentum distributions of (a) all, (b) NZ and (c) Z doubly ionized trajectories. Bottom row shows the sum transverse momentum distributions of (d) all, (e) NZ and (f) Z doubly ionized trajectories.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Animations of the time development of position of three electrons (red, yellow and green balls) in a time-varying combined nuclear and laser dipole potential, leading to the NZ and Z pathways in NSTI and NSDI. Panel (a) shows that the three electrons of a NZ trajectory of NSTI have moved away from the nucleus (the origin) after a recollision (1.6 MB). Panel [Media 1] (b) shows that the green electron of a Z trajectory in NSTI remains trapped near the nucleus while its yellow and red electrons have drifted more than 20 a.u. from the nucleus after a recollision (1.9 MB). Panel [Media 2] (c) shows that the two NSDI electrons (red and yellow) of the NZ pathway have away from the nucleus at t=2.125c (2.1 MB). Panel [Media 3] (d) shows that the red electron of a NSDI Z pathway moves away from the nucleus after recollision while leaving its yellow and green electrons behind (1.7 MB) [Media 4]. The x- and y-axis are the laser polarization axis and the transverse axis respectively. The plane is painted with a series of contours with different color shadings that indicate the combined nuclear and laser dipole energies of the electrons, and it is tipped back and forth every half laser cycle. In particular, the elevated and lowered sides have green and blue shadings respectively. For reference, the contour line with a value of -0.6 a.u. is highlighted with a white line. A horizontal arrow is inserted to show the direction and the strength of the time-varying laser force. The timing of the laser pulse is labelleb on top of the movie frame.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time modulation of electron energies, showing the different stages of NSTI and NSDI processes. Panel (a), (b), (c) and (d) record the histories of the NSTI NZ, NSTI Z, NSDI NZ and NSDI Z trajectories of Fig. 4 respectively. In each panel, the red, yellow and green energy lines track the interactions experienced by its red, yellow and green electrons respectively. Here, the energy of each electron is the sum of its kinetic, nuclear, e-e repulsion and laser dipole energy. The random, rapid and negative-energy fluctuations prior to recollision are due to the e-e interaction of one or more bound electron pairs. The relatively slow and smooth energy variation is the signature of dominant laser dipole interaction.

Equations (1)

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H = i = 1 3 ( p i 2 2 + 3 r i 2 + a 2 + r i E ( t ) ) + 1 ( r 1 r 2 ) 2 + b 2 + 1 ( r 1 r 3 ) 2 + b 2 + 1 ( r 2 r 3 ) 2 + b 2 ,

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