Abstract

A novel polarimetry scheme is proposed to improve the performance of phase-sensitive Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensors. The scheme uses s-polarized light, not affected by SPR, as a reference beam, while information on the phase of the p-polarized component is obtained from an analysis of phase-polarization state of light of mixed polarization. We utilize temporal modulation of the beam reflected under SPR by a photo-elastic modulator and show that, under certain birefringent geometry, the signals at the 2nd and 3rd harmonics of modulated frequency can provide ultra-sensitive phase-based response to changes of the refractive index (thickness) of thin films on gold. We also show that the proposed configuration significantly improves detection limit compared to conventional intensity-sensitive SPR, yet enables to maintain wide dynamic range of measurements, which is normally difficult with phase-sensitive SPR schemes. Biosensing applications of the proposed scheme are illustrated in a biological model reaction of avidin – biotin binding on gold.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  2. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Schuck, "Use of surface plasmon resonance to probe the equilibrium and dynamic aspects of interactions between biological macromolecules," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 541-566 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. B. Garland, "Optical evanescent wave methods for the study of biomolecular interactions," Q. Rev. Biophys. 29, 91-117 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135-2136 (1968).
  6. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrum, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299-304 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469-1470 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, "Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications," Quantum Electron. 27, 653-654 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5-8 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric Surface Plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Shen, T. Liu, and J. Guo. "Optical phase-shift detection of Surface Plasmon Resonance," Appl. Opt. 37, 1747-1751 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. P. Ho and W.W Lam, "Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 96, 554-559 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, "High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry," Sens. Actuators B 92, 133-136 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, "Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2378-2380 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114-121 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Naraoka and K. Kajikawa, "Phase detection of surface plasmon resonance using rotating analyzer method," Sens. Actuators B 107, 952-956 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Chiang, J. Lin, R. Chang, S. Su, and P. T. Leung, "High-resolution angular measurement using surface-plasmon-resonance via phase interrogation at optimal incident wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 30, 2727-2729 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Infrared Light," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor on a Silicon Platform," Sens. Actuators B 97, 409-414 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, "Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,  19, 677-717 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, "Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8,601-605 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

S. Y. Wu, H. P. Ho, W. C. Law, C. Lin, and S. K. Kong, "Highly sensitive differential phase-sensitive surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the Mach-Zehnder configuration," Opt. Lett. 29, 2378-2380 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor on a Silicon Platform," Sens. Actuators B 97, 409-414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Infrared Light," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Ho and W.W Lam, "Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 96, 554-559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, "High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry," Sens. Actuators B 92, 133-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric Surface Plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Shen, T. Liu, and J. Guo. "Optical phase-shift detection of Surface Plasmon Resonance," Appl. Opt. 37, 1747-1751 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5-8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, "Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications," Quantum Electron. 27, 653-654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Schuck, "Use of surface plasmon resonance to probe the equilibrium and dynamic aspects of interactions between biological macromolecules," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 541-566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, "Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8,601-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

P. B. Garland, "Optical evanescent wave methods for the study of biomolecular interactions," Q. Rev. Biophys. 29, 91-117 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, "Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,  19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469-1470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrum, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135-2136 (1968).

Bartholomew, D. U.

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bartlett, P. N.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carr, R.

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L. B.

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, "High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry," Sens. Actuators B 92, 133-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R.

Chiang, P.

Elkind, J.

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Furlong, C. E.

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. S.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, "Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,  19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Garland, P. B.

P. B. Garland, "Optical evanescent wave methods for the study of biomolecular interactions," Q. Rev. Biophys. 29, 91-117 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric Surface Plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Harris, R. D.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. P.

Jian, Z. C.

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, "High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry," Sens. Actuators B 92, 133-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joe, S. F.

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, "High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry," Sens. Actuators B 92, 133-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor on a Silicon Platform," Sens. Actuators B 97, 409-414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Infrared Light," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric Surface Plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5-8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, "Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications," Quantum Electron. 27, 653-654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kajikawa, K.

R. Naraoka and K. Kajikawa, "Phase detection of surface plasmon resonance using rotating analyzer method," Sens. Actuators B 107, 952-956 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kong, S. K.

Köser, J.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, "Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8,601-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135-2136 (1968).

Kukanskis, K. A.

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lam, W.W

H. P. Ho and W.W Lam, "Application of differential phase measurement technique to surface plasmon resonance sensors," Sens. Actuators B 96, 554-559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Law, W. C.

Leung, P. T.

Levelt Sengers, J. M. H.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, "Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,  19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrum, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Lin, J.

Lipson, S. G.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundstrum, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrum, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Luong, J. H. T.

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor on a Silicon Platform," Sens. Actuators B 97, 409-414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Infrared Light," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melendez, J. L

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meunier, M.

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor on a Silicon Platform," Sens. Actuators B 97, 409-414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Infrared Light," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naraoka, R.

