Abstract

We report on direct measurements of self-guiding of 800 nm, 30 fs, 5 mJ laser pulses used to generate high-order harmonics in 80 torr helium. We track the spatial evolution of the laser pulses as they propagate several centimeters near the focus under conditions suitable for harmonic generation. The laser is observed to focus, diverge, and refocus. This behavior is accompanied by a flattop beam profile. Both of these features are absent when the laser is focused in vacuum. We also observed a 4 nm spectral blue shift in the center of the laser beam near the focus in contrast with no spectral shift at wider radii.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Painter, M. Adams, N. Brimhall, E. Christensen, G. Giraud, N. Powers, M. Turner, M. Ware, and J. Peatross, "Direct observation of laser filamentation in high-order harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 31,3471-3473 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Sutherland, E. Christensen, N. Powers, S. Rhynard, J. Painter and J. Peatross, "High harmonic generation in a semi-infinite gas cell," Opt. Express 12, 4430-4436 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Highly efficient phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in self guided laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422-1425 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of 10 μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics," Opt. Lett. 27, 1920-1922 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x-rays by high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 66, 021802-1-4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4-6 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Tosa, E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of high-order harmonics in a self-guided beam," Phys. Rev. A 67, 063817-1-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. T. Kim, I.J. Kim, V. Tosa, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "High brightness harmonic generation at 13 nm using self-guided and chirped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 78, 863-867 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. T. Platonenko, V. V. Strelkov, G. Ferrante, "Off-axially phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in an extended medium," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1611-1619 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650-660 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Champeaux and L. Berge, "Femptosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68, 066603 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4-6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Kim, I.J. Kim, V. Tosa, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "High brightness harmonic generation at 13 nm using self-guided and chirped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 78, 863-867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Sutherland, E. Christensen, N. Powers, S. Rhynard, J. Painter and J. Peatross, "High harmonic generation in a semi-infinite gas cell," Opt. Express 12, 4430-4436 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Champeaux and L. Berge, "Femptosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68, 066603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

1999 (1)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Highly efficient phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in self guided laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422-1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1985 (1)

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M.

Auge, F.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, P.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berge, L.

S. Champeaux and L. Berge, "Femptosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68, 066603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brimhall, N.

Carusotto, S.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Champeaux, S.

S. Champeaux and L. Berge, "Femptosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68, 066603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, E.

Douillet, D.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferrante, G.

Franco, M. A.

Giraud, G.

Grillon, G.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, G. Grillon, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Determination of the inertial contribution to the nonlinear refractive index of air, N2, and O2 by use of unfocused high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 650-660 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iacopini, E.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Highly efficient phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in self guided laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422-1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazamias, S.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. T.

H. T. Kim, I.J. Kim, V. Tosa, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "High brightness harmonic generation at 13 nm using self-guided and chirped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 78, 863-867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.J.

H. T. Kim, I.J. Kim, V. Tosa, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "High brightness harmonic generation at 13 nm using self-guided and chirped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 78, 863-867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

H. T. Kim, I.J. Kim, V. Tosa, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "High brightness harmonic generation at 13 nm using self-guided and chirped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 78, 863-867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4-6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of 10 μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics," Opt. Lett. 27, 1920-1922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Highly efficient phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in self guided laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422-1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nabekawa, Y.

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4-6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of 10 μJ coherent extreme-ultraviolet light by use of high-order harmonics," Opt. Lett. 27, 1920-1922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Highly efficient phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in self guided laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422-1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

H. T. Kim, I.J. Kim, V. Tosa, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "High brightness harmonic generation at 13 nm using self-guided and chirped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 78, 863-867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Obara, M.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Highly efficient phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in self guided laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422-1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Painter, C.

Painter, J.

Peatross, J.

Planchon, T.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Platonenko, V. T.

Polacco, E.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Powers, N.

Prade, B. S.

Rhynard, S.

Scuri, F.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sebban, S.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stefanini, G.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V. V.

Sutherland, J.

Takahashi, E.

Takahashi, E. J.

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4-6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, Y.

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Highly efficient phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in self guided laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422-1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tosa, V.

H. T. Kim, I.J. Kim, V. Tosa, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "High brightness harmonic generation at 13 nm using self-guided and chirped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 78, 863-867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Turner, M.

Valentin, C.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ware, M.

Weihe, F.

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zavattini, E.

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

H. T. Kim, I.J. Kim, V. Tosa, Y. S. Lee, and C. H. Nam, "High brightness harmonic generation at 13 nm using self-guided and chirped femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 78, 863-867 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. J. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Low-divergence coherent soft x-ray source at 13 nm by high-order harmonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4-6 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. A. Hosseini W. Liu, Q. Luo, F. Théberge, N. Aközbek, A. Becker, V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, and H. Schroeder, "The propagation of powerful femtosecond laser pulses in optical media: physics, applications, and new challenges," Can. J. Phys. 83, 863-905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

S. Kazamias, F. Weihe, D. Douillet, C. Valentin, T. Planchon, S. Sebban, G. Grillon, F. Auge, D. Hulin, and P. Balcou, "High order harmonic generation optimization with an apertured laser beam," Eur. Phys. J. D 21, 353 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nuovo Cimento (1)

S. Carusotto, E. Iacopini, E. Polacco, F. Scuri, G. Stefanini, and E. Zavattini, "Measurement of the Kerr constant of He, A, O2, N2, H2, and D2," Nuovo Cimento 5D, 328-338 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Champeaux and L. Berge, "Femptosecond pulse compression in pressure-gas cells filled with argon," Phys. Rev. E 68, 066603 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Tamaki, J. Itatani, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Highly efficient phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in self guided laser beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1422-1425 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, T. Otsuka, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of highly coherent submicrojoule soft x-rays by high-order harmonics," Phys. Rev. A 66, 021802-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Tosa, E. Takahashi, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of high-order harmonics in a self-guided beam," Phys. Rev. A 67, 063817-1-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (2553 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (812 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (835 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Setup to image laser beam spatial profile under conditions suitable for harmonic generation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Movie of harmonics (left), imaged laser beam (middle), and beam lineout (right) for harmonics generated in 80 torr helium. The z-position is measured relative to where the beam focuses in vacuum. [Media 1]

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Diameter of the laser as it exits from the gas cell, either filled with 80 Torr helium or evacuated. The best focus in the absence of gas occurs 100 cm after the focusing mirror (Reprinted with permission from [1]; Copyright 2006 by the Optical Society of America). (b) The brightness of several harmonic orders as the foil position is varied.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Movie of lineouts of the laser focused in helium and in vacuum as the foil position is scanned longitudinally. The effective intensity assumes a uniform 30fs Gaussian envelope, even for the case of the pulse interacting with the helium. [Media 2]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Movie of the spectrum of the laser in vacuum and in helium as the fiber is scanned radially through the laser beam. The dots in the profiles on the right show the approximate position of the fiber that samples the spectrum in the beam. [Media 3]

Metrics