Abstract

Elliptically birefringent fibre has been fabricated by spinning the preform of a highly linearly birefringent photonic crystal fibre (PCF) during the drawing process. The resulting Spun Highly Birefringent (SHi-Bi) PCF offers intrinsic sensitivity to magnetic fields through the Faraday effect without the high inherent temperature sensitivities suffered by conventional spun stress birefringence fibres. The ellipticity of the birefringence has been measured and temperature independence has been demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express. 12, 5160-5165, (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, W. Urbanczyk, "Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7780-7788, (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R.I. Laming and D.N. Payne, "Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 2084-2094, (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I.M. Bassett, "Design principle for a circularly birefringent optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 13, 844-846, (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Katja Digweed, Andrew Michie, John Canning, Brian Ashton, Michael Stevenson, Justin Digweed, Ian Bassett, and John Haywood, "Spun highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Australasian Conference on Optics Lasers and Spectroscopy (ACOLS), Rotorua, New Zealand, (2005).
  6. Andrew Michie, Katja Digweed, John Canning, Brian Ashton, Michael Stevenson, Justin Digweed, Ian Bassett, and John Haywood "Spun Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibre for Current Sensing," Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) - 18, Cancun, Mexico, (2006).
  7. Eric Udd, "Poincaré sphere," in Fiber optic sensors, Wiley series in pure & app optics, 191,375, (1991).
  8. I.M. Bassett, I. Clarke and J. Haywood, "Polarization dependence in a Sagnac loop optical fibre current sensor employing a 3x3 optical coupler," Optical Fibre Sensors OFS-10 Glasgow, Scotland, (1994).
  9. P.A. Williams, A.H. Rose, G.W. Day, T.E. Milner, and M.N. Deeter,"Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," Appl. Opt. 30, (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Polarizing photonic crystal fibers with wide operation range," Opt. Commun. 239,91-97, (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express. 12, 5160-5165, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Polarizing photonic crystal fibers with wide operation range," Opt. Commun. 239,91-97, (2004).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P.A. Williams, A.H. Rose, G.W. Day, T.E. Milner, and M.N. Deeter,"Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," Appl. Opt. 30, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

R.I. Laming and D.N. Payne, "Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 2084-2094, (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Åslund, M.

A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express. 12, 5160-5165, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassett, I.M.

Canning, J.

A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express. 12, 5160-5165, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, G.W.

P.A. Williams, A.H. Rose, G.W. Day, T.E. Milner, and M.N. Deeter,"Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," Appl. Opt. 30, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deeter, M.N.

P.A. Williams, A.H. Rose, G.W. Day, T.E. Milner, and M.N. Deeter,"Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," Appl. Opt. 30, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Digweed, J.

A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express. 12, 5160-5165, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laming, R.I.

R.I. Laming and D.N. Payne, "Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 2084-2094, (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lyytikäinen, K.

A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express. 12, 5160-5165, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martynkien, T.

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, W. Urbanczyk, "Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7780-7788, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Polarizing photonic crystal fibers with wide operation range," Opt. Commun. 239,91-97, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Michie, A.

A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express. 12, 5160-5165, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T.E.

P.A. Williams, A.H. Rose, G.W. Day, T.E. Milner, and M.N. Deeter,"Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," Appl. Opt. 30, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olszewski, J.

M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Polarizing photonic crystal fibers with wide operation range," Opt. Commun. 239,91-97, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D.N.

R.I. Laming and D.N. Payne, "Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 2084-2094, (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.H.

P.A. Williams, A.H. Rose, G.W. Day, T.E. Milner, and M.N. Deeter,"Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," Appl. Opt. 30, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szpulak, M.

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, W. Urbanczyk, "Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7780-7788, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Polarizing photonic crystal fibers with wide operation range," Opt. Commun. 239,91-97, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, W. Urbanczyk, "Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7780-7788, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Polarizing photonic crystal fibers with wide operation range," Opt. Commun. 239,91-97, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, P.A.

P.A. Williams, A.H. Rose, G.W. Day, T.E. Milner, and M.N. Deeter,"Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," Appl. Opt. 30, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojcik, J.

M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Polarizing photonic crystal fibers with wide operation range," Opt. Commun. 239,91-97, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

P.A. Williams, A.H. Rose, G.W. Day, T.E. Milner, and M.N. Deeter,"Temperature dependence of the Verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," Appl. Opt. 30, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, W. Urbanczyk, "Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers," Appl. Opt. 44, 7780-7788, (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R.I. Laming and D.N. Payne, "Electric current sensors employing spun highly birefringent optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 2084-2094, (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbanczyk, and J. Wojcik, "Polarizing photonic crystal fibers with wide operation range," Opt. Commun. 239,91-97, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express. (1)

A. Michie, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, M. Åslund, and J. Digweed, "Temperature independent highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express. 12, 5160-5165, (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

Katja Digweed, Andrew Michie, John Canning, Brian Ashton, Michael Stevenson, Justin Digweed, Ian Bassett, and John Haywood, "Spun highly birefringent photonic crystal fibre," Australasian Conference on Optics Lasers and Spectroscopy (ACOLS), Rotorua, New Zealand, (2005).

Andrew Michie, Katja Digweed, John Canning, Brian Ashton, Michael Stevenson, Justin Digweed, Ian Bassett, and John Haywood "Spun Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibre for Current Sensing," Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) - 18, Cancun, Mexico, (2006).

Eric Udd, "Poincaré sphere," in Fiber optic sensors, Wiley series in pure & app optics, 191,375, (1991).

I.M. Bassett, I. Clarke and J. Haywood, "Polarization dependence in a Sagnac loop optical fibre current sensor employing a 3x3 optical coupler," Optical Fibre Sensors OFS-10 Glasgow, Scotland, (1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spun Highly Birefringent Photonic Crystal Fibre (SHiBi-PCF) cross section.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Representation of polarisation states and birefringence in Poincaré space. Current sensitivity

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental set up for measuring the ellipticity of the birefringence.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Interferograms with the periodic modulation both extinguished and maximised.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Group birefringence versus temperature for both a conventional stress birefringence Panda fibre and the SHiBi -PCF

Equations (6)

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η ¯ = 2 π L B τ ¯ = 4 π L T ρ ¯ = 2 π L B
V s = V sin θ
B m = n x n y ,
B g = ( λ d B m ( λ ) d λ B m ( λ ) ) = λ 2 L Δ λ
ρ ¯ = τ ¯ sin θ = 2 π L T sin θ
η ¯ = τ ¯ tan θ

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