Abstract

We report on the synthesis of a homogenous PbS quantum-dot-doped polymer material of thickness up to 100 micrometers. It is shown that high quality micro-void channels of submicrometer diameters can be directly fabricated into this nanocomposite by using an ultrafast femtosecond laser beam. Periodically stacked channels in the form of a three-dimensional photonic crystal woodpile lattices reveals a main stop gaps as well as higher-order gaps that overlaps the near-infrared emission wavelength range of PbS quantum dots. These partial stop gaps are well defined in an angular range from zero to 15 degrees in the stacking direction.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys Lett. 82, 1649-1651 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, "Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, "Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials," Opt. Lett. 21, 2023-2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 µm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, "Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films," Opt. Lett. 30, 171-173 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "A solution-processed 1.53 µm quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 3273-3281 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Day, and M. Gu, "Effects of refractive-index mismatch on three-dimensional optical data-storage density in a two-photon bleaching polymer," Appl. Opt. 37, 6299-6304 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Fabrication of three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals in a PbSe quantum dot composite material," Opt. Express 14, 10740-10745 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "A solution-processed 1.53 µm quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 3273-3281 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Fabrication of three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals in a PbSe quantum dot composite material," Opt. Express 14, 10740-10745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

L. Pang, Y. M. Shen, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "PMMA quantum dots composites fabricated via use of pre-polymerization," Opt. Express 13, 44-49 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, "Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films," Opt. Lett. 30, 171-173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Anisotropic properties of ultrafast laser-driven microexplosions in lithium niobate crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys Lett. 82, 1649-1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, "Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. Day and M. Gu, "Formation of voids in a doped polymethylmethacrylate polymer," Appl. Phys Lett. 80, 2404-2406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 µm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

Auxier, J.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 µm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bakueva, L.

V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, "Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films," Opt. Lett. 30, 171-173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 µm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Callan, J. P.

Cauchi, S.

Chang, T. W. F.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cyr, P. W.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Day, D.

Fainman, Y.

Finlay, R. J.

Gamaly, E. G.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glezer, E. N.

Gorelikov, I.

V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, "Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films," Opt. Lett. 30, 171-173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Fabrication of three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals in a PbSe quantum dot composite material," Opt. Express 14, 10740-10745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Anisotropic properties of ultrafast laser-driven microexplosions in lithium niobate crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, "Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys Lett. 82, 1649-1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Day and M. Gu, "Formation of voids in a doped polymethylmethacrylate polymer," Appl. Phys Lett. 80, 2404-2406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Day, and M. Gu, "Effects of refractive-index mismatch on three-dimensional optical data-storage density in a two-photon bleaching polymer," Appl. Opt. 37, 6299-6304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hallo, L.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Her, T. H.

Hines, M. A.

M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

Howard, I.

Huang, L.

Jia, B.

Juodkazis, S.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klem, E. J. D.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Konstantatos, G.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumacheva, E.

V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, "Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films," Opt. Lett. 30, 171-173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Levina, L.

S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "A solution-processed 1.53 µm quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 3273-3281 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

McDonald, S. A.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milosavljevic, M.

Misawa, H.

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Musikhin, S.

V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, "Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films," Opt. Lett. 30, 171-173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, P.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 µm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "A solution-processed 1.53 µm quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 3273-3281 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sukhovatkin, S. Musikhin, I. Gorelikov, S. Cauchi, L. Bakueva, E. Kumacheva, and E. H. Sargent, "Room-temperature amplified spontaneous emission at 1300 nm in solution-processed PbS quantum-dot films," Opt. Lett. 30, 171-173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scholes, G. D.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schülzgen, A.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 µm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. M.

Straub, M.

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, "Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys Lett. 82, 1649-1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sukhovatkin, V.

Sun, H. B.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetz, K.

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzolov, M.

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ventura, M.

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, "Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ventura, M. J.

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys Lett. 82, 1649-1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wundke, K.

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 µm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, K.

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. G.

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. S.

L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Fabrication of three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals in a PbSe quantum dot composite material," Opt. Express 14, 10740-10745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Anisotropic properties of ultrafast laser-driven microexplosions in lithium niobate crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M. A. Hines, and G. D. Scholes, "Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution," Adv. Mater. 15, 1844-1849 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, I. Gorelikov, S. Musikhin, X. S. Zhao, E. H. Sargent, and E. Kumacheva, "PbS quantum dots with stable efficient luminescence in the near-IR spectral range," Adv. Mater. 16, 926-929 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys Lett.

D. Day and M. Gu, "Formation of voids in a doped polymethylmethacrylate polymer," Appl. Phys Lett. 80, 2404-2406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Ventura, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Void channel microstructures in resin solids as an efficient way to infrared photonic crystals," Appl. Phys Lett. 82, 1649-1651 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Anisotropic properties of ultrafast laser-driven microexplosions in lithium niobate crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamasaki, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, H. B. Sun, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording by microexplosion and two-photon reading of three-dimensional optical memory in polymethylmethacrylate films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1000-1002 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Wundke, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, "Room-temperature gain at 1.3 µm in PbS-doped glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3060-3062 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T. W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, "Size-tunable infrared (1000-1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2895-2897 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. G. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics," Nat. Mater 4, 138-142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

E. G. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-matter interaction in the bulk of a transparent solid: Confined microexplosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: Evidence of multimegabar pressures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Straub, M. Ventura, and M. Gu, "Multiple higher-order stop gaps in infrared polymer photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, eds., 3D laser microfabrication, Principles and applications (Wiley-Vch Verlag, Weinheim, 2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Infrared transmission absorption spectra of PbS (solid black line), Mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPS) caped PbS QDs (dashed red line) and the nanocomposite material of doped NOA63 and capped PbS QDs (dotted blue line). Insert, TEM image of 4.5 μm PbS QDs, showing their uniform shape and size.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Refractive index as a function of doping levels (parts per million) of PbS nano-crystals to NOA63. Microscope transmission images of (b) un-doped NOA63 (50 μm scale bar), (c) nanocomposite with a PPM of 0.05, (d) nanocomposite with a PPM of 0.6 and (d) nanocomposite with a PPM greater than 1 PPM.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Infrared transmission measurements in the stacking direction of an un-doped (solid black line) and doped (dotted red line) woodpile photonic crystal lattice. A shift of the doped lattice bandgaps to longer wavelengths fits band calculations (b) where white areas denote the band positions as a function of wavelength and refractive index. (c) A series of woodpile lattices with reducing in-plane layer spacing for a fixed δz/δx of 1.1.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Angularly resolved infrared transmission measurement of a nanocomposite woodpile photonic crystal over the angle range zero degrees (Γ-X′) towards 15 degrees in the Γ-W′ crystal direction. The lattice is transparent (green) at wavelength outside gaps. First-order and second-order gaps show a suppression of transmission of approximately 50 % (blue) over this range and are wavelength invariant.

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