R. Naraoka and K. Kajikawa, "Phase detection of surface plasmon resonance using rotating analyzer method," Sens. Actuators B 107, 952-956 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, P. I.

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric Surface Plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, "Surface plasmon resonance interferometer for bio- and chemical-sensors," Opt. Commun. 150, 5-8 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kabashin and P. I. Nikitin, "Interferometer based on a surface-plasmon resonance for sensor applications," Quantum Electron. 27, 653-654 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Notcovich, A. G.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrum, "Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing," Sens. Actuators B 4, 299-304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Patskovsky, S.

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor on a Silicon Platform," Sens. Actuators B 97, 409-414 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Infrared Light," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann and H. Raether, "Radiative decay of non radiative surface plasmons excited by light," Z. Naturforsch. A 23, 2135-2136 (1968).

Rheims, J.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, "Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8,601-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schiebener, P.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, "Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,  19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P.

P. Schuck, "Use of surface plasmon resonance to probe the equilibrium and dynamic aspects of interactions between biological macromolecules," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 541-566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, S.

Sheridan, A. K.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Straub, J.

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, "Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,  19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Su, S.

Uttamchandani, D.

L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469-1470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

A. K. Sheridan, R. D. Harris, P. N. Bartlett, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Phase interrogation of an integrated optical SPR sensor," Sens. Actuators B 97, 114-121 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Woodbury, R. G.

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wriedt, T.

J. Rheims, J. Köser, and T. Wriedt, "Refractive-index measurements in the near-IR using an Abbe refractometer," Meas. Sci. Technol. 8,601-605 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. M.

C. M. Wu, Z. C. Jian, S. F. Joe, and L. B. Chang, "High-sensitivity sensor based on surface Plasmon resonance and heterodyne interferometry," Sens. Actuators B 92, 133-136 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. Y.

Yee, S. S.

J. L Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. A. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. S. Yee, C. E. Furlong, and R. G. Woodbury, "A commercial solution for surface plasmon sensing," Sens. Actuators B 35, 212-216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. M.

L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469-1470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhuk, V.

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. (1)

P. Schuck, "Use of surface plasmon resonance to probe the equilibrium and dynamic aspects of interactions between biological macromolecules," Annu. Rev. Biophys. Biomol. Struct. 26, 541-566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. N. Grigorenko, P. I. Nikitin, and A. V. Kabashin, "Phase jumps and interferometric Surface Plasmon resonance imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3917-3919 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Notcovich, V. Zhuk, and S. G. Lipson, "Surface plasmon resonance phase imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1665-1667 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, "Biosensing with surface plasmon resonance - how it all started," Biosens. Bioelectron. 10, 1-9 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. M. Zhang and D. Uttamchandani, "Optical chemical sensing employing surface plasmon resonance," Electron. Lett. 23, 1469-1470 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am A (1)

S. Patskovsky, A. V. Kabashin, M. Meunier, and J. H. T. Luong, "Properties and sensing characteristics of Surface Plasmon Resonance in Infrared Light," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 20, 1644-1650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

P. Schiebener, J. Straub, J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, and J. S. Gallagher, "Refractive index of water and steam as function of wavelength, temperature and density," J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data,  19, 677-717 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of the experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Responses of 1st, 2nd and 3rd harmonics to phase changes ∆α under the modulation amplitude of π/4 (a) and π/2 (b); (c) Dependence of Bessel functions on the PEM modulation amplitude.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Angular reflectivity curves of intensity (dotted lines) and phase (solid ones) for different values of the refractive index; (b) Phase and intensity of light reflected under SPR as a function of the refractive index.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Integral signals of the 3rd (a) and the 2nd (b) harmonics, as well as phase and intensity components of the signals, as a function of the refractive index.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Responses of the 2nd (a) and the 3rd (b) harmonics to the variation of the concentration of Glycerin in water; (c) Ellipsometry data: Angular dependence of the intensity (dashed line) and phase (solid line) on the concentration of glycerin in water.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calibration curves for responses of the 2nd and the 3rd harmonics as a function of the SPR phase change.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Response of the 2nd and the 3rd harmonics to the variation of the concentration of Glycerine by 0.005% in water.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Response of the 3rd harmonic as a function of the refractive index change.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Response of the 3rd harmonics to the reaction of avidin-biotin binding.

Equations (8)

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E SPR = E x E y with E x = A x exp ( x + α ) and E y = A y exp ( y ) Ay = 1
J PEM = [ exp ( 2 ) 0 0 exp ( 2 ) ]
J P = [ cos ( θ ) 2 sin ( θ ) cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) cos ( θ ) sin ( θ ) 2 ]
I = Ē E where E = J P J PEM J RET E SPR
I = 1 2 A x 2 + 1 2 A x cos ( A ψ sin ( φ ) + α )
F 1 = 2 A x J 1 ( M ) cos ( α )
F 2 = 2 A x J 2 ( M ) sin ( α )
F 3 = 2 A x J 3 ( M ) cos ( α )

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